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14) Any representation made to Federal, State or local prosecutors for mitigation of sentence or other consideration on behalf of a defendant who has cooperated in narcotic cases or investigations will be made by DEA. DEA will bring to the attention of the appropriate prosecutor cooperation by a narcotic defendant who has assisted Customs.

U.S-Mexico

On November 14, 1975, Robert Anderson, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Press Relations, made an announcement at the Department of State's daily news briefing concerning cooperative efforts between the United States and Mexico on narcotics control. Mr. Anderson stated:

Yesterday, November 13, the Attorney General of Mexico, Pedro Ojeda Paullada, after meeting with President (Luis) Echeverria, described to the press in Mexico City his Government's strengthened and expanded campaign to eradicate opium poppy growth and to control heroin traffic. The Mexican Attorney General announced that an eradication campaign will begin November 15, employing greatly expanded materiel and manpower resources that are expected to substantially reduce the heroin traffic to the United States.

Secretary Kissinger wishes to emphasize the concern that the United States Government places on the drug abuse problem and the need to increase efforts to control illicit drugs at home and abroad. The United States Government is determined to resolve this most serious and tragic problem that burdens our nation with ruined lives and results in violent crimes against our citizens, and costs us up to $17 billion a year.

On behalf of the United States Government, the Secretary expresses his appreciation to the Government of Mexico for its efforts to curb illicit drugs and confirms the commitment of the United States to work with Mexico and our other friends abroad to achieve our common goals of reducing drug abuse and controlling the traffic in illicit narcotics.

Dept. of State News Briefing, DPC 189, Nov. 14, 1975, pp. 1-2. See ante, Ch. 4, $ 2, pp. 251-254, regarding U.S. citizens imprisoned in Mexico for drug offenses.

Chapter 12

Scientific, Educational and Cultural Affairs

§ 1

Scientific Affairs

Regional Cooperation A section entitled “Science and Technology" was included in the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), signed by the United States and the 34 other participating states at Helsinki on August 1, 1975. It sets forth the following statement of principles:

The participating states,

Convinced that scientific and technological cooperation constitutes an important contribution to the strengthening of security and cooperation among them, in that it assists the effective solution of problems of common interest and the improvement of the conditions of human life,

Considering that in developing such cooperation, it is important to promote the sharing of information and experience, facilitating the study and transfer of scientific and technological achievements, as well as the access to such achievements on a mutually advantageous basis and in fields of cooperation agreed between interested parties,

Considering that it is for the potential partners, i.e., the competent organizations, institutions, enterprises, scientists and technologists of the participating states to determine the opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation and to develop its details,

Affirming that such cooperation can be developed and implemented bilaterally and multilaterally at the governmental and nongovernmental levels, for example, through intergovernmental and other agreements, international programs, cooperative projects and commercial channels, while utilizing also various forms of contacts, including direct and individual contacts,

Aware of the need to take measures further to improve scientific and technological cooperation between them, Possibilities for improving cooperation

Recognize that possibilities exist for further improving scientific and technological cooperation, and to this end, express their intention to remove obstacles to such cooperation, in particular through:

—the improvement of opportunities for the exchange and dissemination of scientific and technological information among the parties interested in scientific and technological research and cooperation including information related to the organization and implementation of such cooperation;

-the expeditious implementation and improvement in organization, including programs, of international visits of scientists and specialists in connection with exchanges, conferences and cooperation;

-the wider use of commercial channels and activities for applied scientific and technological research and for the transfer of achievements obtained in this field while providing information on and protection of intellectual and industrial property rights;

Fields of cooperation

Consider that possibilities to expand cooperation exist within the areas given below as examples, noting that it is for potential partners in the participating countries to identify and develop projects and arrangements of mutual interest and benefit:

Agriculture Research into new methods and technologies for increasing the productivity of crop cultivation and animal husbandry; the application of chemistry to agriculture; the design, construction and utilization of agricultural machinery; technologies of irrigation and other agricultural land improvement works;

Energy

New technologies of production, transport and distribution of energy aimed at improving the use of existing fuels and sources of hydroenergy, as well as research in the field of new energy sources, including nuclear, solar and geothermal energy;

New technologies, rational use of resources

Research on new technologies and equipment designed in particular to reduce energy consumption and to minimize or eliminate waste;

Transport technology

Research on the means of transport and the technology applied to the development and operation of international, national and urban transport networks including container transport as well as transport safety;

Physics

Study of problems in high energy physics and plasma physics; research in the field of theoretical and experimental nuclear physics;

Chemistry

Research on problems in electrochemistry and the chemistry of polymers, of natural products, and of metals and alloys, as well as the development of improved chemical technology, especially materials processing; practical application of the latest achievements of chemistry to industry, construction and other sectors of the economy;

Meteorology and hydrology

Meteorological and hydrological research, including methods of collection, evaluation and transmission of data and their utilization for weather forecasting and hydrology forecasting;

Oceanography
Oceanographic research, including the study of air/sea interactions;
Seismological research

Study and forecasting of earthquakes and associated geological changes; development and research of technology of seism-resisting constructions; Research on glaciology, permafrost and problems of life under conditions of

cold Research on glaciology and permafrost; transportation and construction technologies; human adaptation to climatic extremes and changes in the living conditions of indigenous populations;

Computer, communication and information technologies

Development of computers as well as of telecommunications and information systems; technology associated with computers and telecommunications, including their use for management systems, for production processes, for automation, for the study of economic problems, in scientific research and for the collection, processing and dissemination of information;

Space research

Space exploration and the study of the Earth's natural resources and the natural environment by remote sensing in particular with the assistance of satellites and rocket-probes;

Medicine and public health

Research on cardiovascular, tumor and virus diseases, molecular biology, neurophysiology; development and testing of new drugs; study of contempo rary problems of pediatrics, gerontology and the organization and techniques of medical services;

Environmental research

Research on specific scientific and technological problems related to human environment.

Forms and methods of cooperation

Express their view that scientific and technological cooperation should, in particular, employ the following forms and methods:

exchange and circulation of books, periodicals and other scientific and technological publications and papers among interested organizations, scientific and technological institutions, enterprises and scientists and technologists, as well as participation in international programs for the abstracting and indexing of publications;

-exchanges and visits as well as other direct contacts and communications among scientists and technologists, on the basis of mutual agreement and other arrangements, for such purposes as consultations, lecturing and conducting research, including the use of laboratories, scientific libraries, and other documentation centers in connection therewith;

-holding of international and national conferences, symposia, seminars, courses and other meetings of a scientific and technological character, which would include the participation of foreign scientists and technologists;

-joint preparation and implementation of programs and projects of mutual interest on the basis of consultation and agreement among all parties concerned, including, where possible and appropriate, exchanges of experience and research results, and correlation of research programs, between scientific and technological research institutions and organizations;

-use of commercial channels and methods for identifying and transferring technological and scientific developments, including the conclusion of mutually beneficial cooperation arrangements between firms and enterprises in fields agreed upon between them and for carrying out, where appropriate, joint research and development programs and projects;

consider it desirable that periodic exchanges of views and information take place on scientific policy, in particular on general problems of orientation and administration of research and the question of a better use of large-scale scientific and experimental equipment on a cooperative basis;

recommend that, in developing cooperation in the field of science and technology, full use be made of existing practices of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, including that of a regional or subregional character, together with the forms and methods of cooperation described in this document;

recommend further that more effective utilization be made of the possibilities and capabilities of existing international organizations, intergovernmental and nongovernmental, concerned with science and technology, for improving exchanges of information and experience, as well as for developing other forms of cooperation in fields of common interest, for example:

-in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, study of possibilities for expanding multilateral cooperation, taking into account models for projects and research used in various international organizations; and for sponsoring conferences, symposia, and study and working groups such as those which would bring together younger scientists and technologists with eminent specialists in their field;

-through their participation in particular international scientific and technological cooperation programs, including those of UNESCO and other international organizations, pursuit of continuing progress towards the objectives of such programs, notably those of UNISIST (World Science Information System) with particular respect to information policy guidance, technical advice, information contributions and data processing.

For the full text of the Final Act of the CSCE, see Dept. of State Bulletin, Vol. LXXIII, No. 1888, Sept. 1, 1975, pp. 323–350. For reference to other provisions of the Final Act, see index entries, this Digest, under Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (1975).

Scientific and Technical Cooperation Agreements

U.S.-Republic of China

By an exchange of notes on January 21, 1975 (TIAS 8013; 26 UST 107; entered into force January 23, 1975), the United States and the Republic of China extended for a five-year period a 1969 agreement on scientific and technical cooperation (TIAS 6639; 20 UST 374; entered into force January 23, 1969). The agreement was intended to increase contacts and cooperation between scientists, engineers, scholars, and institutions of research and higher learning of the two countries in a broad range of scientific and technological disciplines. The Republic of China National Scientific Council and the U.S. National Science Foundation are the executive agencies for coordinating implementation of joint programs under the agreement.

U.S.-Israel

The Governments of the United States and Israel, on June 27, 1975, signed an Agreement to design, construct, and operate a prototype desalting plant which would be capable of producing daily 10 million gallons of potable water from seawater (TIAS 8144; 26 UST 1873; entered into force June 27, 1975). Under the Agreement the United States is to provide a grant of $20 million and Israel is to invest about $35 million. The plant is to be constructed near the city of Ashdod located on the Mediterranean coast about 25 miles south of Tel Aviv.

The proposed desalting plant is considered to be a prototype because of the nature of the evaporation process developed by the Israel Desalinization Engineering, Ltd. The Agreement calls for the design, construction, supporting research, testing, operation and maintenance of a dual-purpose power-generating/desalting plant, which is expected to take four and a half years to construct. U.S. and Israeli funds are to help finance the cost of machinery, equipment, materials, services, operation and maintenance. U.S. funds are to be used for purchases in the United States and Israel.

Both countries are to share in the technology derived from the construction and operation of the plant, and to make such technology available to other interested nations, particularly to watershort arid and semiarid lands. Patents and know-how developed from the project are to be made available to private U.S. companies on nonexclusive, nondiscriminatory, reasonable royalty basis for use elsewhere in the world.

Legislative authorization for U.S. participation in the project was provided in $ 219 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, which was added by

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