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scribed in the Constitution for appointment of officers of the United States. Furthermore, the conversion of the Council from an advisory body into an executive agency for the purpose of the act would place the congressional member of the Council in violation of the constitutional prohibition against Members of Congress holding civil offices of the United States.

However, I am approving S. 1800 since these surface constitutional defects can be cured by Executive action. Under the authority vested in me by the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965 to change the membership of the Council to meet changes in Federal programs or executive branch organization, I am today directing that, because of the constitutional provisions noted above, the four Council members previously mentioned shall not serve as members of the Council when it acts as an agency in carrying out functions under this

act.

Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 11, No, 52, Dec. 29, 1975, p. 1391. For the legislative history of the Act, see H. Rept. No. 94-680 on H.R. 7782; S. Rept. No. 94-289 on S. 1800.

Regional Cooperation

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), at its final session at Helsinki, adopted on August 1, 1975, a Final Act which was signed by 35 states, including the United States. A section entitled "Cooperation in Humanitarian and Other Fields" set forth the following principles on cultural and educational cooperation:

COOPERATION AND EXCHANGES IN THE FIELD OF CULTURE

The participating states,

Considering that cultural exchanges and cooperation contribute to a better comprehension among people and among peoples, and thus promote a lasting understanding among states,

Confirming the conclusions already formulated in this field at the multilateral level, particularly at the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies in Europe, organized by UNESCO in Helsinki in June 1972, where interest was manifested in the active participation of the broadest possible social groups in an increasingly diversified cultural life,

Desiring, with the development of mutual confidence and the further improvement of relations between the participating states, to continue further efforts toward progress in this field,

Disposed in this spirit to increase substantially their cultural exchanges, with regard both to persons and to cultural works, and to develop among them an active cooperation, both at the bilateral and the multilateral level, in all the fields of culture,

Convinced that such a development of their mutual relations will contribute to the enrichment of the respective cultures, while respecting the originality of each, as well as to the reinforcement among them of a consciousness of common values, while continuing to develop cultural cooperation with other countries of the world,

Declare that they jointly set themselves the following objectives:

(a) to develop the mutual exchange of information with a view to a better knowledge of respective cultural achievements,

(b) to improve the facilities for the exchange and for the dissemination of cultural property,

(c) to promote access by all to respective cultural achievements,

(d) to develop contacts and cooperation among persons active in the field of culture,

(e) to seek new fields and forms of cultural cooperation,

Thus give expression to their common will to take progressive, coherent and long term action in order to achieve the objectives of the present declaration; and

Express their intention now to proceed to the implementation of the following:

Extension of Relations To expand and improve at the various levels cooperation and links in the field of culture, in particular by:

- concluding, where appropriate, agreements on a bilateral or multilateral basis, providing for the extension of relations among competent state institutions and nongovernmental organizations in the field of culture, as well as among people engaged in cultural activities, taking into account the need both for flexibility and the fullest possible use of existing agreements, and bearing in mind that agreements and also other arrangements constitute important means of developing cultural cooperation and exchanges;

- contributing to the development of direct communication and cooperation among relevant state institutions and nongovernmental organizations, including, where necessary, such communication and cooperation carried out on the basis of special agreements and arrangements;

encouraging direct contacts and communications among persons engaged in cultural activities, including, where necessary, such contacts and communications carried out on the basis of special agreements and arrangement.

Mutual Knowledge Within their competence to adopt, on a bilateral and multilateral level, appropriate measures which would give their peoples a more comprehensive and complete mutual knowledge of their achievements in the various fields of culture, and among them:

- to examine jointly, if necessary with the assistance of appropriate international organizations, the possible creation in Europe and the structure of a bank of cultural data, which would collect information from the participating countries and make it available to its correspondents on their request, and to convene for this purpose a meeting of experts from interested states;

—to consider, if necessary in conjunction with appropriate international organizations, ways of compiling in Europe an inventory of documentary films of a cultural or scientific nature from the participating states;

-to encourage more frequent book exhibitions and to examine the possibility of organizing periodically in Europe a large-scale exhibition of books from the participating states;

—to promote the systematic exchange, between the institutions concerned and publishing houses, of catalogues of available books as well as of prepublication material which will include, as far as possible, all forthcoming publications; and also to promote the exchange of material between firms publishing encyclopedias, with a view to improving the presentation of each country;

—to examine jointly questions of expanding and improving exchanges of information in the various fields of culture, such as theater, music, library work as well as the conservation and restoration of cultural property.

Exchanges and Dissemination To contribute to the improvement of facilities for exchanges and the dissemination of cultural property, by appropriate means, in particular by:

-studying the possibilities for harmonizing and reducing the charges relating to international commercial exchanges of books and other cultural materials, and also for new means of insuring works of art in foreign exhibitions and for reducing the risks of damage or loss to which these works are exposed by their movement;

-facilitating the formalities of customs clearance, in good time for programs of artistic events, of the works of art, materials and accessories appearing on lists agreed upon by the organizers of these events;

encouraging meetings among representatives of competent organizations and relevant firms to examine measures within their field of activity—such as the simplification of orders, time limits for sending supplies and modalities of payment—which might facilitate international commercial exchanges of books;

-promoting the loan and exchange of films among their film institutes and film libraries;

encouraging the exchange of information among interested parties concerning events of a cultural character foreseen in the participating states, in fields where this is most appropriate, such as music, theater and the plastic and graphic arts, with a view to contributing to the compilation and publication of a calendar of such events, with the assistance, where necessary, of the appropriate international organizations;

-encouraging a study of the impact which the foreseeable development, and a possible harmonization among interested parties, of the technical means used for the dissemination of culture might have on the development of cultural cooperation and exchanges, while keeping in view the preservation of the diversity and originality of their respective cultures;

-encouraging, in the way they deem appropriate, within their cultural policies, the further development of interest in the cultural heritage of the other participating states, conscious of the merits and the value of each culture;

endeavoring to ensure the full and effective application of the international agreements and conventions of copyrights and on circulation of cultural property to which they are party or to which they may decide in the future to become party.

Access To promote fuller mutual access by all to the achievements—works, experiences and performing arts—in the various fields of culture of their countries, and to that end to make the best possible efforts, in accordance with their competence, more particularly:

-to promote wider dissemination of books and artistic works, in particular by such means as:

facilitating, while taking full account of the international copyright conventions to which they are party, international contacts and communications between authors and publishing houses as well as other cultural institutions, with a view to a more complete mutual access to cultural achievements;

recommending that, in determining the size of editions, publishing houses take into account also the demand from the other participating states, and that rights of sale in other participating states be granted, where possible, to several sales organizations of the importing countries, by agreement between interested partners;

encouraging competent organizations and relevant firms to conclude agree ments and contracts and contributing, by this means, to a gradual increase in the number and diversity of works by authors from the other participating states available in the original and in translation in their libraries and bookshops;

promoting, where deemed appropriate, an increase in the number of sales outlets where books by authors from the other participating states, imported in the original on the basis of agreements and contracts, and in translation, are for sale;

promoting, on a wider scale, the translation of works in the sphere of literature and other fields of cultural activity, produced in the languages of the other participating states, especially from the less widely-spoken languages, and the publication and dissemination of the translated works by such

measures as:

encouraging more regular contacts between interested publishing houses; developing their efforts in the basic and advanced training of translators;

encouraging, by appropriate means, the publishing houses of their countries to public translations;

facilitating the exchange between publishers and interested institutions of lists of books which might be translated;

promoting between their countries the professional activity and cooperation of translators;

carrying out joint studies on ways of further promoting translations and their dissemination;

improving and expanding exchanges of books, bibliographies and catalogue cards between libraries;

-to envisage other appropriate measures which would permit, where necessary by mutual agreement among interested parties, the facilitation of access to their respective cultural achievements, in particular in the field of books;

-to contribute by appropriate means to the wider use of the mass media in order to improve mutual acquaintance with the cultural life of each;

-to seek to develop the necessary conditions for migrant workers and their families to preserve their links with their national culture, and also to adapt themselves to their new cultural environment;

—to encourage the competent bodies and enterprises to make a wider choice and effect wider distribution of full-length and documentary films from the other participating states, and to promote more frequent noncommercial showings, such as premières, film weeks and festivals, giving due consideration to films from countries whose cinematographic works are less well known;

-to promote, by appropriate means, the extension of opportunities for specialists from the other participating states to work with materials of a cultural character from film and audiovisual archives within the framework of the existing rules for work on such archival materials;

- to encourage a joint study by interested bodies, where appropriate with the assistance of the competent international organizations, of the expediency and the conditions for the establishment of a repertory of their recorded television programs of a cultural nature, as well as of the means of viewing them rapidly in order to facilitate their selection and possible acquisition.

Contacts and Cooperation To contribute, by appropriate means, to the development of contacts and cooperation in the various fields of culture, especially among creative artists and people engaged in cultural activities, in particular by making efforts to:

-promote for persons active in the field of culture, travel and meetings including, where necessary, those carried out on the basis of agreements, contracts or other special arrangements and which are relevant to their cultural cooperation;

-encourage in this way contacts among creative and performing artists and artistic groups with a view to their working together, making known their works in other participating states or exchanging views on topics relevant to their common activity;

encourage, where necessary through appropriate arrangements, exchanges of trainees and specialists and the granting of scholarships for basic and advanced training in various fields of culture such as the arts and architecture, museums and libraries, literary studies and translation, and contribute to the creation of favorable conditions or reception in their respective institutions;

encourage the exchange of experience in the training of organizers of cultural activities as well as of teachers and specialists in fields such as theater, opera, ballet, music and fine arts;

-continue to encourage the organization of international meetings among creative artists, especially young creative artists, on current questions of artistic and literary creation which are of interest for joint study;

-study other possibilities for developing exchanges and cooperation among persons active in the field of culture, with a view to a better mutual knowledge of the cultural life of the participating states.

Fields and Forms of Cooperation To encourage the search for new fields and forms of cultural cooperation, to these ends contributing to the conclusion among interested parties, where necessary, of appropriate agreements and arrangements, and in this context to promote:

-joint studies regarding cultural policies, in particular in their social aspects, and as they relate to planning, town-planning, educational and environmental policies, and the cultural aspects of tourism;

-the exchange of knowledge in the realm of cultural diversity, with a view to contributing thus to a better understanding by interested parties of such diversity where it occurs;

-the exchange of information, and as may be appropriate, meetings of experts, the elaboration and the execution of research programs and projects, as well as their joint evaluation, and the dissemination of the results, on the subjects indicated above;

-such forms of cultural cooperation and the development of such joint projects as:

international events in the fields of the plastic and graphic arts, cinema, theater, ballet, music, folklore, etc.; book fairs and exhibitions, joint performances of operatic and dramatic works, as well as performances given by soloists, instrumental ensembles, orchestras, choirs and other artistic groups, including those composed of amateurs, paying due attention to the organization of international cultural youth events and the exchange of young artists;

the inclusion of works by writers and composers from the other participating states in the repertoires of soloists and artistic ensembles;

the preparation, translation and publication of articles, studies and monographs, as well as of low-cost books and of artistic and literary collections, suited to making better known respective cultural achievements, envisaging for this purpose meetings among experts and representatives of publishing houses;

the coproduction and the exchange of films and of radio and television programs, by promoting, in particular, meetings among producers, technicians and representatives of the public authorities with a view to working out favorable conditions for the execution of specific joint projects and by encouraging, in the field of coproduction, the establishment of international filming teams;

the organization of competitions for architects and town-planners, bearing in mind the possible implementation of the best projects and the formation, where possible, of international teams;

the implementation of joint projects for conserving, restoring and showing to advantage works of art, historical and archaeological monuments and sites of cultural interest, with the help, in appropriate cases, of international organizations of a governmental or nongovernmental character as well as of private institutions-competent and active in these fields-envisaging for this purpose:

periodic meetings of experts of the interested parties to elaborate the necessary proposals, while bearing in mind the need to consider these questions in a wider social and economic context;

the publication in appropriate periodicals of articles designed to make known and to compare, among the participating states, the most significant achievements and innovations;

a joint study with a view to the improvement and possible harmonization of the different systems used to inventory and catalogue the historical monuments and places of cultural interest in their countries;

the study of the possibilities for organizing international courses for the training of specialists in different disciplines relating to restoration.

National minorities or regional cultures. The participating states, recognizing the contribution that national minorities or regional cultures can make to cooperation among them in various fields of culture, intend, when such minorities or cultures exist within their territory, to facilitate this contribution, taking into account the legitimate interests of their members.

COOPERATION AND EXCHANGES IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

The participating states,

Conscious that the development of relations of an international character in the fields of education and science contributes to a better mutual understanding and is to the advantage of all peoples as well as to the benefit of future generations,

Prepared to facilitate, between organizations, institutions and persons engaged in education and science, the further development of exchanges of

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