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The headquarters of the Endowment are located at Nos. 2, 4 and 6 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. The Division of International Law occupies offices at the headquarters. The three buildings were private dwellings purchased at intervals and since connected. They include a frontage of 106.9 feet on Pennsylvania Avenue, and 83 feet on Jackson Place, with a total area of 8,856 square feet. The property faces the White House and the State, War and Navy Building on Pennsylvania Avenue, and is the most desirably located property in Washington, outside of that owned by the government. The building at No. 6 was placed at the disposal of the Government Committee on Public Information during the war.

The offices of the Division of Intercourse and Education and the Division of Economics and History are located in rented quarters at 407 West 117th Street, New York City, in a private building suitably arranged for the convenience of the work, five stories high and with twenty feet frontage. Soon after this publication appears the quarters will be enlarged by the addition of the adjoining building, No. 405, which will provide a much needed increase of office space for the two Divisions and permit the installation of the offices of the Interamerican Section of the Division of Intercourse and Education in these buildings.

The European headquarters of the Endowment, located at 173 Boulevard St.-Germain, Paris, France, is a dignified XVIII Century Hotel, seventy feet high with a frontage on the boulevard of 55 feet. The depth of the lot is 100 feet and a large court gives light and air to the spacious rooms which are decorated in the style of Louis XV. The building contains 55 rooms, large and small, and is admirably adapted for meeting rooms and offices. There is a terrace on the roof with sanded paths and shrubs from which a superb view of Paris and the Seine may be obtained. This building was purchased by the Endowment in the spring of 1923.


The Division of Intercourse and Education was instituted by the Executive Committee by action taken on March 9, 1911, and more specifically by action taken May 8, 1911; but it was not until June 13, 1911 that the Director of the Division was designated and an appropriation made to meet the expenses incident to its organization. It was evident from the first that the development of the work of this Division would be no short or easy task. The holding of public meetings attended by considerable bodies of enthusiasts, the passing of resolutions commending the cause of peace and international arbitration and decrying war, and the circulation of the more emotional type of pacifist literature are all well enough in their way, but they leave the great body of opinion untouched and therefore the action of the governments uninfluenced. In order to lay permanent foundations, the minds of men must be convinced that morality is a higher principle than brute force and it must be proved to the satisfaction of public cpinion that the balance of individual, social and political gain is on the side of peace and international friendship. Toward this end elaborate and highly scientific studies of economics and of international law were undertaken by the Division of Economics and History and the Division of International Law. The work of the Division of Intercourse and Education, as its name implies, while building also for the future, was more immediately concerned with the very pressing and vital problem of present day public opinion. Its task was concerned with concrete questions and problems of the moment and with personal contacts between living men and women of this day and age.

By the end of the first year, however, the organization of the work was well under way. As the original plan was to do as much of the work of the Division as possible through organizations already in existence, or established for particular purposes both in the United States and elsewhere, it was entirely possible to keep the organization of the central office small and inexpensive while carrying on its work with efficiency. It was recognized

that it was of the highest importance to make the work of the Division truly international from the outset and to secure for it the largest possible measure of good will, sympathy and cooperation. For this purpose a secretariat and bureau were established in Paris to serve as the headquarters of the work of the Division in Europe, under the presidency of the late Baron d'Estournelles de Constant. It was felt that this form of organization would save much time and some expense and, what was even more important, that it would meet the criticism that the Carnegie Endowment was a purely American undertaking which aimed to instruct and influence the opinion of Europe from outside. An Advisory Council was formed composed of representative and distinguished statesmen and publicists of Europe and Asia. They were invited to membership with the understanding that their positions were honorary, their duties merely advisory, and that in case they assembled once each year or less often at the headquarters in Paris, their necessary traveling expenses and disbursements would be met by the Endowment. An executive committee was appointed from the Advisory Council which was to have large authority and initiative in carrying on the work of the Division abroad. It was thought that much of the work of the Advisory Council could undoubtedly be carried on by the executive committee of that body and by correspondence, but occasional meetings of the entire membership of the Council were considered highly desirable. The late Baron d'Estournelles de Constant was president of the Advisory Council from its formation until his death on May 15, 1924 and labored untiringly in its interest.

Four trained and competent Special Correspondents were appointed, nationals of Austria, England, Germany and Japan respectively, to keep the Director informed accurately and in detail regarding international policies and international conduct as they related to their several countries. The object of obtaining this accurate knowledge is that the Division may know how and when most usefully to exert influence in behalf of international peace and for the development of what the Director has described as the International Mind.

In November, 1911, at the invitation of the Endowment, Dr. Charles W. Eliot, a Trustee of the Carnegie Endowment, left New York for a visit to Asiatic countries in the interest of the work of the Division of Intercourse and Education for the pur

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