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1. Decides to initiate a series of studies of specific aspects of human rights on a world-wide basis;
2. Decides that at each session the Commission shall select a specific subject or specific subjects for study, provided that no subject shall be selected which is under consideration by another organ of the United Nations or by the Specialized Agencies.
3. Requests the Secretary-General to appoint as an Expert Adviser, for each subject selected by the Commission for study, a person of high moral standing and of recognized competence in the particular subject, who shall
(a) prepare the study in his own name and under his own responsibility, with such assistance from the Secretariat as he may require, and (b) assist the Commission in its consideration of the study;
4. Authorizes the Expert Advisers, in the preparation of their studies, to have access to the following sources of information:
(a) information transmitted to the United Nations by Member States;
(b) information published by the Specialized Agencies;
(c) information made available by Non-Governmental Organizations having consultative status with the Economic and Social Council; and
(d) all other information in the possession of the Secretary-General, including communications received by the United Nations concerning human rights, subject to paragraphs (a) and (b) of Resolution 75 (V) of the Economic and Social Council, as amended, concerning the identity of communications; and
5. Recommends that the Economic and Social Council
(a) make suitable arrangements with the Specialized Agencies to cooperate in carrying out this resolution and to avoid duplication of effort; and
(b) adopt the following draft resolution:
"The Economic and Social Council
1. Approves the decisions of the Commission on Human Rights concerning the initiation of studies of specific aspects of human rights; and
2. Amends Resolution 75 (V),' as amended, to authorize the Expert Advisers to have access to the communications in the possession of the Secretary-General for the purpose of taking them into account in preparing these studies."
1 Resolution of Aug. 5, 1947; Resolutions Adopted by the Economic and Social Council During Its Fifth Session from 19 July to 16 August 1947 (E/573), p. 20.
DRAFT RESOLUTION ON ADVISORY SERVICES
U.N. doc. E/CN.4/L.267/Rev. 1
The Commission on Human Rights
Considering that by Articles 55 and 56 of the United Nations Charter the Members of the United Nations have pledged themselves to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion;
Recognizing that advisory services, by the international interchange of technical knowledge through international co-operation among countries, represents an effective means for the promotion of the human rights objectives of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
Taking note of Resolution 633 (VII) of the General Assembly which requests the Secretary-General to elaborate a programme of action for the development of domestic information in under-developed countries;
Taking note of the proposals on technical assistance made by the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities (E/CN.4/670, Annex I, Resolution K) and the Commission on the Status of Women (E/CN.6/L.106/Rev. 1); and
Taking account of the arrangements previously established by the General Assembly concerning the regular technical assistance programme and the advisory services of the United Nations (Resolutions 200 (III), 305 (IV),3 and 418 (V));*
Considering that the Specialized Agencies, within their competence and by virtue of their regular programmes and their special programmes of technical assistance, are already rendering important services to their Members with a view to ensuring the effective observance of human rights;
Recommends that the Economic and Social Council request the General Assembly to adopt the following resolutions:
"The General Assembly
A. Authorizes the Secretary-General:
1. Subject to the directions of the Economic and Social Council, to make provision for the following services, with the co-operation of the Specialized Agencies where appropriate and without duplication of their existing services, and in consultation with non-governmental
1 Resolution of Dec. 16, 1952; General Assembly, Official Records, Seventh Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/2361), pp. 24-25.
2 Resolution of Dec. 4, 1948; ibid., Third Session, Part I, Resolutions (A/810), pp. 38-40.
3 Resolution of Nov. 16, 1949; ibid., Fourth Session, Resolutions (A/1251), p. 27. Resolution of Dec. 1, 1950; ibid., Fifth Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/1775), pp. 40-41.
organizations having consultative status, the subjects listed in paragraph E below:
(a) To appoint experts to provide advisory services at the request of Governments which show the need for them;
(b) To enable suitably qualified persons to observe, and familiarize themselves with, the experience and practice of other countries; (c) To enable suitably qualified persons who cannot receive professional training in their country to receive appropriate training in foreign countries having the necessary facilities for such training; and
(d) To plan and conduct seminars; and
2. To include in his budgetary estimates of the United Nations the sums necessary for carrying out an effective operational programme based on the provision of the above services;
B. Requests the Secretary-General to undertake the performance of the services as provided in A.1 above, in agreement with the Governments concerned, on the basis of requests received from Governments and in accordance with the following policies:
1. The kind of service to be rendered to each country under A.1 (a) shall be acceptable to the Government concerned and shall be determined in consultation with that Government;
2. The selection of the persons under A.1 (b) and (c) shall be made by the Secretary-General on the basis of proposals received from Governments, which shall indicate their preferences with regard to host countries, and shall be acceptable to the host countries; and
3. The amount of services and the conditions under which they are to be rendered shall be decided by the Secretary-General with due regard to the greater needs of the under-developed areas and in conformity with the principle that each requesting Government shall be expected to assume responsibility, as far as possible, for all or a considerable part of the expenses connected with the services furnished to it, either by making a contribution in cash, or in the form of services for the purposes of the programme being carried out;
C. Requests the Secretary-General to report regularly to the Commission on Human Rights and as appropriate to the Commission on the Status of Women on the measures which he takes in compliance with the terms of this resolution, and to request these Commissions to formulate recommendations from time to time concerning the continued action required to carry on these advisory services;
D. Recommends that the Specialized Agencies continue to develop their technical assistance services with a view to aiding Members to assure the effective observance of human rights;
E. Selects the following as subjects to which the above advisory services would be applicable:
(a) Improvement of administrative and judicial procedures;
(b) Establishment and improvement of techniques of mass informa tion media, including such facilities as news agencies;
(c) Prerequisites for increased participation in government, including voting and public office;
(d) Increased participation in national and community civic affairs, especially for women recently granted the vote;
(e) Abolishing slavery and institutions and practices akin thereto; (f) Legislative and other measures for the prevention of discrimination and the protection of minorities; and
(g) Establishment of non-governmental and governmental bodies for the protection of civil rights;
F. Invites the Specialized Agencies to communicate to the Economic and Social Council, for transmission to the Commission on Human Rights, any observations which they might find appropriate on the above services and on any new measures of assistance which they may deem necessary with a view to assisting Members in ensuring the effective observance of human rights; and
G. Urges international and national non-governmental organizations, universities, philanthropic foundations, and other private groups to supplement this United Nations programme with similar programmes designed to further research and studies, the exchange of information, and assistance in the field of human rights."
19. RESOLUTION 739 (VIII) OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, NOVEMBER 28, 1953 1
The General Assembly,
Considering that, under Articles 55 and 56 of the Charter, the Members of the United Nations have pledged themselves to take joint and separate action to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Desiring to advance as rapidly as possible respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms and to stimulate Member States to press forward toward attaining the goals set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
Noting that the Commission on Human Rights, at its ninth session, considered three draft resolutions concerning the development of the work of the United Nations for wider observance of, and respect for, human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout the world, Noting that the Economic and Social Council, in resolution 501 C (XVI) of 3 August 1953,3 requested Member States and specialized agencies to submit their comments on the draft resolutions and the amendments thereto to the Secretary-General in so far as possible by 1 October 1953,
1 General Assembly, Official Records, Eighth Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/2630),
3 Economic and Social Council, Official Records, Sixteenth Session, Supplement No. 1 (E/2508), pp. 11 ff.
Requests the Economic and Social Council to ask the Commission on Human Rights:
(a) To consider, at its tenth session, the three draft resolutions concerning the development of the work of the United Nations for wider observance of, and respect for, human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout the world, and to prepare, if possible, to supplement the provisions of the Covenants on Human Rights, recommendations thereon, in order that these recommendations may be considered by the Economic and Social Council at its eighteenth session;
(b) To take account, at its tenth session, of the comments made by Member States and specialized agencies and of the views expressed on this subject at the eighth session of the General Assembly.'
20. RESOLUTION 833 (IX) OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, DECEMBER 4, 1954 2
The General Assembly,
Taking note of the draft international covenants on human rights prepared by the Commission on Human Rights and transmitted by the Economic and Social Council and expressing its gratitude to that Commission for the work accomplished,
Having considered these draft international covenants on human rights at its ninth session,
Reaffirming that it is important that these draft international covenants should be adopted in their final form as soon as possible,
Considering that it is desirable to give Governments of States Members and non-members of the United Nations and the specialized agencies time to make a full study of these draft international cove
1 The U.S. Representative presented the three draft resolutions in revised form to the tenth session of the commission. After short debate, they were placed on the agenda of the eleventh session (1955), where they were discussed in at least four meetings, along with further revisions proposed by the United States. For observations on the resolutions and actions by the commission, see Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Eleventh Session, op. cit., pp. 22-28.
General Assembly, Official Records, Ninth Session, Supplement No. 21 (A/2890),
The "Draft International Covenants" were seriously considered at the ninth (1953) and tenth (1954) sessions of the Commission on Human Rights. The eleventh session (1955) was devoted largely to the study of specific aspects of human rights. The Third Committee of the General Assembly, however, gave some attention to an article-by-article consideration of the "drafts," along with the human rights "action program" proposed by the United States in 1953 (see supra, docs. 16 and 17). On Dec. 14, 1955, the General Assembly in plenary session decided "to continue its consideration of the draft International Covenants on Human Rights at its eleventh (1956) session." See Economic and Social Council, Official Records, Sixteenth Session, Supplement No. 8 (E/2447); Eighteenth Session, Supplement No. 7 (E/2573); Twentieth Session, Supplement No. 6 (E/2731 and Corr. 1); and General Assembly, Official Records, Tenth Session, Supplement No. 19 (A/3116), p. 15.
3 Supra, pp. 204–227.
'See Economic and Social Council Res. 545 B (XVIII).