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Senator PELL. Another respect in which we are fortunate in having you, as president of a land grant college, is in connection with the enlargement of the responsibility of a land grant college, because I understand that your extension service does a great deal of work concerning the consumer, or urban living. Would that not be correct?

Dr. HORN. This is correct and particularly in an institution like the University of Rhode Island where we are located in the State with the agricultural part of our economy being reduced more and more. More of our activities of the cooperative extension services, which are housed in the college of agriculture, are moving into the suburban and urban areas. I think you know that we have a very important project working in the South Providence area with underprivileged people. If this sea grant bill is passed, if money is made available to this institution for this sort of thing, we are prepared to move on it and, I think, effectively.

Senator PELL. Actually, in our own State there are only 2,000 people working in the field of agriculture and forestry.

Dr. HORN. I suspect that someone who will be testifying before this committee will point out that the State of Rhode Island has, I think, more shoreline in comparison with the total land mass than any other State of the Union with the exception of Hawaii. Senator PELL. Maybe we'll have more sea farmers than land farmers.

Dr. Horn. Finally I'd like to say that, as you have pointed out, ever since I came to this university in 1958 I have indicated to my colleagues, and to the board and to the public in this State that we have a unique opportunity here because of our location on the sea, and this major piece of legislation which you propose, we hope is passed by the Congress which will provide additional resources so that we can make a still further contribution, not just to the State of Rhode Island, but to the entire Nation and the world.

Senator PELL. Thank you very much, Dr. Horn, for your testimony and for the hospitality we have been shown here today.

Our next witness will be Mr. Edward Harrington of New Bedford, Mass. Mr. Harrington is the mayor of New Bedford and a neighbor of ours. Mayor Harrington, Senator Kennedy regrets very much that he cannot be with us today. We wanted you to know that.


BEDFORD, MASS. Mayor HARRINGTOX. I understand. Senator PELL. He wanted to hear your testimony and is well aware of your good work and he is very interested in this whole field of fisheries and oceanology and asked that his good wishes be conveyed 10 you. Also, as a member of Congress it is very good to welcome you here because I understand there is a really good chance that you may be a colleague in a coming Congress. Iam del glued u vun you here, Mayor Harrington, and you hay pred as you viah.

Mayor HARRINGTON. Sr. Chairman. I am grateful for the more tunity to come here this day and address you on a 55.411es whicl'lam so much importance to meni eserys bereti.regsgit tiw world and to the future hope of a higier saidard of 12g for purple wiunea they may live. Since I am privileged to wrie as maist of 4 (Y with a great seagoing tradition, and the second most productiv fishing port per dollar volume in the United States, I can best giv evidence, I believe, as to the practical effects this legislation wil have in benefiting those who earn their living from the sea and wha effect the programs envisioned by this legislation could have upon ou ability to elevate man's economic horizons.

I have always felt that if great national problems and goals were left entirely to the States and those people living in various areas o our Nation, many of these problems would remain unsolved, and goals would not be achieved. We find that over the last few years in the United States, the President and the Congress have accepted this philosophy and our Government is moving forward with great and effective speed to assist in affording citizens everywhere the opportunity of a good education through massive Federal aid. We are making a very concentrated attack upon the economic and social problems everywhere within this Nation and at all levels where substandard economic conditions exist. We have also found that in order to afford men their fundamental rights, equal dignity, and justice, it was necessary that the Congress adopt the Civil Rights Act.

The sea is certainly an area which has been given the least attention by scientists, economists, and educators. It is, perhaps, fair to say that we have as much information concerning outer space as we do the waters off our immediate coast. I assume that if the total costs of our space exploration programs were to be compiled, they would range in the billions of dollars. The amount of money being spent annually on exploration, education, training, and research in the marine sciences would amount to only a very small fraction of this amount. Yet, from the sea we have the ability to create a productivity which can provide the natural resources to feed the starving people of the entire earth, and open up new vistas to the light of human knowledge.

Marine scientists have estimated that 200 million tons of fish, at least four times our present harvest, could be taken from the seas each year without endangering future yield. This is an estimate based on exploitation of edible fish species. Is it unreasonable to expect that scientists and those entrusted with our political destinies can make it possible for man to cultivate and harvest crops from that 70 percent of the world's surface which is now inundated by the sea ?

Research and the acquisition of knowledge in the gainful use of marine resources are necessary prerequisites for the transformation of this knowledge into practical applications which can benefit mankind.

I have no doubt that other scientists can wrest even greater supplies of nutrition from our seas. If it is true that the oceans contain 4,000 tons of vegetation per square mile, we must know to what extent this vast vegetable crop can be brought into controlled and useful food crops through aquaculture.

Many hundreds of thousands of men and women throughout the United States earn their livelihood from industries allied to the sea. Many more thousands of our young people could be gainfully employed in similar industries were we to reach a point in our marine technology where we could translate the results of creative scientific research into objective practical application. I can envision the whole sea coast of N and, and yes, the entire United States booming in an order ion brought about through the develop

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ment of new methods of catching, processing, and merchandising fish. We accept the fact that we as Americans have barely commenced to harvest the bounty of the sea. It is essential that we get about this work before those more interested and dedicated than ourselves have advanced far beyond us in a scientific approach to fruitful productivity. At the same time, we must provide for future growth in the fisheries through conservation. We can all envision, I believe, the monumental effect that fish flour or any type of fish concentrate can have upon our internal economy and starving people wherever they exist in the world.

We are living in very accelerated years, years when scientific progress and achievement seem to be outstripping man's ability to understand, in some cases, the rapidity of development. Many years ago when the industrial revolution was taking place in Europe, progress at first moved through very many experimental, mechanical stages. However, in these days, it appears possible that through lateral development starting from the top, with a chartered and fully thought out method of approach, we can accomplish in a few years what would ordinarily take generations.

The universities of America have the ability, if financially assisted, to render to mankind, the mechanism to transfer the brilliance of scientific thought and accomplishment into the practicality of American productive genius. Universities have played an ever-increasing mole in the development of our Nation's vital resources both in mind and matter. I can think of no better place to invest some of the fruits of our afluent society than in our great universities for the purpose of returning to Americans, and to mankind, the benefits of their combined abilities.

One of New Bedford's links with the future is Southeastern Massachusetts Technological Institute, our State's newest university, which is now being built

not far from our city limits. This young institute has already made commitments to teaching and research in the fields of marine biology, oceanography, and

When the sea grant college concept materializes as it must if the United States is to provide our young scientists and technologists with the means to explore and develop the resources of the seas—it is essential that the development of the ocean resources be entrusted not only to old and venerable institutions, such as the Marine Biology Laboratories, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutions, such as our host institution, but also to such new and vigorous seaboard universities as Southeastern Massachusetts Technological Institute. In its few short years of existence, SMTI has demonstrated a commitment

and research in application related enterprises such as fisheries biology, environmental monitoring, and conservation of In other nations, particularly, Russia, Poland, Canada, and Japan, great stress has been given to effectively assisting all stages of marine development both in research and in application. The United States, with its early lead, its tremendous resources, its magnificent universities, and a sense of creativity, has lain back, and permitted others to It is very exciting that we appear now to be moving in the direction of giving our attention to a long neglected area. It seems that


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through the establishment and continuance of programs of educa tion, training and research in the marine sciences, we can build fo ourselves a dynamic new future, and overcome generations of inac tion through the application of modern techniques, and modern scien tific achievement. I can think of no piece of legislation at this tim that I consider more meaningful to my particular city, to our coun try, and mankind generally, than S. 2439, which could set into motio a series of programs which could affect the course of history and pro vide untold benefits for mankind.

I wish to thank you, Senator, for permitting me to come here.

Senator PELL. Thank you very much for coming, Mayor Har rington.

Now, point No. 1, in your testimony where you mentioned that Nev Bedford was the second most productive fishing port per dollar vol ume in the United States. Could you enlarge on that? Does tha mean you had the largest gross catch landed there or is that in rela tionship to dollar earnings?

Mayor HARRINGTON. Well, actually the fish landed from all Ameri can boats fishing commercially in the port of New Bedford is sec ond only to San Pedro, Calif., and in the last few years we have made tremendous gains and strides and additions to to our fishing fleet We are in the process now of building a $71/2 million pier to ac commodate more boats. We hope that within the next 3 years the dollar volume of fish in the port of New Bedford will exceed any other area of the United States. We are also in the process of negotiating a contract with Van Camp's Sea Food Co. which is the largest fisheries company in the entire world to locate a plant in New Bedford, and they are, or have indicated that they will, possibly make New Bedford their world fish headquarters and bring to the city of New Bedford their laboratory and facilities dedicated to marine research.

Senator PELL. I wonder if you could tell us a little something about a fish protein concentrate plant in your city.

Mayor HARRINGTON. There is some conflict in this matter, Senator. There is a professor at the University of Illinois, who, many years ago developed a process of making fish flour, it was called that then, later it was transferred into the terminology now called fish protein concentrate. The professor's name was Levin. Anyway, as Levin discovered a formula for creating and producing fish protein concentrate, he established two plants for commercial production of fish protein concentrate. One in New York and one in New Bedford. Now, he has invested over $2 million of his own capital in this production. Actually, all we are producing in New Bedford right now is a fish concentrate which can be converted back to fish flour within a relatively short time and rather inexpensively. But, something unusual which developed is that back in 1960, I believe, the Food and Drug Administration refused to permit the fish flour or fish protein con centrate to be sold internally in the United States, Dr. Levin at that point refused to export on the theory that even though he could keep these plants in full production, that was not beneficial to mankind to export a product which the Food and Drug Administration said should not be sold to Americans. He felt that in the Nation's best interests that should not be done.

When I became mayor of New Bedford in 1961, Twas the President of the United States. We ha


him in Washington, and also with Secretary Udall, for the purpose of setting in motion a chain of events which would eventually cause the Food and Drug Administration to reverse their stand with relation to fish protein concentrate. I think we met in the Senate dining room and the meeting was presided over by Senator Saltonstall and Senator Smith, the two Massachusetts Senators. Well, we set in motion a chain of events which we think eventually caused the Food and Drug Administration to reverse their stand with relation to fish protein concentrate. Now, they have devised a formula to produce this fish protein concentrate. We say that the formula of Dr. Levin is superior to theirs, his can produce less expensively and with equal appeal and is equally sanitary. We are hoping that the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries expands their production requirements and permits, frankly, the commercial manufacturing of fish protein concentrate by those who have developed a formula to do it. We hope they don't restrict our ability to use it. They have developed a formula, but we don't think it is superior to the one devised by Dr. Levin. Senator PELL. I am very sympathetic with your work in this field, Mayor Harrington. It has been said that it is unesthetic to use fish protein concentrate.

Mayor HARRINGTON. We urge the Administration to reverse its position on this. We hope we will get a decision in this direction.

Senator PELL. I know we have had some meals in the Senate Dining Room with Dr. Levin's fish protein concentrate used as the base. It was very good.

Mayor HARRINGTON. We appreciate any support you can give. Senator Douglas, I don't know whether you read his remarks on this

, he made a speech in the Senate about the esthetic and cosmetic effect of fish flour. He mentioned that we are marketing a chocolate covered ant commercially at very high prices. Senator PELL. Are you using a whole fish? Mayor HARRINGTON. We are using the whole fish, yes.

Senator PELL. All right. Thank you very much, Mayor Harrington. It was very nice of you to come over to Rhode Island.

Our next witness is the dean of the graduate school of oceanography here at the University of Rhode Island. He has certainly developed a first rate department. Dean Knauss, when Dr. Horn persuaded you to come here from the west coast to the east coast, I think that California's loss was a great benefit to us here

in Rhode Island. I have enjoyed, I say this publicly, the work we have done together on the various projects which have interested us, and without your help I don't think that my own ideas, or this bill, could have gotten anywhere near as far as this.


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