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burgh, had opened for the use of the boys when Andrew Carnegie was too poor to buy a book. The first thing he did was to use his money to swing open for others the doors of knowledge which gave to him the bright light, the little learning, that could come from Colonel Anderson's four hundred volumes.

He endowed a great library. And then he established the Institute of Pittsburgh. The first great reaction of this hard headed steel maker was the establishment of the Institute of Pittsburgh, in which he invested nearly $30,000,000. Under it he established an art museum and a music hall and a museum of science. For he knew, by the knowledge that came from the experience of his life, that after men and women have all that is necessary to eat and to wear and for shelter, come great opportunities for increase of happiness in the cultivation of taste, in the cultivation of appreciation for the beautiful in the world.

And so after the library came the art museum, and then the music hall and then the museum of science. And these he followed with the establishment of a technical school for the education of the working people of Pittsburgh.

The next development was at the home of his childhood, his parents' home in Dunfermline. I have read to you the reason which he gave in his letter to the Trustees of Dunfermline, and he worked that out by presenting the Trustees for the use of the people of Dunfermline, these toiling masses, a great park in which he set gardens, playgrounds, gymnasiums, swimming baths, and a sanitary school and a library in order that recreation and joyful things might come to lighten up the days of toil.

Then he made his gift to the four universities of ScotlandSt. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh. Ten million dollars he gave to these universities, toward which he had never been able to bend his steps in youth, one-half to be used for improving the university and developing the teaching of science, history, economics and modern languages, and one-half to pay the fees of the young men of Scotland who were unable to pay for themselves, giving to all the Scotch boys the opportunity that had been denied to him.

And then, having expressed his feelings for the home of his childhood and the home of his success, he broadened out, and established and endowed richly the Institution of Washington, the institution for research and the application of science for the good of mankind.

Then, still broadening, he established the Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, with its pension fund, so that the teachers of America might not look forward to poverty in the old age that follows the laborious life of the teacher. And he added to that a separate fund for investigation and study into the methods of teaching under which teaching is gradually being standardized, and its defects, faults and shortcomings discovered so that this institution is not only providing for the teachers but it is providing for systematic education by the teachers.

Broadening his view again he turned his attention to the maintenance of international peace, and with an impulse so natural to establish a hero fund for encouraging and noting properly the heroism of those who lived in peace and in competition with the popular worship of heroism in war. That fund is being administered by trustees and heroic acts in civil life are being signalized by medals, by money gifts, by providing homes, by pensions for widows-whatever seems the most appropriate to the occasion.

And he moved one step further and established the Endowment for International Peace. That was designed to go a little farther than the mere expression of feeling, the feeling that war is horrible, detestable, the feeling that peace should be made permanent and secure. That Endowment was designed and adapted to securing the evidence upon which argument and persuasion in favor of peace and against war may be based; and it has been publishing and making available for all scholars, all students, all intelligent men, the true facts regarding international relations, the law of nations, the rights and wrongs and duties of nations, in the great books that have been written from which men may learn their international rights and duties. In another division it has been making careful scientific studies of the economics and history of war, and in another promoting international intercourse and education. Incidentally, as he was developing these plans in all these different directions, he seized upon special occasions for doing particular things which would further his plans. He built the great Peace Palace at The Hague, to strike the imagination of the world with the idea of peace rather than war. He built the Pan American building at Washington, to furnish a center for good understanding and friendly intercourse between the peoples of North and South America. He built a great building for the Central American Court of Justice in Costa Rica. He established

another trust for the special use of the churches in their work in favor of peace.

All those things were but special occasions and incidents in the course of his development of his great plans. The plans, of course, grew as he went on, and then having his five great trusts in this country, he added to his trusts in Europe by creating the United Kingdom Trust, which was chiefly for the purpose of building libraries; and he developed his own work of library building in America, as a result of which nearly 3,000 libraries built by Andrew Carnegie now open their doors to the people of America as Colonel Anderson opened his door to Andrew Carnegie so many years before.

And as he studied education, he turned his mind toward the colleges and chiefly toward the poor colleges, chiefly toward the smaller colleges to which the poor boys go, and with the most solicitous examination and discrimination, he put his money where he thought it would be used to best advantage here and there, until finally more than five hundred American colleges are using his money today—money amounting to over $20,000,000.

And before the end came he organized a single corporation. He incorporated his activities in the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and he put into the Board of Trustees of that corporation the heads of the five principal, special institutions he had created in this country—the President of the Institute of Pittsburgh, the President of the Research Institution of Washington, the President of the Endowment for International Peace, the President of the Hero Fund and the President of the Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. They make up the majority of the Board of Trustees of the new corporation. To that corporation he gave the great bulk of the remainder of his fortune amassed during his lifetime, $125,000,000, to promote advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding among the people of the United States; and he continued as president of that corporation to direct its affairs and the use of its money during his life.

I said that he had not been giving away his money in the strict sense. Far from it. He secured as the agents for the use of his money for the accomplishment of his noble and beneficent purposes, a great body of men whom no salaries could have attracted, whom no payment could have induced to serve; but who served because the inherent value of the purposes for which Mr. Carnegie summoned them commanded them to serve. Joseph H. Choate, John Hay, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, President Charles W. Eliot, Andrew D. White, Major Higginson, Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader and many others who have already passed from their active labor, as has Mr. Carnegie. Of that group President Eliot alone remains, as President Emeritus of Harvard, a wise observer of the development of the times. That group of citizens to which Mr. Carnegie gave the control of the institutions he created has been endeavoring to seek and find, as one by one they pass off the stage, new and competent agents to execute Mr. Carnegie's great policies.

The world has not been able yet to appreciate Mr. Carnegie. We who knew him and loved him and honored him, can now express our judgment, but we are about to pass away. Yet the works that he inaugurated are upon so great a scale and are designed to accomplish such great purposes that as the years, the generations and the centuries go on, they will the more clearly exhibit the true character of the founder. Centuries later men of science will be adding to human knowledge, teachers will be opening the book of learning to the young, friends of peace will be winning the children of civilization from brutality to kindliness; and Andrew Carnegie, the little Scotch weaver's son, will live in the ever more manifest greatness of the achievement that was the outcome of his great and noble heart.



December 14, 1910 GENTLEMEN: I hav transferd to you as Trustees of the Carnegie Peace Fund, Ten Million Dollars of Five Per Cent. First Mortgage Bonds, the revenue of which is to be administerd by you to hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization. Altho we no longer eat our fellowmen nor torture prisoners, nor sack cities killing their inhabitants, we still kill each other in war like barbarians. Only wild beasts are excusable for doing that in this, the Twentieth Century of the Christian


for the crime of war is inherent, since it decides not in favor of the right, but always of the strong. The nation is criminal which refuses arbitration and drives its adversary to a tribunal which knows nothing of righteous judgment.

I believ that the shortest and easiest path to peace lies in adopting President Taft's platform, who said in his address before the Peace and Arbitration Society, New York, March 22, 1910:

"I hav noticed exceptions in our arbitration treaties, as to reference of questions of national honor to courts of arbitration. Personally, I do not see any more reason why matters of national honor should not be referd to a court of arbitration than matters of property or of national proprietorship. I know that is going farther than most men are willing to go, but I do not see why questions of honor may not be submitted to a tribunal composed of men of honor who understand questions of national honor, to abide by their decision, as well as any other questions of difference arising between nations."

I venture to quote from my address as President of the Peace Congress in New York, 1907:

"Honor is the most dishonord word in our language. No man ever touched another man's honor; no nation ever dishonord another nation; all honor's wounds are self-inflicted.”

At the opening of the International Bureau of American Republics at Washington, April 26, 1910, President Taft said: “We twenty-one republics can not afford to hav any two or

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