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support of the Endowment toward the expenses of its meetings and the issuance of its publications, notable among which is its Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Nations adopted at its ir augural session held at Washington in 1916 under the auspices of the Second Pan American Scientific Congress.

By contributing toward the expenses of publishing the several well known European journals of international law and the Japanese journal which, on account of their scientific character and consequently limited circulation, had heretofore been published at a personal loss to the editors.

By making it possible for individual authors to secure the publication of meritorious works on international law which, because of their technical nature, are not attractive as commercial ventures. This aid has been the form of a guaranty by the Endowment of the expenses of publication, and through this means, a number of valuable contributions to the science have made their appearance which it is believed would otherwise have remained unknown.

One of the first undertakings of the Division was to promote the establishment of an Academy of International Law at The Hague with a teaching and student body representative of all the leading nations of the world. This unique project has now been fulfilled. On Saturday, July 14, 1923 the Academy was formally opened in the Peace Palace of The Hague and on Monday, the 16th of July, the courses began. The professors did not lecture to empty benches, but to representatives of many nationalities, and indeed only one third of those who had registered as prossective students could be accommodated. French, which the continent of Europe is accustomed to consider as the diplomatic language, had been chosen as the official language of the Academy, since it was deemed advisable to select some one tongue. Notwithstanding all the difficulties and uncertainties connected with the opening of an institution where the professors are from different countries, the students of many nationalities and the rate of exchange almost prohibitive in some cases, the experiment -for it could only then be called an experiment—was successful.

The Academy was organized under the auspices of the Endowment and looks to the Endowment for its support. It is not meant to compete with any university or institution in which international law, public or private, and international relations are taught. It aims to take up the work where existing institutions leave it and to carry it forward by means of lectures, seminars and personal contact with recognized masters in the several fields of international law and international relations. Nor does the Academy compete with any institution of learning in respect to the time of its sessions. The European institutions close ap proximately in the middle of July and open late in the fall. Therefore, they meet at different and non-competing times. The Academy is an annual conference of teachers of international law, held in that city of conference, The Hague, in the Peace Palace. It is an annual conference of students of international law, public and private and of international relations, drawn from the four corners of the earth. It is an exchange of professors in one and the same city, it is an exchange of students in the same city. The First Period began on July 14, 1923 and ended on August 3. The Second Period began on August 13 and ended on the 28th. The term was therefore approximately six weeks. The space of ten days between the two periods was observed as it was thought advisable to separate the two periods by allowing the students to have a breathing spell after the intensive labor of the first period and to allow the professors who were members of the Institute of International Law to attend its sessions held at that time at Brussels. The experience had, however, convinced the professors and the authorities of the Academy that it was feasible to have the second session of two full months divided into a period of a month each without an interval between them. This will be carried into effect in the year 1924.

The program of the first session, the subjects treated, the number of houre assigned to each, and the professors in charge appear from the following statement, based upon the original program and taking note of the changes made during the entire


FIRST Period Baron Korff of Russia, Professor at the School of Foreign Service,

Georgetown University, Washington, and Professor at Columbia University, New York City, United States: The Historical Develop

ment of International Law from the Seventeenth Century. 10 hours. N. Politis, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece, Honorary

Professor of the Faculty of Law, University of Paris, France:

Theory and Practice of International Arbitration. 10 hours. James Brown Scott, Professor at the School of Foreign Service,

Georgetown, Washington; Secretary of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, United States: The Conduct of Foreign Affairs in a Democracy. 10 hours.

James Brown Scott: Low, Custom and Comity. 6 hours.
Right Honorable Lord Phillimore, former Lord Justice of Appeal,

Great Britain: The Rights and Fundamental Duties of States.

6 hours. A. G. de Lapradelle, Professor of International Law at the University

of Paris, and Co-Director de l'Institut des Hautes Etudes inter

nationales, Paris, France: Freedom of the Seas. 5 hours. Jonkheer van Eysinga, Professor at the University of Leyden, Presi

dent of the Consultative Committee of Communications and Transit of the League of Nations, Leyden, Holland: Rivers and International Canals. 5 hours. Charles de Visscher, Professor at the University of Ghent, Belgium:

The Responsibility of States. 6 hours. H. Triepel, Professor at the University of Berlin, Germany: The

Relations between Municipal and International Law. 3 hours. L. Strisower, Professor at the University of Vienna, Austria: Ex

territoriality and Its Principal Applications. 3 hours. Alejandro Alvarez, Counselor of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of

Chile, member of the Permanent Court of Arbitral Justice at The

Hague: The Pan American Union. 3 hours. Eugene Borel, Professor at the University of Geneva, President of

the Anglo-German and the Japanese-German Mixed Commission, Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization of the Red Cross.

2 hours. B. Loder, President of the Permanent Court of International Justice,

The Hague, Holland: Arbitration and International Justice. I hour. Antonio S. de Bustamante, Professor at the University of Habana,

Senator of Cuba, Judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice, Habana, Cuba: The Permanent Court of International

Justice. I hour. Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University, New

York City, United States: The Development of the International Mind. I hour.


M. Le Fur, Professor at the University of Rennes, France: General

Theory of the State. 10 hours. M. Basdevant, Professor at the University of Paris, France: General

Theory of Treaties. 10 hours. Arrigo Cavaglieri, Professor at the Superior Institute of Economic

and Commercial Sciences of Rome, Italy: The Effects of Change

of Sovereignty. 5 hours. L. de Hammarskjöld, Governor of the Province of Upsala, former

President of the Council of Ministers of Sweden: Neutrality in

General. 6 hours. George Grafton Wilson, Professor at Harvard University, United

States: Territorial Waters, Closed Seas, Straits. 5 hours. K. Neumeyer, Professor at the University of Munich, Germany:

International Unions. 5 hours. Ellery C. Stowell, Professor in the American University, Washington,

United States: Duties of Consuls. 5 hours. Edwin M. Borchard, Professor at Yale University, United States:

Protection Accorded to Nationals in Foreign Countries. 3 hours. Baron Albéric Rolin, Emeritus Professor at the University of Ghent,

Honorary President of the Institute of International Law, Belgium: Extradition. 3 hours.

Sir J. Fischer Williams, K. C., British Adviser to the Committee on

Reparations, Great Britain: Questions of International Finance.

3 hours. André Mandelstam, former Jurisconsult to the Ministry of Foreign

Affairs of Russia: Protection of Minorities. 3 hours. André Weiss, Professor at the University of Paris, Vice President of

the Permanent Court of International Justice, France: The Juris.

diction of Courts in Suits Against Foreign Stales. 2 hours. James Wilford Garner, Professor at the University of Illinois, United

States: International Regulation of Aerial Navigation. 2 hours. Francisco de la Barra, former President of the Republic of Mexico:

Mediation and International Conciliation. 1 hour.

Interesting as is the program, the number and composition of the student body is of even greater interest, for while professors may be prevailed upon to give courses at The Hague, students must come of their own free will, and mostly at present without the incentive of scholarships. The following tables, based upon official information furnished by Mr. van Kleffens, the very efficient Secretary of the Academy, gives these interesting items:

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First Session The Netherlands.

.189 Switzerland.. The United States.

12 Austria. Czechoslovakia..

1Ο Cuba. Belgium..

9 Denmark. France.

8 Hungary Germany.

7 Russia. Italy.

7 Armenia. Poland.

Greece. Finland

7 India China..

5 Luxemburg Great Britain


Norway. Mexico...

Peru. Japan..

Rumania Sweden.

4 Siam..

Total enrolment, 306, of which 21 were women.

I I 1 I 1 I

Lawyers and Doctors of Law...
Members of the Diplomatic Service.
Students of Universities and Colleges..
Officers of Administrative and Financial Service
Members of the Consular Service.
Army and Naval Officers.
Judicial Officers.
Auditors (occupation not stated)

86 48 43 27 I2 17 II

3 51


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Second Session The Netherlands.

206 Cuba. United States.

15 Denmark.. Czechoslovakia.

13 Egypt. Germany.

II Sweden France.

II Armenia. Belgium..

9 Austria. Finland


Italy. Poland.

9 Russia China.

Spain. Hungary

6 Esthonia. Mexico..

6 Greece. Siam..

6 India. Great Britain

5 Luxemburg. Japan...

5 Norway. Switzerland.


Total enrolment, 350, of which 35 were women.





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I 21


Lawyers and Doctors of Law...
Members of the Diplomatic Service.
Students of Universities and Colleges.
Officers of Administrative and Financial Service.
Members of the Consular Service.
Army and Naval Officers.
Judicial Officers.
Auditors (occupation not stated)

55 29 15 27 I 2 II

3 26


The official circular issued by the Curatorium for the year 1924 states that the program included 71 courses or lectures for the first period, and 64 for the second; that they were delivered by 28 “specialists, professors, jurists of high rank, diplomatists or statesmen,” drawn from 15 different nations, ui in Europe and 4 in America. The courses themselves were, according to the official circular, “attended by 351 persons of 31 different nationalities. They were not brought in to make an audience,” they formed an élite, of whom three-fourths were university graduates belonging to learned and recognized professions.

As has been stated elsewhere in this document the Trustees offered, on April 19, 1917, to the Department of State the services of the Division of International Law, its personnel and equipment, for dealing with the pressure of international business incident to the World War. This offer was accepted and the Division became engaged at once upon projects of so confidential a nature

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