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continued vitality of the bark is shown by the occasional production of lateral strobiles on large branches, in the manner of the modern red pine of America. In other species the areoles neither increase in size nor become regularly separated by growth of the intervening bark; but in old stems the bark splits into deep furrows, between which may be seen portions of bark still retaining the areoles in their original dimensions and arrangement. This is the case with L. Pictoense. This cracking of the bark no doubt occurs in very old trunks of the first two types, but not at all to the same extent.
As a type of Lepidodendron, I may describe one of the oldest Carboniferous species characteristic of the Lower Carboniferous in America, and corresponding to L. Veltheimianum of Europe.
LEPIDODENDRON CORRUGATUM, Dawson.—(See Fig. 43, supra.) Quarterly Journal of Geological Society,” vol. xv.; “ Acadian Geology,” page 451.
Habit of Growth.-Somewhat slender, with long branches and long, slender leaves having a tendency to become horizontal or drooping.
Markings of Stem.—Leaf-bases disposed in quincunx or spirally, elongate, ovate, acute at both ends, but more acute and slightly oblique at the lower end; most prominent in the upper third, and with a slight vertical ridge. Leaf-scars small, rounded, and showing only a single punctiform vascular scar. The leaf-scar on the outer surface is in the upper third of the base; but the obliquity of the vascular bundle causes it to be nearly central on the inside of the epidermis. In young succulent shoots the leaf-scars are contiguous and round as in Cyclostigma, without distinct leaf-bases. In this state it closely resembles L. Olivieri, Eichwald.*
In the ordinary young branches the leaf-scars are contiguous, and closely resemble those of L. elegans, Brongt. (Fig. 43 C). As the branches increase in diameter the leaf-scars slightly enlarge and sometimes assume a verticillate appearance (Fig. 43 D). As they still further enlarge they become separated by gradually increasing spaces of bark, marked with many waving striæ or wrinkles (Fig. 43 I, N). At the base of old stems the bark assumes a generally wrinkled appearance without distinct scars.
Knorria or Decorticated States.—Of these there is a great variety, depending on the state of preservation, and the particular longitudinal ridges. Fig. 43 D shows a form in which the vascular bundles appear as cylindrical truncate projections. Other forms show
* Lethæa Rossica, Plate Y, Figs. 12, 13.
the leaf-bases prominent, or have an appearance of longitudinal ribbing produced by the expansion of the bark.
Structure of Stem.—This is not perfectly preserved in any of my specimens, but one flattened specimen shows a central medulla with a narrow ring of scalariform vessels surrounding it, and constituting the woody axis. The structure is thus similar to that of L. Harcourtii, which I regard as probably the same with the closely allied European species L. Veltheimianum.
Leaves.—These are narrow, one-nerved, curving somewhat rapidly outward (Figs. 43, B, C, D). They vary from one to two inches in length.
Roots.—I have not seen these actually attached, but they occur very abundantly in the underclays of some erect forests of these plants at Horton Bluff, and are of the character of Stigmaric (Figs. 30, 31). In some of the underclays the long, flattened rootlets are excessively abundant, and show the mark of a central vascular bundle.
Fructification.-Cones terminal, short, with many small, acute imbricate scales. Spore-cases globular, smooth (Fig. 43 C). On the surface of some shales and sandstones at Horton there are innumerable round spore-cases of this tree about the size of mustard-seed (Fig. 43 F). Large slabs are sometimes covered with these, and thin layers of shale are filled with flattened specimens.
This is the characteristic species of the Lower Carboniferous coalmeasures, occurring in great profusion at Horton Bluff and its vicinity, also at Sneid's Mills near Windsor, Noel and Five-Mile River, at Norton Creek and elsewhere in New Brunswick (Matthew's collection), and at Antigonish (Honeyman's collection).
I have received from the lowest Carboniferous beds of Ohio specimens of this species.* According to Rogers and Lesquereux similar forms occur in the Vespertine of Pennsylvania and in the Lower Carboniferous of Illinois. L. Veltheimianum of western Europe and L. glincanum of Russia are closely allied Lower Carboniferous species.t
A very different type is furnished by a new species from the middle coal-formation of Clifton, New Brunswick.
LEPIDODENDRON CLIFTONENSE, Dawson. — Habit of Growth.Robust, with thick branches, and leaves several inches in length. Terminal branches becoming slender, with shorter leaves.
*“ Journal of Geological Society," November, 1862, p. 313.
For comparisons of these see “Report on Plants of Lower Carboniferous of Canada," p. 21.
Markings of Stem.—Leaf-bases long oval, pointed at ends, enlarging with growth of stem. Leaf-scars central, rhombic, trans
Leaves.-One-nerved, acutely pointed, from four inches in length on the larger branches to one inch or less on the branchlets.
Fructification.—Cones large, cylindrical or long oval, with large scales of trigonal form, and not elongated but lying close to the surface. Borne on lateral, slender branchlets, with short leaves.
Genus LEPIDOPHLOIOS, Sternberg; ULODENDRON, L. and H. ;
LOMATOPHLOIOS, Corda. Lepidophloios.—Under this generic name, established by Sternberg, I include those lycopodiaceous trees of the coal-measures which have thick branches, transversely elongated leaf-scars, each with three vascular points and placed on elevated or scale-like protuberances, long one-nerved leaves, and large lateral strobiles in vertical rows or spirally disposed. Their structure resembles that of Lepidodendron, consisting of a Sternbergia pith, a slender axis of large scalariform vessels, giving off from its surface bundles of smaller vessels to the leaves, a very thick cellular bark, and a thin dense outer bark, having some elongated cells or bast-tissue on its inner side. In these trees the exogenous outer cylinder is less developed than in the Lepidodendra, and is sometimes wanting in stems or branches of some thickness.
Regarding L. laricinum of Sternberg as the type of the genus, and taking in connection with this the species described by Goldenberg, and my own observations on numerous specimens found in Nova Scotia, I have no doubt that Lomatophloios crassicaulis of Corda, and other species of that genus described by Goldenberg, Ulodendron and Bothrodendron of Lindley, Lepidodendron ornatissimum of Brongniart, and Halonia punctata of Geinitz, all belong to this genus, and differ from each other only in conditions of growth and preservation. Several of the species of Lepidostrobus and Lepidophyllum also belong to Lepidophloios.
The species of Lepidophloios are readily distinguished from Lepidodendron by the form of the areoles, and by the round scars on the stem, which usually mark the insertion of the large strobiles, though in barren stems they may also have produced branches; still, the fact of my finding the strobiles in situ in one instance, the accurate resemblance which the scars bear to those left by the cones of the red pine when borne on thick branches, and the actual impressions of the radiating scales in some specimens, leave no doubt in my mind that they are usually the marks of cones; and the great size of the cones of Lepidophloios accords with this conclusion.
The species of Lepidophloios are numerous, and individuals are quite abundant in the coal formation, especially toward its upper part. Their flattened bark is frequent in the coal-beds and their roofs, affording a thin layer of pure coal, which sometimes shows the peculiar laminated or scaly character of the bark when other characters are almost entirely obliterated. The leaves also are nearly as abundant as those of Sigillaria in the coal-shales. They can readily be distinguished by their strong, angular mid-rib.
The markings of Lepidophloios may easily be mistaken for those of the Clathraria type of Sigillaria. When the stem only is seen, they can be distinguished by the length of the leaf-bases in Lepidophloios, and by the dominant central vascular scar; also by the one-nerved and ribbed leaves. Where the large, round marks of the cones are present, these are an infallible guide, never being present in Sigillaria. As the cones grew on the upper sides of the branches, the impression of the lower side often shows no cone-scars, or only two lateral rows, whereas on the upper side of the same branch they appear spirally arranged. I may describe as an example
Lepidophloios Acadianus, Dawson. Leaf-bases broadly rhombic, or in old stems regularly rhombic, prominent, ascending, terminated by very broad rhombic scars having a central point and two lateral obscure points. Outer bark laminated or scaly. Surface of inner bark with single points or depressions. Leaves long, linear, with a strong keel on one side, five inches or more in length. Conescars sparsely scattered on thick branches, either in two rows or spirally, both modes being sometimes seen on the same branch. Scalariform axis scarcely an inch in diameter in a stem five inches thick. Fruit, an ovate strobile with numerous acute scales covering small globular spore-cases. This species is closely allied to Ulodendron majus and Lepidophloios laricinus, and presents numerous varieties of marking. Coal-formation, Nova Scotia.
Family CALAMITEÆ; Genus CALAMITES, Suckow. The plants of this genus are unquestionably allied to the modern Equisetaceæ, but excel these so much in variety of form and structure, and are so capricious in their states of preservation, and so liable to be mistaken for parts of plants generically different, that they have given rise to much controversy. The following considerations will enable us to arrive at some certainty.
The genus Calamites was originally founded in the longitudinally ribbed and jointed stems so frequent in the coal-formation, and of which the common C. Suckovii is a typical form. The most perfect of these stems represent the outer surface immediately within the epidermis, in which case transverse lines or constrictions mark the nodes, and at the nodes there are rounded spots, sometimes indicating radial processes of the pith, first described by Williamson ; in other cases, the attachment of branchlets, or in some specimens both. But some specimens show the outer surface of the epidermis, in which case the transverse nodal lines are usually invisible, though the scars of branchlets may appear. In still other examples the whole of the outer tissues have perished, and the socalled Calamite is a cast of the interior of the stem, showing merely longitudinal ribbing and transverse nodal constrictions. In studying these plants in situ in the erect Calamite brakes of the coalformation of Nova Scotia, one soon becomes familiar with these appearances, but they are evidently unknown to the majority of palæobotanists, though described in detail more than twenty years ago.
When the outer surface is preserved it is sometimes seen to bear verticils of long needle-like leaves (C. Cistii), or of branchlets with secondary whorls of similar leaves (C. Suckovii and C. undulatus). No Calamite known to me bears broad one-nerved leaves like those of Asterophyllites and Annularia, though the larger stems of these plants have been described as Calamites, and the term Calamocladus has been used to include both groups. The base of the Calamite stem usually terminates in a blunt point, and may be attached to a rhizome, or several stems may bud out from each other in a group or stool. The roots are long and cylindrical, sometimes branching. The fruit consists of spikes of spore-cases, borne in whorls and subtended by linear floral leaves. To these strobiles the name Calamostachys has been given.
Williamson has shown that the stem of Calamites consists of a central pith or cavity of large size surrounded by a cylinder consisting of alternate wedges of woody and cellular matter, with vertical canals at the inner sides of the wedges, and slender medullary rays. The thick cellular wedges intervening between the woody wedges he calls primary medullary rays; the smaller medullary rays in the wedges, secondary medullary rays. There is thus a highly complex exogenous stem based on the same principle with the stem of a common Equisetum, but with much greater strength and complexity.
Williamson has also shown that there are different sub-types of these stems. More especially he refers to the three following: