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is possible without an increase in appropriations. As will be seen later, important work that had been instituted by the Division has passed over to the Carnegie Corporation because of lack of funds.

During the war the European Bureau at Paris could do little more than mark time. The men of the staff were called for military duty in defense of France. Under the devoted services of the women, guided by the late Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, the organization was maintained and correspondence was carried on with the Division for the purpose of keeping the Director and the Executive Committee thoroughly informed of the progress of events and of opinion in France. The Bureau issued a brief statement regarding its policies as follows:

We believe firmly that the present war will fortify public opinion in the determination to organize for the future international relations on a less fragile foundation. More than ever our work will be needed to mitigate and in so far as may be possible to repair the results of this calamity which we predicted but were not able to prevent."

At the termination of the war, however, the work of the European Bureau opened into a still wider field. The Advisory Council was reconstituted and now includes members from countries all over the world. The doors of the European Bureau were opened to the members of the Peace Conference where the Passy Library was daily consulted. The work of reconstruction undertaken by the Endowment, to be described later, required an enlarged force and increased effort. The quarters in the Rue Pierre Curie became too crowded, and in 1922 the Bureau moved into the building at 173 Boulevard St. Germain which it now occupies. Here every convenience is at hand for the extension of its work. It has become not only the European branch of the Division of Intercourse and Education but of the whole Endowment. The Division of Economics and History occupies offices and the archives of the Academy of International Law are safely stored there. Its doors are open to all.

The corps of Special Correspondents has now been increased to seven, representing as many different countries. The important and very confidential reports received are translated and copied in the offices of the Division and sent to the Trustees of the Endowment.


Following Dr. Nitobe's visit to the United States in 1911-12, Mr. Hamilton Wright Mabie visited Japan as a representative of the Division in 1912–13 and in 1913-14 Professor Shosuke Sato, at that time Dean of the Agricultural College of the Northwestern University of Japan, lectured in many of the leading universities of the United States on Fifty Years Progress in Japan, at the request of the Endowment. Mr. Mabie's report upon his visit to Japan and two highly important reports upon conditions in Japan by the correspondent at Tokyo appear as publications Nos. 3, 6 and 16 respectively of the Division. The Division also issued as publication No. 15 the addresses delivered by Viscount Ishii during his visit to the United States as head of the Imperial Japanese Mission to the United States in 1917 and this publication was given wide circulation. The Division distributed in 1921 about a thousand copies of the book Japan and the California Problem, by T. Iyenaga and K. Sato which gives a generous interpretation of the problem from the Japanese point of view and cooperated with the Japan Society of New York by supplying funds for the manufacture and distribution of a new edition, of two thousand five hundred of the book The Awakening of Japan, by Okakura. Upon their passage through California at the close of the Conference on the Limitation of Armaments at Washington, two Japanese delegates to the Conference, Admiral Baron Kato, afterwards Premier of Japan, and Mr. Masanao Hanihara, now Japanese Ambassador at Washington were given a banquet on February 20, 1922 at San Francisco by the Japan Society of California acting for the Division.

In view of the agitation both in this country and in Japan which has accompanied the recent discussion of the immigration bill in the United States Senate it is a satisfaction to report upon a few of the efforts made by the Division for the education of public sentiment for justice and fair dealing. Such a process of education must naturally be carried on with tact and skill and with due regard to the opinions and prejudices of others.

During the year 1915, with the object of encouraging the study of international subjects and stimulating thought on internanational lines, courses of instruction were given under the auspices of the Division in the summer schools of eighty educational institutions in this country. The greatest number of registrations for a single course at any one institution was 216. This work was continued in 1916 and 1917; but in view of abnormal condi

tions arising from the entrance of the United States into the war, courses in international law and international relations were suspended in 1918 and the discussions confined to history, language, race distribution, South American geography and similar subjects. This work was experimental in the expectation that after two or three years there would be found to exist a sufficient demand for this instruction to make it desirable for the institutions to continue the courses without financial assistance. In accordance with this policy the support was gradually withdrawn, the last allotment being made in 1919 for the New Mexico Normal University, Las Vegas, New Mexico where an interesting conference of teachers was also held during the summer session.

Similar work among students was however continued by the Division by means of International Relations Clubs. It was natural that the interest in the study of international affairs should be greatly stimulated among college and university students by the World War. The Clubs were formed to guide this interest into channels of enlightening, scientific and non-partisan discussion of the true basis of modern international relations and of possible methods by which crises between nations might be equitably adjusted through arbitral or judicial settlement. Every effort is made to avoid the discussion of questions of domestic policy as to which there may be or is at the moment a marked difference of opinion. Books and pamphlets have been supplied to the Clubs since their establishment, and fourteen syllabi have been published by the Division to aid them in their study work. For a number of years lecturers were sent to the various Clubs but this feature of the work has now been discontinued. There are at present 84 Clubs in universities and colleges throughout the United States. They are usually guided by a permanent director, often one of the faculty, so that while the membership of the Clubs is made up from the constantly changing student body the Club as an organization is permanent. From the headquarters of the Division the Secretary for the International Relations Clubs keeps in touch with them and sends them regularly a Fortnightly Summary of International Events prepared for the purpose at the Division offices, which with the syllabi and bibliographies supplied also by the Division offers material for discussion and study.

During the years 1920-1921-1922, these Clubs were supervised by the Institute of International Education. This Institute,

now in its fifth year, was established under the auspices of the Endowment and supported for the first three years of its existence by the Division. Its mission, stated briefly, is to act as a clearing house of information and advice for Americans concerning educational matters in foreign countries and for foreigners concerning such matters in the United States. Space does not permit a report upon the steadily developing work of this Institute. It has played an important rôle in smoothing the path of foreign students arriving in the United States and detained in quarantine by the immigration regulations. Through its services American professors on leave from their own universities received and accepted invitations to render academic service in universities in foreign lands. The allotment for the travelling expenses of such professors and for the support of the Institute were discontinued in 1923 because of the necessity to make drastic reductions in appropriations for the Division. The Endowment could not longer finance these undertakings from its resources and arrangements were fortunately made by which the Carnegie Corporation of New York assumed the financial support of the Institute for the year ended June 30, 1924 and its work has continued without interruption under the jurisdiction of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Mr. Carnegie's great faith in the usefulness of public libraries is too well known to need comment here. In May 1916, a collection of about 9,000 volumes dealing with American history, institutions and culture were sent as a gift from the Endowment to the Museo Social Argentino in Buenos Aires to form a North American reference division of the Museo's library. This col· lection was formally presented by the Director of the Interamerican Section of the Division on the occasion of his visit to Buenos Aires during a trip through South America. Eight applications were subsequently received from other cities in South America for similar collections. While it was impossible to present as many volumes as those sent to Buenos Aires the Endowment has sent collections which have been formally presented, with official deeds of gift, by the diplomatic representative of the United States in the respective cities to the following institutions:

Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.
Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago, Chile.

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Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Bibliotheca do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo,

Biblioteca Nacional, Montevideo, Uruguay
Facultad de Derecho, Montevideo, Uruguay
Instituto Paraguayo, Asunción, Paraguay
Facultad de Derecho, Asunción, Paraguay

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It was found that in the various European capitals there were no adequate, accessible and well catalogued libraries which could give exact and quick information as to American history, government and culture. As an extension of the work mentioned above collections of about 2,000 volumes each were made under the supervision of the Assistant to the Director and formally presented and placed in the following institutions:

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These books have been so placed as to be freely open to consultation at all reasonable hours by students, journalists and public men and it is the hope of the Endowment that they will be highly useful in helping to spread accurate and generous knowledge of the United States and of its people.

International Mind Alcoves are established by the Division in public libraries in the smaller towns of the United States and in a few cases in foreign countries. These Alcoves consist of a collection of books dealing with the daily life, customs and history of countries other than the United States. They are popular in character and are chosen with a view primarily to interest and inform the general reader rather than to furnish material for the student although they also serve this end. In accepting

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