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10. Bulgaria, illustrating the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine

(with insert map comparing Thrace, between Adrian-
ople and the Aegean Sea, with part of New England
southwest of Boston)

.

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11. Turkey, illustrating the Treaty of Sèvres (with insert

map showing, in black, areas lost by Turkey). On the
insert map, Libya, Egypt, and Cyprus are indicated by
stipple and Ada Kaleh by a dot,—these four areas hav-
ing retained a measure of Turkish sovereignty up to
the present time. The right half of the insert map
shows eastern United States on exactly the same scale
as the area in Asia Minor, Arabia, and northern Africa
which is shown in the left half

18

12. Turkey, illustrating the Treaty of Lausanne

19

.

.

13. Detailed map of western Turkey, showing the Zone of

the Straits, the Territory of Smyrna, and the archi-
pelago of Dodekanesia as provided for in the Treaty
of Sèvres

20

21

14. Detailed map of western Turkey, illustrating the de

militarization of Thrace and the Straits as provided

for in the Treaty of Lausanne
15. Detailed map of eastern Turkey, indicating the extent

of the Turkish portion of Armenia, according to
President Wilson's boundary decision under the Treaty
of Sèvres

22

16. Mandates in Arabia, indicating the present disposition

of the former Turkish possessions given up under the Treaties of Sèvres and of Lausanne (with insert map comparing Arabia graphically with the United States) 23 INTRODUCTORY NOTE

The sixteen maps printed in this document have been prepared as illustrations for the texts of treaties which the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is to publish within a few weeks. The maps are printed in the present document in order to make them available at once for all the subscribers to International Conciliation.

These maps are based primarily upon the Treaty of Versailles, the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye, the Treaty of Trianon, the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, the Treaty of Sèvres, and the Treaty of Lausanne. There are territorial adjustments, however, which depend upon treaties, agreements, and other international instruments concluded subsequent to the dates of the chief treaties of peace. An attempt has been made, therefore, to bring the maps up to date by the use of all available data. .

It is impossible to show upon maps as small as those here published all the geographical features mentioned in the treaties. Hence the maps make no attempt to indicate more cities, villages, rivers, etc. than is appropriate to the small scales of the several maps. The Treaty of Versailles provides that the new boundaries of Germany shall be marked by Boundary Commissions in accordance with the text of the treaty, in case the text disagrees in any respect with the maps attached to the treaty. This is true of all the treaties here referred to. In the making of all the maps published in this document this provision has been taken into account and the maps, although containing very few place-names, have been based upon maps which show all the features mentioned in the treaties. As all the controlling data specified in the several treaties and agreements have been taken into account in the drafting of the maps, they may be safely regarded as accurate and authoritative.

The general plan of this series of maps is indicated by the preceding list of the sixteen maps. The reason for having the separate maps of Europe and Asia Minor in 1914 and in 1924 is threefold. The reader is able to see at a glance the net changes resulting from the World War. He is aided in visualizing the mutual relations of the countries which are represented by the larger maps which follow. He is given simple outlines of the new countries, like Czechoslovakia, Poland, Finland, Esthonia, Latvia, Lithuania, etc., which are not represented on separate maps in the present series, and of countries which have gained territory, like Rumania, Yugoslavia, Italy, France, Greece, etc., and is aided in appreciating the geographical relationships of such entities as the Irish Free State and the disputed territory of Vilna.

An attempt has been made to show as settled no territorial arrangement which is still in dispute, and to avoid all controversial matters. All the boundaries shown on the maps here presented, except Figures 4 and 16, have a specific basis in existing treaties and agreements. The several graphic comparisons of areas and populations of the whole or parts of the United States, naturally, have no basis in the treaties upon which this series of maps is based. It was thought, however, that these comparisons would be helpful to Americans who use these maps.

In the compilation of the maps a consistent system of symbols has been adopted so far as possible. Thus all international boundaries are shown by solid black lines where the boundary is definitely fixed. Where

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the boundary was not definitely fixed, up to the time of publication of this document, it is shown by long dashes; an illustration is the frontier between Turkey and Iraq (Figure 16). Where islands belong to a contiguous mother country a boundary is indicated in the sea, even though high seas rather than territorial waters may separate certain of the islands from the mainland. Such boundaries are indicated by heavy dashes of medium length; certain islands north of Germany (Figure 3), west of Turkey (Figures 11, 12, 13 and 14), and in the Pacific Ocean (Figure 6) are illustrations. Annulled boundaries are indicated by short dashes; almost all the maps show such pre-war boundaries.

Plebiscite areas are ruled obliquely; Upper Silesia, parts of East and West Prussia, Schleswig, Eupen, Malmedy, and the Saar Basin on the map of Germany (Figure 3) are illustrations.

The areas given up by Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Turkey are shown on the insert maps upon Figures 3, 8, 9, and ii in solid black. Bosnia and Herzegovina, which belonged jointly to Austria and Hungary, are not so shown in solid black on Figures 8 and 9, but are stippled.

I am indebted to Miss Margaret C. Alexander, Executive Secretary of the American Association for International Conciliation, who initiated the plan of compiling these maps, for many helpful criticisms and suggestions. Mr. O. P. Solem of the United States Geological Survey has drafted the whole series of maps.

LAWRENCE MARTIN WASHINGTON, D. C.

March 31, 1924

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