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ously for the former, who was obliged to submit of his countrymen in Italy, and made a distinct in 943. In 961 Olho the Great, emperor of province of the western part of Puglia, which he Germany, invaded Italy with a powerful army called Capitanata. His great progress at last against Berengarius III., and, marching to alarmed the emperor of Germany; and, in 1027, Rome, received the imperial crown from the Pandulphus, prince of Capua, made himself hands of the pope. In 964 he erected Capua master of Naples; but was obliged to leave it in into a principality, and received homage from 1030, by the Normans, who built the city of the other princes of Lombardy. After various Aversa, which was erected into a county. In hostilities a treaty was concluded, and the young consequence of this good fortune, great numbers princess Theophania married to Otho's son, af- of Norman adventurers migrated into Italy ; terwards emperor. All this time the Saracens among whom were William, Drogo, and Umbert, continued their incursions, and the Greeks had three sons of Tancred, duke of Hauteville; from gained ground so much, that they were now in whose posterity those princes were descended, possession of two-thirds of the kingdom of Na- who conquered the island of Sicily from the Saples; but in 1002 or 1003, the Normans be- racens, and thus completed the present kingdom gan to be remarkable in Italy. They had, about of Naples. a century before, embraced Christianity, and In 1040 the Greek emperor Michael Paleolobecome very zealous in all the superstitions then gus, to secure the affection of his fickle subjects, practised. They were particularly zealous in vi- undertook the conquest of Italy from the Sarasiting sacred places, especially Rome, and the cens, and for that purpose sent a general named holy sepulchre at Jerusalem; and, being of a Michael Maniacus into Sicily. This commander, very martial disposition, they forced through hearing of the great reputation of the Normans, great bodies of Greeks and Saracens who opposed sent to Guimarius, prince of Salerno, intreating their passage. About this time 100 of these him to grant him some of those warriors. The Normans, returning from Jerusalem by sea, prince, to encourage the Normans to engage in landed at Salerno, in the habit of pilgrims, the expedition, promised them some additional where they were honorably received hy' Guima- rewards besides the emperor's pay. William, rius. During their residence at Salerno, a great Drogo, and Umbert, accordingly marched from body of Saracens landed, and invested the city. Salerno with 300 of their countrymen; and, Guimarius, not being in a condition to oppose passing over into Sicily, distinguished themselves the invaders by force, was preparing to pay them remarkably in the conquest of that island. Maa large sum of money, when the Normans pro- niacus acknowledged that the recovery of Mesposed to attack them; and, having got arms and sina was chiefly owing to their valor ; and horses, they engaged the infidels with such bra- William, with his Normans, gained a complete very, that they entirely defeated them, and victory over the Saracens before Syracuse, where obliged them to fly to their ships. By this vic- he killed the governor in single combat. Manitory Guimarius was filled with such admiration acus made himself master of Syracuse, and of the valor of these strangers, that he entreated almost entirely reduced the whole island; but, them to remain in his country; offering them being accused of treason, was next year carrie i lands and the most honorable employments; prisoner to Constantinople. His successor Dobut not being able to prevail with them to stay ceanus quickly lost the whole island except in Italy, or even accept of his presents, at their Messina, and treated his Norman auxiliaries departure he sent home ambassadors with them with the utinost contempt. He would not allow 10 Normandy, in vessels loaded with exquisite them any share of the booty; and even caused fruits, rich furniture for horses, &c., to allure one Ardoin, a noble Lombard, an associate and others of the valiant Normans 10 Italy. This interpreter of the Normans, to be whipped round encouraged a Norman chief, named Osmond the camp, because he had refused to part with Drengot, to settle in Italy, about 1015. In the the horse of a Saracen whom he had slain in mean time the city of Bari had revolted from the single combat. The consequences of this tyranGreeks, and chosen one Mello for their leader, nical behaviour were fatal to the Greeks. Ardoin whose wife and children happened soon after tó soon after obtained leave to return to Italy, fall into the hands of their enemies, and were sent under pretence of a vow, and all the Normans prisoners to Constantinople. No sooner, therefore, embarked at night along with him; but, instead did Mello hear of the arrival of these adventurers, of going to Rome, Ardoin went immediately to thau he engaged them to assist him; and, having Aversa, where he persuaded count Rainulphus, drawn together a considerable army, defeated the sovereign of that province, to join with him in Greeks with great slaughter, and obliged them attacking the Greek provinces in Italy. Rainulto abandon their camp. In this engagement the phus approved of the scheme, and raised 300 Normans distinguished themselves, and the news soldiers, whom he sent under twelve officers, to of their success soon brought from Normandy join the other Normans under the sons of Tanan innumerable multitude of their countrymen, cred; and made an agreement with Ardoin that with their wives and children. By this rein- the conquests should be equally divided among forcement, Mello gained two other victories, the chief leaders. Their first enterprise was the took many towns, and obliged the Greeks to reduction of Melfis, one of the strongest cities abandon a large territory ; but, in 1019, they in Puglia, which surrendered ; and they increased were utterly defeated, and every thing recovered its fortifications so much, that it became impregby the Greeks. The Greek general Bajanus, nable. Soon after this tney took Venosa, Ascoli, continued to go on with such surprising success, and Lavello, with little opposition. Doceanus, that he almost entirely re-established the affairs alarmed at the rapidity of their conquests, imVol. XV.- Part 2.

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mediately left Sicily, and marched with his army quence of the respec. showed him by the Norinto Puglia, where he attacked the invaders near mans, granted thein all the conquests they had the river Oliviento; but, after a fierce engage- made or should make in Calabria and Sicily. ment, he was obliged to retire with considerable Soon after this the Norman power became loss. The Greeks were soon after defeated a extremely formidable; the famous Robert Guissecond time at Cannæ ; and in a third engage. card ascended the throne in 1056. He made ment, near Ofanto, the army of Doceanus was great progress in the conquest of Calabria, and entirely routed, and himself obliged to fly to reduced most of the cities which held for the Bari. On this he was ordered to return to his Greeks in these parts. About the same time the command in Sicily, and another general was sent counts of Capua were expelled from their terriwith an army into Puglia ; but he had no better tory; and the abbot Desiderius mentions his success, for his army was defeated in an engage- having seen the children of Landulphus V., the ment with the Normans, and himself taken last count, begging. The pope, alarmed by prisoner. Atenulphus, brother to one of the these conquests, excommunicated the Normans princes of Benevento, on whom the Normans in a body, pretending that they had seized some had conferred the chief command, set at liberty of the territories belonging to the church; but, the captive general without consulting them, on by the submission of Robert, he not only was receiving from him a considerable sum of money. persuaded to take off the sentence of excommuWith this the Normans were so much displeased nication, but to invest him with the provinces of that they deprived Atenulphus of his command, Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. After this he conand bestowed it on Argyrus, son to the late tinued the war against the Greeks with great Mello, who had escaped from Constantinople, success. In 1071, in conjunction with his broand now assumed the title of duke and prince of ther Roger, he conquered Sicily, and gave the Italy. Before this also, Maniacus had returned investiture of the island to him, with the title of to Italy; and, to strike terror into the revolted count, reserving to himself only the half of Pacities, had executed a number of people of lermo, Messina, and the valley of Demona. The all ages and sexes with great inhumanity. Soon like success attended his arms against Salerno in after this he openly rebelled against the Greek 1074; and in 1080 he received a second time the emperor Constantine XI., and prevailed upon investiture of all his dominions. In 1081 he his own army to proclaim him emperor, begin- undertook an expedition against the Greeks ; ning hostilities immediately against the Greek and, though the emperor was assisted by a Venecities. But Argyrus took Giovenazzo, and be- tian fleet, Robert made himself master of Corfu, sieged Trani, ana soon after besieged Maniacus reduced Durazzo, and great part of Romania ; himself in Tarento, who, being afraid of falling insoniuch that by the success of his arms, and into the hands of the Normans, fled to Otranto, his near approach to Constantinople, he struck and thence to Buigaria, where, being defeated a universal terror among the Greeks. But, while by one of the emperor's generals, he was taken Robert was thus extending his conquests, he prisoner and beheaded. The Normans, having was alarmed by the news of a formidable rebelnow conquered the greatest part of Puglia, pro- lion in Italy, and that the emperor llenry ceeded to make a division of their conquest, in had taken Rome, and shut up the pope in the which, after each commander had got his share, castle of St. Angelo, Robert therefore, leaving the city of Melfis was left common to all, and the command of the army to his son Boemund, appropriated as a place for assembling to consult returned to Italy, where he dispersed the rebels, about the most important affairs of the nation. and released the pope, while his son gained Argyrus alone was neglected in this division; a considerable victory over the Greeks. After but he, having gained the favor of the emperor this Robert made great preparations for another by expelling Maniacus from Italy, was by him expedition into Greece, to second his son Boecreated duke of Bari, on purpose to check the mund. Alexius Comnenus, who was declared power of the Normans, with the title of prince emperor by the Greek army, being assisted and duke of Puglia. The Normans, however, hy the Venetian fleet, endeavoured to oppose his were too powerful, and behaved with great inso- passage, but was defeated, with the loss of many lence to the neighbouring princes; but as they galleys. But a final stop was now put to his could not be expelled by force, and were con- enterprises by his death, which happened in firmed in their conquests by Henry II., emperor 1085. Though the power of the Normans was · of Germany in 1047, the Greek emperor attempt- thus thoroughly established in Italy and Sicily, ed to get rid of them, hy sending Argyrus with and though the prince of Benevento was in 1130 large sums of money to bribe thein to enter into invested by the pope with the title of king his service against the Persians. But they re- of Sicily; yet, in consequence of the dissensions plied, that they were resolved not to leave Italy among themselves, they were obliged to submit unless they were expelled; upon which Argyrus to the emperor in 1195. By him the Sicilians bribed the Puglians to assassinate these invaders. were treated with so great cruelty, that the emThis brought on a massacre, in which greater press Constantia was induced to conspire against numbers of Normans perished than had fallen him in 1197, took him prisoner, and released in all the late wars. Argyrus attempted to take him only on condition of his sending off his advantage of the confusion produced by it, but army immediately for the Holy Land. This was was defeated; after which he had recourse to complied with; but the emperor did not long pope Leo, beseeching him to deliver Italy from survive the reconciliation, being poisoned, as these cruel tyrants; but the pope himself was was supposed, by order of the empress. In defeated and taken prisoner; and, in conse- 1254 the pope claimed the kingdom as a fief

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devolved on the church, in consequence of a fully with his scheme, all his measures were in sentence of deposition pronounced against king danger of being broke by the death of pope Frederic at the council of Lyons; and in 1263 Nicholas. The new pope, Martin IV., was entirely the kingdom was, in consequence of this right, in the interest of Charles, on whom, in 1281, lie conferred on Charles count of Anjou. After conferred the senatorial dignity of Rome. Promuch contention and bloodshed, the French cida, however, still resolved to prosecute his thus became masters of Sicily and Naples. scheme; and, leaving Italy, had another conferTheir government was insupportably tyrannical; ence with the conspirators in Sicily; after which and at the same time the haughtiness of their king he again went to Constantinople, and obtained so provoked the pope, that he resolved to hum- from Paleologus 30,000 ounces of gold, with ble him. Charles had resolved on an expedition which he returned to Arragon. The death of against Constantinople, and for this purpose had Nicholas had damped the ardor of Peter; but, fitted out à fleet of 100 galleys, thirty large ships, being urged by John, he again renewed his pre200 transports, besides many other smaller ves- parations; which alarmed the pope and the sels, on board of which he intended to embark king of France : who advised Charles to guard 10,000 horse, and a numerous army of foot. against an invasion : but he neglected their adThis formidable armament greatly alarmed the vice, being wholly intent on his eastern expediemperor Michael Paleologus, for which reason tion, and encouraged by a revolt which had haphe entered into a negociation with John Di Pro- pened in Greece. To facilitate his expedition, cida, a noble Salernitan, lord of the isle of Pro- he prevailed on the pope to excommunicate the cida, in the bay of Naples, who had formed Greeks, on pretence that they had broken some a scheme for a general revolt in the island of of the articles of union concluded at the council Sicily. John, though a nobleman, was also of Lyons a few years before. Peter in the mean a physician, and had been counsellor to two time continued his preparations with great diliformer princes, and even to king Charles him. gence, intending to put to sea the following sumself; but being stripped of his estate by the Procida had returned to Palermo, to wait king under pretence of treason, and his wife be- for a favorable opportunity of putting his design ing debauched by the French, he retired to in execution, which was soon afforded him by Constantia, queen of Arragon, where he was the French. On Easter Monday, March 30th, created a baron of the kingdom of Valencia by 1282, the chief conspirators had assembled at her husband king Peter, and lord of Luxen, Palermo; and, after dinner, both the Palermitans Benizzano, and Palma. As he was greatly ex- and French went in a grand procession to the asperated against the French, he employed many church of Monreal, about three miles without spies both in Puglia and Sicily; and, being in- the city. While they were sporting in the fields, formed that the Sicilians were totally disaffected a bride happened to pass by with her train, who to the French, he came to the island in disguise, being observed by one Drochet, a Frenchman, he and concerted a plan with the most powerful of ran to her, and began to use her rudely, under the malcontents for a revolution in favor of Con- pretence of searching for arms. A young Sicilian, stantia, though she derived her right only as exasperated at this affront, stabbed him with his being the daughter of a former usurper named own sword; and, a tumult ensuing, 200 French Manfred. Procida then set out for Constanti- were immediately murdered. The enraged popunople, where, in some private conferences with lace then ran to the city, crying out, Let the the emperor, he persnaded him, that the most French die;' and, without distinction of age or probable means of defeating Charles's scheme sex, slaughtered all of that nation they could was by assisting the Spaniards and Sicilian mal- find, even such as had fled to the churches. contents. Paleologus accordingly granted him The conspirators then left Palermo, and excited a large sum of money, and on his departure sent the inhabitants to murder the French all over the one of his secretaries along with him, who, island, excepting in Messina, which city at first landing in Sicily, had a conference with the refused to be concerned in the revolt. But, chief conspirators. John, having received letters being invited by the Palermitans to throw off the from them, disguised himself in the habit of a French yoke, a few weeks after, the citizens in a Franciscan, and went to Suriano near Rome. tumultuous manner destroyed some of the As he knew the enmity which subsisted between French: and pulling down the arms of king the

pope and king Charles, he disclosed his de- Charles, and erecting those of the city, chose one sign to his holiness, who readily entered into his Baldwin for their governor, who saved the remeasures, wrote to Peter to hasten his armament, maining French from the fury of the populace, promising him the investiture of the island as and allowed them to transport themselves, with soon as he had taken possession of it; and, their wives and children, to Italy. The number by refusing the assistance he had promised to murdered on this occasion is said to bave been Charles, obliged him to delay his expedition. 8000. In the beginning of 1280 Procida returned to Immediately after this massacre,

the Sicilians Arragon, and, by showing the letters from the offered their allegiance to Peter, king of Arragon; pope and Sicilian barons, prevailed on Peter to who accepted of the invitation, and landed embark in his design, by assuring him of the with his forces at Trapani. Thence he went to assistance of Paleologus. The king of Arragon Palermo, where he was crowned king of Sicily accordingly prepared a formidable fleet under with great solemnity, and Charles left the island pretence of invading Africa, and received 20,000 with precipitation. The day after he landed his ducats from Charles, to assist him in his prepa- army in Italy, the Arragonian fleet arrived, took rations. But, while John went on thus success- twenty-nine of his galleys, and the next day burnt eighty transports in presence of his army. monly called Massaniello, a native of Amalsi, a Soon after this Charles sent an embassy to fisherinan, whose wife, having been discovered Peter, accusing him of perfidy, in invading his in smuggling a sinall quantity of meal, was imdominions in time of peace; and, according to prisoned, and condemned to pay a fine of 100 some, challenged him at the same time to decide ducats. Massaniello, a few years before, had the matter by single combat: but Peter deter- come to Naples from Amalsi, where his father mined to employ more effectual means in sup- had been a fisherman. At this time he was port of his pretensions; and therefore pushed on about twenty-four years of age, and the father of his operations inost vigorously, while his adver- four children. He was of a middling stature, sary trifled away his time : and thus he at last and an agreeable aspect; was distinguished for became master of the kingdom; which, however, his boldness, activity, and integrity; and had he did not long enjoy, dying about the end of great influence with his companions, by whoin 1285. By his will, Peter left Arragon to his he was beloved and esteemed. As he was eldest son Alphonsus, and Sicily to James his obliged even to sell his furniture to pay the other son, who was also to succeed to the king- heavy fine, he had conceived an implacable dom of Arragon in case Alphonsus should die hatred against the farmers of the taxes, and was without male issue. Accordingly, James was also moved with compassion for the miserable solemnly crowned at Palermo, the 2d of February, state of the city and kingdom. He, therefore, 1286. In 1295, however, he deserted them, and formed a design, with some of his companions, tamely resigned up his right to Charles, son to to raise a tumult in the market-place on the him above mentioned. On his resignation the festival day of the Carmelites, usually celebrateci Sicilians conferred the crown upon his brother about the middle of July, when between 500 Frederick : after which the war continued with and 600 youths entertain the people by a mock great violence till 1303, when a peace was con- fight; one half-of them, in the character of Turks, cluded, and the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily defending a wooden castle, which is attacked formally disjoined ; Frederick being allowed to and stormed by the other half in the character keep the latter, under the name of Trinacria ; and of Christians. Massaniello being appointed Charles being confirmed in the possession of the captain of one of these parties, and one Pione, former, which he quietly enjoyed till his death who was privy to his design, commanding the in 1309. Naples continued to be governed by other, for several weeks before the festival they its own kings till the beginning of the sixteenth were very diligent in reviewing and training century, when the kings of France and Spain their followers, who were armed with sticks and contended for the sovereignty of it. Frederick, reeds: but an unforeseen accident tenipted them then king of Naples, resigned the sovereignty to to begin their enterprise without waiting for the Louis XII., on being created duke of Anjou, festival. On the 7th of July a dispute happening and receiving an annual pension of 30,000 ducats. in the market place betwixt the tax-gatherers and But, in 1504, the French were defeated by the some gardeners of Pozzuolo, who had brought Spaniards, and obliged to evacuate the kingdom; some figs into the city, whether the buyer or and Louis, in 1505, renounced all pretensions to seller should pay the duty; after the tumult had the crown, which has since remained almost continued several hours, Massaniello, who was constantly in the hands of the Spaniards. The present with his company, excited the mob to government of the Spaniards proved no less op- pillage the office built in the market for receiving pressive to the Neapolitans than that of others the duty, and to drive away the officers with had been. The kings of Spain set no bounds to stones. The elect of the people, who, by deciding their exactions, and of consequence the people against the gardeners, had increased the tumult, were loaded with numerous and heavy taxes; the ran to the palace and informed the viceroy, who most indispensable necessaries of life not being imprudently neglected all means of putting a exempted. In 1647 a new tax was laid on stop to the commotion. Massaniello, in the fruit; which the people looked upon as the most mean time, being joined by great numbers of grievous oppression, the chief part of their sub- people, ordered his young troops to set fire to all sistence, during the summer months, being fruit; the offices for the taxes through the city; which which in Naples is very plentiful and delicious. command being executed with despatch, he then The edict for collecting the new duty was no conducted them directly to the palace, where the sooner published, than the people began to mur- viceroy, instead of ordering his Spanish and Germur in a tumultuous manner: and, when the man guards to disperse them, encouraged their viceroy came abroad, they surrounded his coach, insolence by timidly granting their demands. bawling out to have their grievances redressed. As they rushed into the palace in a furious manThey were encouraged in their sedition by the ner, he escaped by a private door, and endeanews that the citizens of Palermo had revolted voured to save himself in Castel del Ovo; but, on account of the imposition of new duties. being overtaken by the rioters in the streets, be The viceroy, therefore, apprehensive of greater was trampled upon by them, and pulled by the disorders, began to think of taking off the tax; hair and whiskers. However, by throwing some but, those who farmed the tax having bribed handfuls of gold among them, he again escaped, some of his favorites, he was persuaded not to and took sanctuary in a convent of Minims, abolish it. The indignation of the people was where, being joined by the archbishop of Naples, now greatly increased. The farmers of the reve- cardinal Filomarini, and several nobles, by their que, and all those concerned in raising the taxes, advice he sigued a billet, by which he abolished had incurred the hatred and detestation of the all taxes upon provisions. He likewise desired people, particularly of Thomas Aniello, com- the cardinal to offer Massaniello a pension of

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