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2. The steps to be taken by a State Party to this Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include programmes, policies, and techniques to achieve steady economic development and full productive employment under conditions safeguarding fundamental political and economic freedoms to the individual.

Article 7

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right of everyone to just and favourable conditions of work, including:

(a) Safe and healthy working conditions;

(b) Remuneration which provides all workers as a minimum with:

(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular, women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work; and

(ii) A decent living for themselves and their families; and (c) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 8

The States Parties to the Covenant undertake to ensure the free exercise of the right of everyone to form and join local, national and international trade unions of his choice for the protection of his economic and social interests.

Article 9

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security.

Article 10

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize that:

1. Special protection should be accorded to motherhood and particularly to maternity during reasonable periods before and after childbirth; and

2. Special measures of protection, to be applied in all appropriate cases within and with the help of the family, should be taken on behalf of children and young persons, and in particular they should not be required to do work likely to hamper their normal development. To protect children from exploitation, the unlawful use of child labour and the employment of young persons in work harmful to health or dangerous to life should be made legally actionable; and

3. The family, which is the basis of society, is entitled to the widest possible protection. It is based on marriage, which must be entered into with the free consent of the intending spouses.

Article 11

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right of everyone to adequate food, clothing and housing.

Article 12

The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living and the continuous improvement of living conditions.

Article 13

The States Parties to the Covenant, realizing that health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest standard of health.

The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for:

(a) The reduction of infant mortality and the provision for healthy development of the child;

(b) The improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic and working conditions and other aspects of environmental hygiene;

(c) The prevention, treatment and control of epidemic, endemic and other diseases;

(d) The creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.

Article 14

1. The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education, and recognize that education shall encourage the full development of the human personality, the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and the suppression of all incitement to racial and other hatred. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial, ethnic or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace and enable all persons to participate effectively in a free society.

2. It is understood:

(a) That primary education shall be compulsory and available free to all;

(b) That secondary education, in its different forms, including technical and professional secondary education, shall be generally available and shall be made progressively free;

(c) That higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit and shall be made progressively free;

(d) That fundamental education for those persons who have not received or completed the whole period of their primary education shall be encouraged as far as possible.

3. In the exercise of any functions which they assume in the field of education, the States Parties to the Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to choose for their children schools other than those established by

the public authorities which conform to such minimum educational standards as may be laid down or approved by the State and to ensure the religious education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

Article 15

Each State Party to the Covenant which, at the time of becoming a party to this Covenant, has not been able to secure in its metropolitan territory or other territories under its jurisdiction compulsory primary education, free of charge, undertakes, within two years, to work out and adopt a detailed plan of action for the progressive implementation, within a reasonable number of years, to be fixed in the plan, of the principle of compulsory primary education free of charge. for all.

Article 16

1. The States Parties to the Covenant recognize the right of

everyone:

(a) To take part in cultural life;

(b) To enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications.

2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to this Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for the conservation, the development and the diffusion of science. and culture.

3. The States Parties to the Covenant undertake to respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research and creative activity.

PART IV REPORTING PROCEDURE]

[Part IV was initially drafted by the Commission on Human Rights at its 1951 Session and was not considered at its 1952 Session because of the lack of sufficient time to do so. The renumbering of the articles of Parts IV and V is not official, but has been done for the convenience of the reader. The Commission has not as yet decided whether the procedure set forth in this Part IV should also be applicable to civil and political rights. Sentiment at the 1951 Session of the Commission was divided on this issue. This procedure was, however, initially drafted by the Commission with respect to the economic, social and cultural rights in this Covenant. For this reason this procedure is included only in this Covenant.]

Article 17
[formerly Article 60]

The States Parties to this Covenant undertake to submit reports concerning the progress made in achieving the observance of these rights in conformity with the following articles and the recommendations which the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, in the exercise of their general responsibility, may make to all the Members of the United Nations.

Article 18
[formerly Article 61]

1. The States Parties shall furnish their reports in stages, in accordance with a programme to be established by the Economic and Social Council after consultation with the States Parties to this Covenant and the specialized agencies concerned.

2. Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affecting the degree of fulfilment of obligations under this part of the Covenant.

3. Where relevant information has already previously been furnished to the United Nations or to any specialized agency, the action required by this Article may take the form of a precise reference to the information so furnished.

Article 19

[formerly Article 62]

Pursuant to its responsibilities under the Charter in the field of human rights, the Economic and Social Council shall make special arrangements with the specialized agencies in respect of their reporting to it on the progress made in achieving the observance of the provisions of this Part of the Covenant falling within their competence. These reports shall include particulars of decisions and recommendations on such implementation adopted by their competent organs.

Article 20
[formerly Article 63]

The Economic and Social Council shall transmit to the Commission on Human Rights for study and recommendation the reports concerning human rights submitted by States, and those concerning human rights submitted by the competent specialized agencies.

Article 21

[formerly Article 64]

The States Parties directly concerned and the specialized agencies may submit comments to the Economic and Social Council on the report of the Commission on Human Rights.

Article 22

[formerly Article 65]

The Economic and Social Council may submit from time to time to the General Assembly, with its own reports, reports summarizing the information made available by the States Parties to the Covenant directly to the Secretary-General and by the specialized agencies under Article... indicating the progress made in achieving general observance of these rights.

Article 23
[formerly Article 66]

The Economic and Social Council may submit to the Technical Assistance Board' or to any other appropriate international organ the findings contained in the report of the Commission on Human Rights which may assist such organs in deciding each within its competence, on the advisability of international measures likely to contribute to the progressive implementation of this Covenant.

Article 24
[formerly Article 67]

The States Parties to the Covenant agree that international action. for the achievement of these rights includes such methods as conventions, recommendations, technical assistance, regional and technical meetings and studies with governments.

Article 25

[formerly Article 68]

Unless otherwise decided by the Commission on Human Rights or by the Economic and Social Council or requested by the State directly concerned, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall arrange for the publication of the report of the Commission on Human Rights, or reports presented to the Council by specialized agencies as well as of all decisions and recommendations reached by the Economic and Social Council.

Article 26
[formerly Article 69]

Nothing in this Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the Constitutions of the specialized agencies, which define the respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in this Covenant.

PART V

Article 27

[Territories Application Article]

[This article was adopted by the General Assembly at its 1950 Session and revised only slightly by the Commission on Human Rights at its 1951 Session.]

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to or be applicable equally to a signatory metropolitan State and to all the territories, be they Non-Self-Governing, Trust, or Colonial Territories, which are being administered or governed by such metropolitan State.

1 Set up by the Economic and Social Council in its Res. 222 (IX), adopted Aug. 15, 1949 (E/1546) to coordinate the work of the specialized agencies in the U. N. Technical Assistance Program.

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