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with a great seagoing tradition, and the second most productive fishing port per dollar volume in the United States, I can best give evidence, I believe, as to the practical effects this legislation will have in benefiting those who earn their living from the sea and what effect the programs envisioned by this legislation could have upon our ability to elevate man's economic horizons.

I have always felt that if great national problems and goals were left entirely to the States and those people living in various areas of our Nation, many of these problems would remain unsolved, and goals would not be achieved. We find that over the last few years in the United States, the President and the Congress have accepted this philosophy and our Government is moving forward with great and effective speed to assist in affording citizens everywhere the opportunity of a good education through massive Federal aid. We are making a very concentrated attack upon the economic and social problems everywhere within this Nation and at all levels where substandard economic conditions exist. We have also found that in order to afford men their fundamental rights, equal dignity, and justice, it was necessary that the Congress adopt the Civil Rights Act.

The sea is certainly an area which has been given the least attention by scientists, economists, and educators. It is, perhaps, fair to say that we have as much information concerning outer space as we do the waters off our immediate coast. I assume that if the total costs of our space exploration programs were to be compiled, they would range in the billions of dollars. The amount of money being spent annually on exploration, education, training, and research in the marine sciences would amount to only a very small fraction of this amount. Yet, from the sea we have the ability to create a productivity which can provide the natural resources to feed the starving people of the entire earth, and open up new vistas to the light of human knowledge.

Marine scientists have estimated that 200 million tons of fish, at least four times our present harvest, could be taken from the seas each year without endangering future yield. This is an estimate based on exploitation of edible fish species. Is it unreasonable to expect that scientists and those entrusted with our political destinies can make it possible for man to cultivate and harvest crops from that 70 percent of the world's surface which is now inundated by the sea?

Research and the acquisition of knowledge in the gainful use of marine resources are necessary prerequisites for the transformation of this knowledge into practical applications which can benefit mankind.

I have no doubt that other scientists can wrest even greater supplies of nutrition from our seas. If it is true that the oceans contain 4,000 tons of vegetation per square mile, we must know to what extent this vast vegetable crop can be brought into controlled and useful food crops through aquaculture.

Many hundreds of thousands of men and women throughout the United States carn their livelihood from industries allied to the sea Many more thousands of our young people could he gain fully employed in similar industries were we to reach a point in our marine technology where we could translate the results of creative scientific research into objective, practical application. I can envision the whole sea coast of New England, and yes, the entire United States booming in an orderly espansion brought about through the development of new methods of catching, processing, and merchandising fish. We accept the fact that we as Americans have barely commenced to harvest the bounty of the sea. It is essential that we get about this work before those more interested and dedicated than ourselves have advanced far beyond us in a scientific approach to fruitful productivity. At the same time, we must provide for future growth in the fisheries through conservation. We can all envision, I believe, the monumental effect that fish flour or any type of fish concentrate can have upon our internal economy and starving people wherever they exist in the world.

We are living in very accelerated years, years when scientific progress and achievement seem to be outstripping man's ability to understand, in some cases, the rapidity of development. Many years ago when the industrial revolution was taking place in Europe, progress at first moved through very many experimental, mechanical stages. However, in these days, it appears possible that through lateral development starting from the top, with a chartered and fully thought out method of approach, we can accomplish in a few years what would ordinarily take generations.

The universities of America have the ability, if financially assisted, to render to mankind, the mechanism to transfer the brilliance of scientific thought and accomplishment into the practicality of American productive genius. Universities have played an ever-increasing role in the development of our Nation's vital resources both in mind and matter. I can think of no better place to invest some of the fruits of our affluent society than in our great universities for the purpose of returning to Americans, and to mankind, the benefits of their combined abilities.

One of New Bedford's links with the future is Southeastern Massachusetts Technological Institute, our State's newest university, which is now being built not far from our city limits.

This young institute has already made commitments to teaching and research in the fields of marine biology, oceanography, and

When the sea grant college concept materializes—as it must if the United States is to provide our young scientists and technologists with the means to explore and develop the resources of the seas—it is essential that the development of the ocean resources be entrusted not only to old and venerable institutions, such as the Marine Biology Laboratories, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutions, such as our host institution, but also to such new and vigorous seaboard universities as Southeastern Massachusetts Technological Institute. In its few short years of existence, SMTI has demonstrated a commitment to teaching and research in application related enterprises such as fisheries biology, environmental monitoring, and conservation of

In other nations, particularly, Russia, Poland, Canada, and Japan, great stress has been given to effectively assisting all stages of marine development both in research and in application. The United States, with its early lead, its tremendous resources, its magnificent universities, and a sense of creativity, has lain back, and permitted others to surpass us.

It is very exciting that we appear now to be moving in the direction of giving our attention to a long neglected area. It seems that



through the establishment and continuance of programs of education, training and research in the marine sciences, we can build for ourselves a dynamic new future, and overcome generations of inaction through the application of modern techniques, and modern scientific achievement. I can think of no piece of legislation at this time that I consider more meaningful to my particular city, to our country, and mankind generally, than S. 2439, which could set into motion a series of programs which could affect the course of history and provide untold benefits for mankind.

I wish to thank you, Senator, for permitting me to come here.

Senator PELL. Thank you very much for coming, Mayor Harrington.

Now, point No. 1, in your testimony where you mentioned that New Bedford was the second most productive fishing port per dollar volume in the United States. Could you enlarge on that? Does that mean you had the largest gross catch landed there or is that in relationship to dollar earnings?

Mayor HARRINGTON. Well, actually the fish landed from all American boats fishing commercially in the port of New Bedford is second only to San Pedro, Calif., and in the last few years we have made tremendous gains and strides and additions to to our fishing fleet. We are in the process now of building a $71,2 million pier to accommodate more boats. We hope that within the next 3 years the dollar volume of fish in the port of New Bedford will exceed any other area of the United States. We are also in the process of negotiating a contract with Van Camp's Sea Food Co. which is the largest fisheries company in the entire world to locate a plant in New Bedford, and they are, or have indicated that they will, possibly make New Bedford their world fish headquarters and bring to the city of New Bedford their laboratory and facilities dedicated to marine research.

Senator Pell. I wonder if you could tell us a little something about a fish protein concentrate plant in your city.

Mayor HARRINGTON. There is some conflict in this matter, Senator. There is a professor at the University of Illinois, who, many years ago developed a process of making fish flour, it was called that thenlater it was transferred into the terminology now called fish protein concentrate. The professor's name was Levin. Anyway, as Levin discovered a formula for creating and producing fish protein concentrate, he established two plants for commercial production of fish protein concentrate. One in New York and one in New Bedford. Now he has invested over $2 million of his own capital in this production Actually, all we are producing in New Bedford right now is a fish concentrate which can be converted back to fish flour within a relatively short time and rather inexpensively. But, something unusual which developed is that back in 1960, I believe, the Food and Drug Administration refused to permit the fish four or fish_protein concentrate to be sold internally in the United States, Dr. Levin at that point refused to export on the theory that even though he could keep these plants in full production, that was not beneficial to mankind to export a product which the Food and Drug Administration said should not be sold to Americans. He felt that in the Nation's best in terests that should not be done.

When I became mayor of New Bedford in 1961, John F. Kennedy was the President of the United States. We had a conference with


him in Washington, and also with Secretary Udall, for the purpose of setting in motion a chain of events which would eventually cause the Food and Drug Administration to reverse their stand with relation to fish protein concentrate. I think we met in the Senate dining room and the meeting was presided over by Senator Saltonstall and Senator Smith, the two Massachusetts Senators. Well, we set in motion a chain of events which we think eventually caused the Food and Drug Administration to reverse their stand with relation to fish protein concentrate. Now, they have devised a formula to produce this fish protein concentrate. We say that the formula of Dr. Levin is superior to theirs, his can produce less expensively and with equal appeal and is equally sanitary. We are hoping that the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries expands their production requirements and permits, frankly, the commercial manufacturing of fish protein concentrate by those who have developed a formula to do it. We hope they don't restrict our ability to use it. They have developed a formula, but we don't think it is superior to the one devised by Dr. Levin. Senator PELL. I am very sympathetic with your work in this field, Mayor Harrington. It has been said that it is unesthetic to use fish protein concentrate.

Mayor HARRINGTON. We urge the Administration to reverse its position on this. We hope we will get a decision in this direction.

Senator PELL. I know we have had some meals in the Senate Dining Room with Dr. Levin's fish protein concentrate used as the base. It was very good.

Mayor HARRINGTON. We appreciate any support you can give. Senator Douglas, I don't know whether you read his remarks on this, he made a speech in the Senate about the esthetic and cosmetic effect of fish flour. He mentioned that we are marketing a chocolate covered ant commercially at very high prices. Senator PELL. Are you using a whole fish? Mayor HARRINGTON. We are using the whole fish, yes. Senator PELL. All right. Thank you very much, Mayor Harrington. It was very nice of you to come over to Rhode Island.

Our next witness is the dean of the graduate school of oceanography here at the University of Rhode Island. He has certainly developed a first rate department. Dean Knauss, when Dr. Horn persuaded you to come here from the west coast to the east coast, I think that California's loss was a great benefit to us here in Rhode Island. I have enjoyed, I say this publicly, the work we have done together on the various projects which have interested us, and without your help I don't think that my own ideas, or this bill, could have gotten anywhere near as far this.

You may proceed when you are ready. STATEMENT OF DR. JOHN A. KNAUSS, DEAN OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF OCEANOGRAPHY, UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND Dr. Knauss. Thank you for those very kind words, Senator Pell. I am here today not only as dean of the graduate school of oceanography of the University of Rhode Island, but I am also chairman of the Southern New England Marine Sciences Association. As far as I know the idea of a sea-grant college was first suggested publicl


by Athelstan Spilhaus in 1963. The University of Rhode Island and the Southern New England Marine Sciences Association sponsored a 2-day conference on the concept of a sea-grant college in October 1965. This conference was attended by 224 scientists and educators from 30 States. At the conclusion of the conference the following resolution was unanimously adopted :

“We enthusiastically endorse the concept of a sea grant college as presented by Dean Spilhaus at this meeting and the general concept of Senator Pell's bill (S. 2439), and we specifically recommend that Dean Spilhaus be given the opportunity to present his views to the appropriate Government bodies.”

The proceedings of this conference have been published and I commend them to the committee's attention.

Senator Pell. It will be printed in full. You may continue, Dr. Knauss.

Dr. Knauss. A national committee was formed among those attending the conference. One of our tasks, as we saw it, was to distill some of the ideas discussed at the conference into a simple statement. As secretary of the group I would like to submit the committee's statement into the record.

Senator Pell. It will be printed in full. (The material referred to follows:)


A sea grant college would be an institution of higher education devoted to increasing our Nation's development of the world's marine resources through activities in the areas of education, research, and public service. A sea grant college would specialize in the application of science and technology to the sea, as in underwater prospecting, mining, food resources development, marine pharmacology and medicine, pollution control. shipping and navigation, forecasting weather and climate, and recreational uses. It would relate such application to the underlying natural sciences which underlie social sciences as they are affected by, and in turn affect, the occupation and exploitation of the sea. Thus a sea grant college would bring to bear the wide variety of intellectual resources usually associated with a university on the development of marine resources. We are not suggesting the establishment of new schools, colleges, or universities, but rather the development of this capability in State and private institutions already deeply involved in the study of marine sciences.

The potential contributions of education, research, and public service are many. It is not expected that any single sea grant college would develop all of these possibilities, or that all sea grant colleges would develop in an identical manner.

EDUCATION If this country is to maintain a position of leadership in the development of marine resources, we must provide the necessary educational base. We must provide engineers, natural and social scientists who are familiar with the problems and the possibilities for the development of marine resources. We must provide education at many levels. from teaching fishermen how to fish to teaching the teachers of the engineers and scientists required by industry. Although all of these various kinds of education need not be done within a single institution, they can be.

RESEARCH Successful higher education without concurrent research is impossible. This is as true in engineering and applied sciences as it is in the basic sciences. A strong research program is required in a sea-grant college if a strong educational program is to be maintained. In addition, a strong research program is a sea grant college will aid in the development of our marine resources. Much of the work that ought to be undertaken to master the oceans and exploit their resources cannot be afforded by any single segment of private industry. Initially, these

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