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graphic Institution. From the very beginning the relationships of these institutions with the universities, not only in New England but throughout the country, have been intimate and cordial. The personnel of these three laboratories encompass nearly every aspect of basic research concerning the oceans and the life that they contain, the seabed below, and the atmosphere above.

The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory was the first to be established in Woods Hole. Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution was appointed the first U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1871. Baird was well known to the scientific circles in this country and abroad as a naturalist, a student of classification and distribution of mammals and birds. Baird carried on extensive studies of the fisheries of New England before selecting Woods Hole as an ideal location for a permanent laboratory for the Fish Commission. The reasons for the selection are still valid today and explain in part why the other two laboratories also selected Woods Hole. The excellent harbor is suitable for the type of vessel used in oceanography and fisheries research and, since there is little land drainage, the sea water is relatively clean and unpolluted and remains at a nearly constant salinity throughout the year. It is thus an ideal source for the maintenance of living specimens under laboratory conditions. Cape Cod is the location of a summer temperature boundary, as those who swim in the waters. both north and south of Cape Cod in the summertime well know. Many northern species of organisms have the southern limit of their distribution on the northern shores of Cape Cod while many southern species have their limit on the southern shores. Thus populations of two quite distinct sorts are available within a short distance of the laboratories. The open sea and the Gulf Stream are less than a day's sail from the docks in Woods Hole and consequently the scientist has a wide variety of marine conditions available and readily accessible. Woods Hole was always intimately associated with maritime affairs from the landing of Bartholomew Gosnold in May of 1602, 18 years before the Pilgrims landed at Provincetown and Plymouth, to the days when New England whaling captains fitted out and took on water at Bar Neck Wharf, the site of the present laboratory buildings. This history of the development of marine sciences in Woods Hole can be dated officially as starting with the establishment of the Biological Laboratories of the Fish Commission in 1875, though the laboratory building was not completed and occupied by the scientists until a decade later.

At about this same time another great naturalist, Professor Agassiz of Harvard University, was anxious to provide his students with the opportunity to study living specimens of the abundant fauna of the marine environment. He established a small laboratory on Penikese Islands in Buzzards Bay, but found that the problems of transportation and access made its continuous use difficult. As an outgrowth of this marine station, however, a group of university professors with very meager financial assets established in March 1888 a new institution under the name of the Marine Biological Laboratory. From a modest shingled building erected during that first year, the MBL has grown to a position of international stature in biological research that is unequaled in the world. Many of the great American biologists of the present century have studied living marine specimens in the courses offered during the summertime or have conducted some of their research at the MBL. From the very beginning the MBL enjoyed the full support and cooperation of the Fish Commission Biological Laboratories and this spirit of cooperation has prevailed throughout the history of Woods Hole. The MBL continues to be primarily a summer laboratory offering space and facilities to university professors to conduct part of their research during the summer and offering courses in various aspects of marine biology to students drawn from colleges and universities throughout the country.

The youngest of the three laboratories is the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution which was founded in 1930 as the result of a study conducted by a Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences. Here again complete cooperation was offered by the existing_laboratories to the fledgling newcomer. The Chairman of the Committee was Frank Lilly who was, at that time, director of the MBL. The secretary of the Committee was Henry B. Bigelow, professor of biology at Harvard University, who became the first Director of the Institution. The Oceanographic was founded and existed for about 10 years primarily as a summer marine station. This was because Dr. Bigelow, the first Director, did not believe that scientists could be content to live in the virtual isolation of a small New England village, a fact which was probably true at that time with the very limited size of the professional community in Woods Hole. Unlike the MBL, the Oceanographic Institution has changed, however, to a year-round activity with a resident scientific staff of over a hundred. With the rapid and easy transport to Boston it is a beehive of activity throughout the year.

The biggest change in the oceanographic came when Columbus Iselin was director during the years of World War II. The oceanographic had already been carrying on for 10 years, investigations into the structure and the chemistry of the Atlantic Ocean and Iselin recognized the importance of these observations to the operations of the U.S. Navy, primarily in the field of acoustics and undersea warfare. During the war, scientists were willing to forego their ivory tower investigations and to turn their attention to problems which were vital to the survival of the Nation. To meet the demand for information about maride sciences the laboratory rapidly expanded, not only in its study of underwater acoustics, but also in such fields as the biology of the fouling of ships' bottoms and chemical studies of antifouling paints, the meteorological conditions which influence the patterns and development of smokescreens over water, in underwater explosives, and in the factors which control the development and visibility of wakes of ships at sea. Contrary to Bigelow's expectation, the scientists found Woods Hole a desirable location to carry on their research and to live.

These three separate and independent laboratories in Woods Hole are today as vigorous and active as they have been at any time in their history. Daily, one sees the collecting vessels of the MBL set out to obtain marine specimens which are used in college instruction throughout the country and it is not an uncommon sight to see an oceanographic or fisheries vessel return to the docks after several months on a research cruise away from the home port. For the first time last year the newest of these vessels, the Atlantis II, returned from a trip around the world in which studies were conducted at such farflung places as the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, the coasts of Japan, and the Pacific. Thus the history of Woods Hole as a center for marine research has developed over nearly a century from ratner modiest beginnings to a scientific center of world renown where one can meet scientists from any part of this country or abroad, where the library is one of the best in marine sciences in the world and where young students can swim, sail, and study with their professors and gain an experience which is difficult if not impossible to duplicate in any other place.

This is a brief review of the past and the present, and it augurs well for the future. Inevitably men will penetrate more deeply the marine environment in order to learn its secrets and exploit its resources. While I have emphasized the scientific center at Woods Hole, it is clear that the nearby universities in Boston and the New England Aquarium have already contributed much to marine science. Closer association between the Boston and Woods Hole centers of marine science will afford unexcelled educational engineering and research opportunities to lead the future developments that are impending.

Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. A national sea grant college program would give these Massachusetts universities and institutions the additional financial assistance, direction, and encouragement they need to revitalize the fishing and marine industries of New England. Moreover such a program would give much needed support to younger, dereloping institutions.

For example the Southeastern Massachusetts Technical Institute, a new university in southeastern Massachusetts, has just begun a program of research into aquatic sciences and is working closely with industry and civic leaders in the New England fishing community. SMTI needs the type of assistance envisioned in S. 2439 to strengthen its curriculum and to provide necessary equipment and salaries. And the establishment of a sea grant college within SMTI or other institutions in southeastern Massachusetts should bring to the New Bedford area new marine and aquatic industries anxious to take advantage of the research facilities and technological advances which will flow from this program. I believe developing private industry interest is an important aspect of the sea grant college program. For just as industry

has grown around the excellent research and experimental facilities of Boston, industry should grow in the areas around sea grant colleges wherever they are established.

Leaders within our Commonwealth have already started devising plans to expand research and education in the marine sciences for the benefit of the public. The various Massachusetts universities and institutes involved in aquatic culture have formed the Massachusetts Association for Marine Sciences, where representatives meet regularly to exchange ideas and plan cooperative research. A subcommittee on oceanography has been created in the Governor's science advisory committee and a New England chapter of the Marine Technology Society has been formed. These efforts to marshal the combined resources of our research and education community reflect the great interest in the ocean within our State, and testify to Massachusetts' capacity to make a positive contribution to the success of these programs.

Mr. Chairman, I look forward to these hearings as an opportunity to hear from individuals in this field who will be working and benefiting from the operation of this program, who can comment on ways to make this program better serve the public interest.

In particular, I look forward to comments on both the proposed method and amounts of Federal funding and on the designation of the National Science Foundation to administer the program. The approach taken on these questions in the present version of the bill seems to be eminently sensible, but I think we should keep our minds open to alternative possibilities.

Finally, I hope to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of restricting eligibility of Federal assistance to institutions having access to large bodies of water. Given the limited resources available to support this national program, it may well be desirable to focus maximum support on these institutions which, on their face, are in the best position to make a major contribution to our goal—the conquest of the sea.

Senator Pell. I thank my friend and colleague of the neighboring Commonwealth of Massachusetts for his statement. He brings a great deal of knowledge and experience of the sea and strength to the subcommittee, and like him, I have no preconceived ideas as to what agency could best administer this program. I look forward to learning more from the highly qualified witnesses who will be coming up here in the next few days and they were with us yesterday already.

On behalf of the minority-I thank my colleague very, very much indeed for his constructive testimony.

We will now hear from Senator Inouye, our colleague from Hawaii.



Senator INOUYE. Mr. Chairman, I wish to speak on behalf of S. 2439 which would authorize the establishment and operation of a sea grant colleges program.

This program is of particular interest to the people of Hawaii, because, located in the middle of the Pacific, we see in it a tool for more effectively exploiting the vast potentialities of the ocean frontier that

surrounds us. The proposal would offer the same advantages to any coastal institution of higher learning.

The ocean bottoms and the life about them remain largely uncharted mysteries, yet comprise 70 percent of the earth's surface.

The advantages offered by S. 2439 lie in the impetus it would give to oceanic research. Now, research funds are scattered among many agencies of the Government, each with it particular interest. There is an advaantage in such diversion in meeting specific problems as they arise, but to get the maximum return on the research dollar spent for ocean studies, it is often advantageous to have these studies encompass wide areas of interest rather than the narrower scope often prescribed because of limitations on the granting agency. For this reason, designating the National Science Foundation as the central research agency would be beneficial. It would permit a coordination of research which would maximize the effectiveness of research moneys spent in this area.

Secondly, this bill would single out for recognition and emphasis research programs and programs of education in oceanography. Interest in ocean research is a new emergent in the academic world. Further, few industries, save fishing and in a sense, oil, are based on the wealth which lies beneath the surface of the sea. We know that scientific exploration will precede technological exploitation. Yet our intellectual attack has been piecemeal. This measure, I feel, would give focus to our scattered research efforts.

Thirdly, the objective of this bill harmonizes with the efforts and goals of the people of Hawaii as shown in the activities of our State government. Feeling that our greatest future wealth may lie in the ocean surrounding us, our State is investing heavily in ocean science projects. We have organized within the University of Hawaii, the Department of Oceanography, and have staffed it with highly competent men. Department emphasis is both on instruction and on research in biology and physical oceanography.

The State also has established three research centers which function in conjunction with the University of Hawaii: The Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, which has physical facilities on campus and a research vessel operating out of Honolulu; the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology with a laboratory on Coconut Island, where a new building is nearly completed; and further, upon completion of the building, there is to be a Pacific Biomedical Research Center for research in marine animals, located at Kewalo Basin in Honolulu.

The State's investment in oceanography has been paralleled by private research interests centering in Honolulu. Operating out of Honolulu, the Lockheed-California Corp. has two research vessels chartered from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, working on a $2 million contract with the Navy Bureau of Ships. Also owned by Scripps Institution of Oceanography is the Flip, an instrument vessel under contract to study sound waves in the Hawaiian area. Equipment for the undersea drilling of Project Mohole is being assembled, and currently U.S.S. Pathfinder of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is engaged there in a project for the Environmental Services Administration. Each of these developments indicates a growing awareness of Hawaii as a center for the study of ocean science.

I believe that Hawaii, as well as the other coastal States of this

country, will in the years ahead, find tremendous new sources of wealth from the ocean. Through the pioneering research projects now underway, Hawaii is investing in the search for that wealth. I am confident that they yield from these efforts and others will far exceed the investment placed in them.

Because of this belief, I ask that favorable action be taken on this proposal to integrate and augment programs in ocean research.

Senator PELL. Thank you, Senator Inouye. We now have Senator Fong, the other Senator from Hawaii.



Senator Fong. The proposed National Sea Grant College and Program Act of 1965 is a much-needed measure, and I strongly urge its enactment.

S. 2439 would authorize the establishment and operation of sea grant colleges and programs through education, training, and research in the marine sciences. The objective of the bill is to do in the oceanic field—by putting research to practical use—what has been and is being done so successfully in agriculture under the Morrill land grant program.

The seas around us cover two-thirds of the earth's surface. In the words of the originator of the sea grant college idea, Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus, “The oceans will offer us military, recreational, economic, artistic, and intellectual outlets of unlimited scope."

Yet our knowledge and use of the oceans and their potentials are woefully lacking. A nation which prides itself on its successful exploration of outer space has yet to probe deeply into “inner space" and make the most of the vast resources there.

S. 2439 applies to marine science the principles of the land-grant system which gave this Nation the agricultural extension service and the very fruitful Federal-State cooperation in agricultural research which resulted from that system.

S. 2439 would provide for "aquacultural extension service" to be developed in institutions of higher learning. These centers of aquaculture would concentrate primarily on applying scientific research to the sea, such as exploring for minerals underwater, harvesting food resources, and developing military defense. The range of useful areas which such aquacultural centers can explore and exploit is almost unlimited.

Coming from a State which is strategically located to take advantage of oceanographic science and technology, I see in S. 2439 tremendous benefits which can accrue to our island community, to our Nation, and, indeed, to the world community.

A logical center for oceanic research and development is the University of Hawaii, a land-grant college, which enthusiastically endorses the bill.

The university has already embarked on a program of significantly expanding and strengthening its capabilities in oceanic endeavors. It has assembled an outstanding faculty in oceanography, composed of prominent scientists doing important research in both biological and physical oceanography. The University of Hawaii has a strong or

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