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the gift the librarian agrees to encourage, through the local press and by personal recommendation, the reading of these books. The librarian's task is made easier by the fact that after the initial collection has been installed additional books of the same character are sent from time to time. The Alcove books are chosen with the greatest care in order that the collection may be as internationally comprehensive as possible. There are now International Mind Alcoves in ninety libraries, the librarians of which are all in direct and personal touch with the Division Assistant who has charge of this work. A letter recently received from one of the librarians contains the following statement: “You have sent us splendid books. They are influencing the minds of many of our most thoughtful people, and ministers and teachers and others of influence are giving their impressions to their hearers. There can be no correct measure of the influence of such books in our midst."

The work of reconstruction in Europe done by the Endowment as a tribute to those who suffered in the World War can be tollowed in detail in the Year Books. In 1915 the Trustees set aside $500,000 for this purpose and asked the Director of the Division of Intercourse and Education to direct its expenditure. By this means a library was built in Belgrade, Serbia, for the Royal University of Belgrade, relief was offered fugitives from Russia at a very critical moment when funds were most urgent and when any permanent memorial in Russia was out of the question. The work on the library for the University of Louvain was started and financed in its initial stages from this fund for reconstruction work. A library is being built at Rheims and in the summer of 1921, in the Commune of Fargniers, the cornerstone was laid of the town hall which is one of the several model buildings which, as a gift from the Endowment, will be grouped about a square to be known as the Place Carnegie in that war devastated village. The school building for boys and girls have now (June 1924), been completed and opened for use and the work of reconstruction is well under way.

No adequate idea can be given of the work of the Division by the foregoing summary which is necessarily incomplete. Attention is again called to the Year Books of the Endowment as sources of information to those who wish to study the subject in detail. The work of the Division is now fairly well standardized on the experience of the past thirteen years. Invaluable personal and administrative relationships have been established. Different types of work that have a direct bearing upon international opinion and international relations have been developed and well organized. Without exception the members of the permanent staff of the Division, whether in New York, in Paris or elsewhere are both experienced and devoted in carrying forward the task, the success of which so greatly depends upon their intelligent and earnest cooperation.

The Division has never had any illusion as to the length of time it will take to raise the opinions and the ambitions of men to a plane where international war will become so unlikely as to be almost impossible. Keenly alive to the anguish and intense suffering both physical and spiritual brought by war upon courageous men and women and helpless children it is obliged to leave the forms of activity which seek to bring about an immediate alleviation of this tragic human circumstance to other agencies. It has marked out for itself a path of constructive work for the education of public opinion throughout the world. This path is a long and stony one but it is also the path which leads to a sure and permanent result. The policies of the Division have been frequently declared and frequently published. They are not built upon an expectation of human perfection or of the discovery of any patent device for the elimination of war. They are built rather upon the conviction that war will only be prevented and in time abolished when law and justice take the place of force not only in the settlement of differences among nations but in the hearts and minds of men.

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER

Director

DIVISION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

The question which confronted the Director in the formulation in 1911, of the program of the work of this Division, was not what the Division could do, but what it should properly undertake. It should not compete with the work satisfactorily inaugurated or done by individuals, societies or corporate bodies; it should rather strengthen their work and render it more effective. Through correspondence or by personal consultation, leading international lawyers and jurists throughout the world, including eminent professors of international law and well known publicists, were asked for their advice and cooperation. As a result, the Institute of International Law, among whose members may be found the most distinguished living authorities in the science, formally accepted, at the session held at Christiania in August 1912, the title and functions of general adviser to the Division of International Law, which had been offered to it by the Trustees of the Carnegie Endowment, and elected eleven of its members to act as a Special Consultative Committee in matters of general policy for the Division. During the World War the membership of this Committee was necessarily depleted owing to the nationality of the various members, but at the meeting of the Institute in Rome, on October 3, 1921, the Consultative Committee was reconstituted and now consists of distinguished representatives from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland. Through the advice and consultation thus sought various projects emerged for action. It was at once apparent that the task before the Division was the propagation, maintenance and increase of sound, progressive and fruitful ideas on the subject of arbitration and on international law and history as connected with this subject as well as the scientific and practical development of international law.

One of the most urgent needs was the creation of a corps of specially trained men to teach international law and expound its principles. Accordingly, the American Society of International Law at the request of the Endowment discussed this subject at its annual meeting in April 1913. The recommendations resulting from that discussion were transmitted to every law school, college and university in the United States. The Subsection on International Law of the Second Pan American Scientific Congress, held in Washington in December and January 1915-1916, adopted many of them with modifications necessary to give them an international scope and incorporated them in its final act. The Executive Committee of the Endowment after consideration of the recommendations directed that certain parts of the work, which the American Society of International Law approved but which it could not assume the expense and labor of carrying out, be included in the work of the Division of International Law. This led to the establishment in 1917 of fellowships in international law. The revised regulations for the academic year 1924-1925 were as follows:

1. These fellowships have been established by the Trustees of the Endowment for the purpose of providing an adequate number of teachers competent to give instruction in international law and related subjects, as an aid to the colleges and universities in extending and improving the study and teaching of those subjects, which are daily becoming increasingly of more interest and importance in the conduct of international affairs. Only those men and women who intend to aid in this work are, therefore, expected to apply for these fellowships.

2. Two classes of fellowships will be awarded (a) Teachers' Fellowships, and (b) Students' Fellowships. Applicants should indicate the class of fellowship for which application is made.

(a) Teachers' Fellowships shall be awarded to teachers in international law or related subjects. At least one year of previous teaching in international law or related subjects, or its equivalent in practical experience, is required. The stipend attached to such fellowships shall be $1,000.

(6) Students' Fellowships shall be awarded only to graduate students holding the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. The stipend attached to such fellowships shall be $750,

3. In general, a knowledge of the elements of international law and a good knowledge of history is necessary, and it is desirable that at least two modern languages be furnished. Applicants who hold a degree in law, or who have otherwise acquired a knowledge of law as a system, will be preferred in the award of fellowships. Other special previous preparation will also be considered.

4. The Fellow shall devote his entire time to the study of international law and related subjects; and no employment may be engaged in during the period covered by the Fellowship. Courses of study must be submitted to and approved by the Committee on Fellowships, and the Fellow shall report to the Committee at such times during the year as he may be directed.

5. The stipends are payable in quarterly instalments upon compliance with the regulations, communicated with the awards, governing the submission of reports and evidence of work.

6. Ordinarily five fellowships in each class are awarded each year. A holder of a fellowship may apply for a fellowship for a succeeding year.

7. Each applicant is required to furnish a signed photograph, showing the date when it was taken.

8. Applications will be received up to April 15. 1924. Application blanks will be furnished upon request to the Committee on International Law Fellowships, 2 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C.

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Reports furnish convincing evidence that the fellowships are an encouragement to men and women to think and work along international lines. The subjects chosen for their theses are an indication of a lively interest in questions raised by the World War and also in other topics of the day of international importance. Several of the Fellows have, after completing their studies, entered the profession of teaching international law at universities. The purpose to which candidates intend to devote their knowledge gained under the fellowships is considered in making the awards.

The Division at once undertook the collection of materials for the compilation, editing and publication, in pamphlet and volume form, of international conventions, treaties, judicial decisions and documents explaining and interpreting international law, or which may be regarded as epochal in the development of its principles, many of which are little known or not readily accessible but whose general circulation would promote the objects for which the Division was established. Space does not allow a detailed report upon this important branch of the work. The complete list of publications to date, to be found at the end of this document, will give the reader some impression of the scope and magnitude of this activity.

From the first the Division has encouraged, supported and maintained other institutions engaged in promoting the same or similar objects. This aid has been extended:

By granting annual subventions to international organizations, such as the Institut de Droit International, the Société de Législation Comparée, the American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, and the Grotius Society of London.

In this connection, the part played by the Division in the creation and maintenance of the American Institute of International Law, deserves special mention. Through the initiative of the Division, national societies of international law have been organized in every American country, and a central body, composed of representatives chosen from these societies, has been established under the name of the American Institute of International Law, which has received the financial

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