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nants and to submit, if they so desire, amendments or additions thereto, or further observations thereon,

Considering that it is desirable for each Government to be informed in good time of the views of other Governments and of the specialized agencies concerning the provisions to be included in the draft international covenants on human rights so that it may take due account of these views in determining its own attitude,

Considering that it is desirable that public opinion should continue to express itself freely on the draft international covenants on human rights,

1. Invites:

(a) Governments of States Members and non-members of the United Nations to communicate to the Secretary-General, within six months after the end of the present session of the General Assembly, any amendments or additions to the draft international covenants on human rights or any observations thereon;

(b) The specialized agencies to communicate to the SecretaryGeneral, within six months after the end of the present session, any observations they may wish to make with regard to the draft international covenants on human rights;

(c) The non-governmental organizations concerned with the promotion of human rights, including those in the Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, to stimulate public interest in the draft international covenants on human rights by all possible means in their respective countries;

2. Requests the Secretary-General:

(a) To prepare and distribute to Governments, as early as possible, a concise annotation of the text of the draft international covenants on human rights, taking account of the observations made before and during the ninth session of the General Assembly, including those made in the Economic and Social Council and in the Commission on Human Rights;

(b) To distribute to Governments, as soon as they are received, the communications which may be made by Governments and by the specialized agencies during the next six months;

(c) To prepare as a working paper a compilation of all the amendments and proposed new articles which may be submitted by Governments during that period;

3. Requests the Secretary-General to give the draft international covenants on human rights the widest possible publicity through all the media of information available to him, and within the limits of his budget;

4. Recommends that, during the tenth session of the General Assembly, the Third Committee give priority and devote itself mainly to the discussion, article by article, in an agreed order, of the draft international covenants on human rights with a view to their adoption at the earliest possible date. The discussion shall also cover any new articles which may be proposed.

Non-Self-Governing Territories1

21. EDUCATION FOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF SELF-GOVERNMENT: Resolution 437 (V) of the General Assembly, December 2, 1950 2

The General Assembly,

Considering that the promotion of educational advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories is essential for their progressive development as early as possible towards self-government or independence,

Recognizing that, while notable progress has already been achieved in the educational development of the Trust Territories, considerable efforts are still required in this field,

Considering that the establishment, in so far as is practicable, of comprehensive and long-range plans to achieve such educational development is desirable,

1. Recommends that the Trusteeship Council continue to devote particular attention, in consultation with the Administering Authorities and the specialized agencies, to long-range programmes of educational development in the Trust Territories, with a view to enabling the inhabitants of those Territories to take over the responsibilities of complete self-government at the earliest possible date;

2. Requests that the Trusteeship Council include in its annual reports to the General Assembly its observations on the various long-range educational programmes undertaken in the Trust Territories, and the progress made in respect thereof.

22. CESSATION OF TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION ON PUERTO RICO: Resolution 748 (VIII) of the General Assembly, November 27, 19533

The General Assembly,

Considering that, in resolution 222 (III) of 3 November 1948, the General Assembly, while welcoming any development of self-govern

1 Documentation on the former Japanese Mandated Islands, the Caribbean Commission, and the South Pacific Commission is printed in A Decade of American Foreign Policy, pp. 1025-1057.

General Assembly, Official Records, Fifth Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/1775),

p. 52.

3 General Assembly, Official Records, Eighth Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/2630), pp. 25-26.

United States Participation in the United Nations: Report by the President to the Congress for the Year 1948 on the Activities of the United Nations and the Participation of the United States Therein (Department of State publication 3437; 1949), pp. 212-217.

ment in Non-Self-Governing Territories, considers it essential that the United Nations be informed of any change in the constitutional status of any such Territory as a result of which the government responsible for the transmission, under Article 73e of the Charter, of information in respect of that Territory thinks it unnecessary or inappropriate to continue such a practice,

Having received the communications dated 19 January and 20 March 1953 informing the United Nations of the establishment of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, as a result of the entry into force on 25 July 1952 of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, and stating that, in consequence of these constitutional changes, the Government of the United States of America would cease to transmit information under Article 73e of the Charter,

Having studied the report 2 prepared by the Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories, during its session of 1953, on the question of the cessation of the transmission of information on Puerto Rico, and presented to the General Assembly in conformity with paragraph 2 of resolution 448 (V) of 12 December 1950,3

Having examined the communications of the Government of the United States of America in the light of the basic principles embodied in Chapter XI of the Charter and of all the other elements of judgment pertinent to the issue,

Considering that the agreement reached by the United States of America and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, in forming a political association which respects the individuality and the cultural characteristics of Puerto Rico, maintains the spiritual bonds between Puerto Rico and Latin America and constitutes à link in continental solidarity,

Bearing in mind the competence of the General Assembly to decide whether a Non-Self-Governing Territory has or has not attained a full measure of self-government as referred to in Chapter XI of the Charter,

1. Takes note favourably of the conclusions set forth by the Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories in its resolution; '

2. Recognizes that the people of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, by expressing their will in a free and democratic way, have achieved a new constitutional status;

3. Expresses the opinion that it stems from the documentation provided that the association of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico with the United States of America has been established as a mutually agreed association;

4. Recognizes that, when choosing their constitutional and international status, the people of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have effectively exercised their right to self-determination;

5. Recognizes that, in the framework of their Constitution and of the

1 U.N. doc. A/AC.35/L.121.

2 General Assembly, Official Records, Eighth Session, Supplement No. 15 (A/2465), part I, sec. VII.

3 Ibid., Fifth Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/1775), p. 55. Ibid., Eighth Session, Supplement No. 15 (A/2465), p. 6.

compact agreed upon with the United States of America, the people of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have been invested with attributes of political sovereignty which clearly identify the status of selfgovernment attained by the Puerto Rican people as that of an autonomous political entity;

6. Considers that, due to these circumstances, the Declaration regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories and the provisions established under it in Chapter XI of the Charter can no longer be applied to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico;

7. Takes note of the opinion of the Government of the United States of America as to the cessation of the transmission under Article 73e of the Charter of information on Puerto Rico;

8. Considers it appropriate that the transmission of this information should cease;

9. Expresses its assurance that, in accordance with the spirit of the present resolution, the ideals embodied in the Charter of the United Nations, the traditions of the people of the United States of America and the political advancement attained by the people of Puerto Rico, due regard will be paid to the will of both the Puerto Rican and American peoples in the conduct of their relations under their present legal statute, and also in the eventuality that either of the parties to the mutually agreed association may desire any change in the terms of this association.

23. RIGHT OF PEOPLES AND NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION: Resolution 637 (VII) of the General Assembly, December 16, 1952 1

A

Whereas the right of peoples and nations to self-determination is a prerequisite to the full enjoyment of all fundamental human rights, Whereas the Charter of the United Nations, under Articles 1 and 55, aims to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the equal rights and self-determination of peoples in order to strengthen universal peace,

Whereas the Charter of the United Nations recognizes that certain Members of the United Nations are responsible for the administration of Territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government, and affirms the principles which should guide them,

Whereas every Member of the United Nations, in conformity with the Charter, should respect the maintenance of the right of selfdetermination in other States,

The General Assembly recommends that:

1. The States Members of the United Nations shall uphold the principle of self-determination of all peoples and nations;

1 General Assembly, Official Records, Seventh Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/2361), pp. 26-27.

2. The States Members of the United Nations shall recognize and promote the realization of the right of self-determination of the peoples of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories who are under their administration and shall facilitate the exercise of this right by the peoples of such Territories according to the principles and spirit of the Charter of the United Nations in regard to each Territory and to the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, the wishes of the people being ascertained through plebiscites or other recognized democratic means, preferably under the auspices of the United Nations;

3. The States Members of the United Nations responsible for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories shall take practical steps, pending the realization of the right of self-determination and in preparation thereof, to ensure the direct participation of the indigenous populations in the legislative and executive organs of government of those Territories, and to prepare them for complete self-government or independence.

B

The General Assembly,

Considering that one of the conditions necessary to facilitate United Nations action to promote respect for the right of self-determination of peoples and nations, in particular with regard to the peoples of Non-Self-Governing Territories, is that the competent organs of the United Nations should be in possession of official information on the government of these Territories,

Recalling its resolution 144 (II) of 3 November 1947 in which it declared that the voluntary transmission of such information was entirely in conformity with the spirit of Article 73 of the Charter, and should therefore be encouraged,

Recalling its resolution 327 (IV) of 2 December 1949 2 in which it expressed the hope that such of the Members of the United Nations as had not done so might voluntarily include details on the government of Non-Self-Governing Territories in the information transmitted by them under Article 73e of the Charter,

Considering that at the present time such information has not yet been furnished in respect of a large number of Non-Self-Governing Territories,

1. Recommends States Members of the United Nations responsible for the administration of Non-Self-Governing Territories voluntarily to include in the information transmitted by them' under Article 73e of the Charter details regarding the extent to which the right of peoples and nations to self-determination is exercised by the peoples of those Territories, and in particular regarding their political progress and the measures taken to develop their capacity for self-administration, to satisfy their political aspirations and to promote the progressive development of their free political institutions;

1 General Assembly, Official Records, Second Session, Resolutions (A/519), p. 56. 2 Ibid., Fourth Session, Resolutions (A/1251), p. 41.

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