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the Tertiary, as a whole, was of a generalised character; forms now confined to the southern and northern hemispheres respectively being then common to both. It would thus seem that the present geographical diversities mast have largely arisen from the great changes in climate and distribution of land and water in the later Tertiary.

The length of our discussion of the early angiospermous flora does not permit us to trace it in detail through the Miocene and Pliocene, but we may notice the connection through these in the next chapter, and may refer to the magnificent publications of Heer and Lesquereux on the Tertiary floras of Europe and America respectively.

CHAPTER VII.

PLANTS FROM THE TERTIARY TO THE MODERN PERIOD.

It may be well to begin this chapter with a sketch of the general physical and geological conditions of the period which was characterised by the advent and culmination of the dicotyledonous trees,

In the Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous periods the prevalence, over the whole of the northern hemisphere and for a long time, of a monotonous assemblage of gymnospermous and acrogenous plants, implies a uniform and mild climate, and facility for intercommunication in the north. Toward the end of the Jurassic and beginning of the Cretaceous, the land of the northern hemisphere was assuming greater dimensions, and the climate probably becoming a little less uniform. Before the close of the Lower Cretaceous period the dicotyledonous flora seems to have been introduced, under geographical conditions which permitted a warm temperate climate to extend as far north as Greenland.

In the Cenomanian or Middle Cretaceous age we find the northern hemisphere tenanted with dicotyledonous trees closely allied to those of modern times, though still indicating a climate much warmer than that which at present prevails. In this age, extensive but gradual submergence of land is indicated by the prevalence of chalk and marine limestones over the surface of both continents; but a circumpolar belt seems to have been maintained, protecting the Atlantic and Pacific basins from floating ice, and permitting a temperate flora of great richness to prevail far to the north, and especially along the southern margins and extensions of the circumpolar land. These seem to have been the physical conditions which terminated the existence of the old Mesozoic flora and introduced that of the Middle Cretaceous.

As time advanced the quantity of land gradually increased, and the extension of new plains along the older ridges of land was coincident with the deposition of the great Laramie series, and with the origination of its peculiar flora, which indicates a mild climate and considerable variety of station in mountain, plain, and swamp, as well as in great sheets of shallow and weedy fresh water.

In the Eocene and Miocene periods, the continents gradually assumed their present form, and the vegetation became still more modern in aspect. In that period of the Eocene, however, in which the great nummulitic limestones were deposited, a submergence of land occurred on the eastern continent which must have assimilated its physical conditions to those of the Middle Cretaceous. This great change, affecting materially the flora of Europe, was not equally great in America, which also by the north and south extension of its mountain-chains

permitted movements of migration not possible in the Old World. From the Eocene downward, the remains of land-animals and plants are found chiefly in lake-basins occupying the existing depressions of the land, though more extensive than those now remaining. It must also be borne in mind that the great foldings and fractures of the crust of the earth which occurred at the close of the Eocene, and to which the final elevation of such ranges as the Alps and the Rocky Mountains belongs, permanently modified and moulded the forms of the continents.

These statements raise, however, questions as to the precise equivalence in time of similar floras found in dif

ferent latitudes. However equable the climate, there must have been some appreciable difference in proceeding from north to south. If, therefore, as seems in every way probable, the new species of plants originated on the Arctic land and spread themselves southward, this latter process would occur most naturally in times of gradual refrigeration or of the access of a more extreme climate—that is, in times of the elevation of land in the temperate latitudes, or, conversely, of local depression of land in the Arctic, leading to invasions of northern ice. Hence, the times of the prevalence of particular types of plants in the far north would precede those of their extension to the south, and a flora found fossil in Greenland might be supposed to be somewhat older than a similar flora when found farther south. It would seem, however, that the time required for the extension of a new flora to its extreme geographical limit is so small, in comparison with the duration of an entire geological period, that, practically, this difference is of little moment, or at least does not amount to antedating the Arctic flora of a particular type by a whole period, but only by a fraction of such period.

It does not appear that, during the whole of the Cretaceous and Eocene periods, there is any evidence of such refrigeration as seriously to interfere with the flora, but perhaps the times of most considerable warmth are those of the Dunvegan group in the Middle Cretaceous, and those of the later Laramie and oldest Eocene.

It would appear that no cause for the mild temperature of the Cretaceous needs to be invoked, other than those mutations of land and water which the geological deposits themselves indicate. A condition, for example, of the Atlantic basin in which the high land of Greenland should be reduced in elevation, and at the same time the northern inlets of the Atlantic closed against the invasion of Arctic ice, would at once restore climatic conditions allowing of the growth of a temperate flora in Greenland. As Dr. Brown has shown,* and as I have elsewhere argued, the absence of light in the Arctic winter is no disadvantage, since, during the winter, the growth of deciduous trees is in any case suspended ; while the constant continuance of light in the summer is, on the contrary, a very great stimulus and advantage.

It is a remarkable phenomenon in the history of genera of plants in the later Mesozoic and Tertiary, that the older genera appear at once in a great number of specific types, which become reduced as well as limited in range down to the modern. This is, no doubt, connected with the greater differentiation of local conditions in the modern; but it indicates also a law of rapid multiplication of species in the early life of genera. The distribution of the species of Salisburia, Sequoia, Platanus, Sassafras, Liriodendron, Magnolia, and many other genera, affords remarkable proofs of this.

Gray, Saporta, Heer, Newberry, Lesquereux, and Starkie Gardner have all ably discussed these points ; but the continual increase of our knowledge of the several floras, and the removal of error as to the dates of their appearance, must greatly conduce to clearer and more definite ideas. In particular, the prevailing opinion that the Miocene was the period of the greatest extension of warmth and of a temperate flora into the Arctic, must be abandoned in favour of the later Cretaceous and Eocene; and, if I mistake not, this will be found to accord better with the evidence of general geology and of animal fossils.

In these various revolutions of the later Cretaceous and Kainozoic periods, America, as Dr. Gray has well pointed out, has had the advantage of a continuous stretch of high land from north to south, affording a more sure

* “ Florula Discoana."

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