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ernment to administer and manage the resources of the Outer Continental Shelf. This applies particularly, under the Outer Continental Shelf Act, to the mineral resources, but does not exclude responsibility for research and study of the living and nonliving resources in the sea.
A brief description of present programs will show the strong parallel that exists between Interior's responsibilities in the marine sciences and the intent of S. 2439. The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has extensive fishery research in coastal and offshore waters with the intent of increasing natural and world protein supplies. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife carries out research for the purpose of improving marine recreational fishing. Funds for fishery oceanogaphic research in fiscal year 1966 totaled $17 million and involved $3 million in direct support to universities and colleges.
Examples of recent accomplishments in research, surveys, and ocean engineering carried out by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries are:
(1) Use of new understandings of large scale variations in the physical properties of the ocean to make predictions of the availability of a number of commercially important species of fish;
(2) Discovery of large unexploited fishery resources such as hake and anchovy off Washington, Oregon, and California, or shrimp in the Aleutians or off South America;
(3) Engineering development of fishing gear permitting, for the first time, the capture of large quantities of fish in midwater, such as the Pacific coast hake.
Programs in marine geology and marine minerals research and development, while of modest scale at the present time, have been expanding and are beginning to show promising results.
The Geological Survey has mapped and undertaken a comprehensive study of the geology and geophysics of the Atlantic Continental Shelf and slope off the United States. If any of your are interested, by the way, I have brought a copy of
Ι that map with me that we can show you later.
An example of the practical utility of this program was the delineation of a large gravel deposit in shallow water off the New Jersey coast. Private sand and gravel interests have already begun studies of the feasibility of dredging the gravel for use in areas of the east coast having short supplies of concrete aggregate.
A very recent Geological Survey publication reports a vast pavement type deposit of manganese on the Blake Plateau off the northern Florida and Georgia coasts extending throughout an area of about 1,900 square miles. The thickness of the deposit isn't known as yet but some materials that were dredged from the deposit suggest the pavement may be as much as 4 feet thick in places. This deposit is of exceptional interest to industry because it lies in relatively shallow water, is near land and appears to be sufficiently extensive to become an economic resource.
As is well known, the Department has the saline water conversion program which is now reaching stages of practical application in many areas.
As I have mentioned, the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act involves the leasing of Federal offshore lands for the development of oil, minerals, and chemicals and the management of these resources. The Department has its future policy considerations and responsibilities in respect to the Outer Continental Shelf under study at the present time. The aim is to provide increased leadership in the development of offshore resources through cooperation with industry, the scientific and engineering community, and the coastal States.
Permits have recently been issued to a private company to shallowdrill exploratory holes on the outer slope of the Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. This is indicative of the present industrial trend to extend extractive operations seaward from the more shallow water coastal work which has been done in the past.
The extent of industrial activities managed by the Department on the Outer Continental Shelf are shown by the statistics of mineral production from the Federal leases in 1965 which follow: TABLE 1.—Mineral production from Federal leases, Outer Continental Shelf, 1965
In addition to research and development through grants and contracts Interior administers other extramural support programs which are concerned with many of the objectives of S. 2439.
The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries sponsors a graduate educational program in the marine biological and physical sciences and in fishery technology. One hundred and thirteen students have received support under this program since 1962. The Commercial Fisheries Research Act of 1964 also administered by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries is now supporting 46 projects in State agencies for enhancement of marine fishery production and to support the welfare of the U.S. fishing industry. The recently passed Anadromous Fish Act calls for rehabilitation of these fisheries on both coasts with the research, development, and management activities being carried out by States. Many university and college scientists and students receive support through these programs as their institutions perform the R. & D. functions for State agencies.
The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has an extension service which provides technical advice to shellfish producers. Work of the Bureau of Mines in development to sea mining technology is shared with industry. Operations on the Pacific coast are now proceeding under arrangements with three companies. While this is not an extension service in the true sense contemplated by S. 2439 it is an excellent way to accomplish a rapid transfer of technological developments to industry. Progress has been made in this program in perfecting an air-activated lifting system, and model-scale units have recovered mineralized materials from shallow depths off the coasts of California, Washington, and Oregon.
We are at this time taking steps to obtain broader authority than is now available to the Secretary of the Interior for the support of research and development in colleges, universities, industry, and private and nonprivate research institutions. This will enhance considerably the Department's ability to effect marine geological and mineral resources research and development through extramural programs. A combination of this new authority being sought with that now available will give the Department of the Interior ample administrative mechanisms to use in carrying out the intent and purposes of much of the program provided for by S. 2439.
In summary, Mr. Chairman, we support the purposes of the sea grant college bill. We recognize the desirability of more extensive participation in marine resources developments by colleges and universities. We believe that the National Science Foundation should increase its support of basic research and scientific education in areas of oceanographic activity; and that major responsibility for programs aimed at exploiting marine resources should continue to be vested in the Department of the Interior.
Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, for this opportunity to present our statement.
Senator Pell. Right. Dr. Bates, I thank you very much. As I would interpret your testimony, you think it is an excellent idea but you think you should administer it. Would you think that would be it, in capsule form?
Dr. BATES. In capsule form, definitely, but not to the exclusion of other agencies like NSF.
Senator PELL. One thought I have had in mind is that this program for the practical exploitation of knowledge we already have might on a temporary basis go to the Smithsonian Institution with the understanding it will be spun off to whatever agency might be set up by the decision of the Council under Senator Magnuson's bill in 2, 3, or 4 years. As you know, this has happened in the past and I was wondering what your reaction would be to this as a thought.
Dr. BATES. It is difficult for me, at short cursory glance, to see the logic of temporary action in this situation. We feel that in Interior we already have programs well under way that involve the three aspects of this bill-education, extension, research, and development. By accentuating and giving the appropriate image that this bill would give to programs that are in existence, we can move directly into this operation and save some time that might otherwise be spent spinning some wheels.
Senator Pell. I believe I am correct in saying that the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries was originally in the Smithsonian and was spin off to your Department, is that correct?
Dr. BATEs. Perhaps Mr. McKernan can answer that.
Mr. KERNAN. I don't believe so, Senator. The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries was one time in the Department of Commerce. It was originally a fish commission back in the late 1800's, during its early formation. I don't recall, although I could be incorrect, I don't recall that it was ever with Smithsonian.
Senator PELL. We had better put this off the record. (Discussion off the record.)
Mr. ECKLES. I think it might have been Spencer F. Baird who was at one time the Director of the Smithsonian Institution and became the first Commissioner of Fisheries.
Senator PELL. I see. But there was an organization.
Another question here is what is the amount of money presently coming in from royalties and rents from the offshore oil lands?
Dr. Bates. I believe it is the figure I have in the statement, this is the 1965 figure, about $101 million.
Senator Pell. On the average.
Senator PELL. So we would expect each year roughly to divide that by 10, correct?
Dr. Bates. That is right, if you were to make arrangements to use these funds.
Senator PELL. Right. All right. I would also like to put in the record at this point a letter from the Department of Interior, Assistant Secretary Stanley A. Cain, and he makes the suggestion here that we ought to await action on my bill, our bill here, until action has been taken on Senator Magnuson's bill to establish an Oceanographic Council. Actually, I think the two are perfectly complementary and there is no real reason to wait. (The departmental report referred to follows:)
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY,
Washington, D.C., May 2, 1966. Hon. LISTER HILL, Chairman, Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
DEAR SENATOR HILL: There is pending before your committee S. 2439, a bill to amend the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended, so as to authorize the establishment and operation of sea grant colleges and programs by initiating and supporting programs of education, training, and research in the marine sciences and a program of advisory services relating to activities in the marine sciences, to facilitate the use of the submerged lands of the Outer Continental Shelf by participants carrying out these programs, and for other purposes.
This bill amends the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 by authorizing appropriation to NSF of 10 percent of all payments received after June 30, 1965, from leases on the Outer Continental Shelf, to be used for supporting education, training, and research in the marine sciences and advisory services relating to activities in the marine sciences. The Foundation is authorized to enter into agreements with the Secretary of the Interior for joint or exclusive use of appropriate areas of the Outer Continental Shelf by program participants. The Foundation is authorized to carry out the program through grants or contracts with public or private agencies, museums, industries, laboratories, corporations, etc.
The general purpose of the sea grant college program is to improve the Nation's capability to obtain and use the natural resources of the oceans.
The purpose of this bill is to implement a suggestion made several years ago by Dean A. F. Spilhaus, of the University of Minnesota, who at the time was Chairman of the Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council. The proposal was discussed at a conference held at Newport, R.I., on October 28 and 29, 1965, at which over 200 individuals concerned with the subject matter of the bill were present. It was generally agreed at the meeting that the objectives of the bill were desirable and that legislation, such as S. 2439, would have a beneficial effect on the development of marine science and ocean engineering in this country.
This Department also firmly believes that more and more emphasis must be placed by the Federal Government, the States, educational institutions, industry, and other public and private organizations and individuals on improving the Yation's capability to obtain and use wisely our marine resources. S. 2439 is designed to supply this emphasis on the national level. Legislation along the lines of this bill is needed to supply the focus that is needed in the field of marine science. The concept of developing skilled personnel, such as engineers and technicians, to exploit our marine resources is sound. We agree that the National Science Foundation should play a major role with respect to basic research and scientific education in this area. We believe, however, that the Department of the Interior must continue to play a major role in programs aimed at exploiting marine resources because of our present expertise in basic marine research and in the management and development of these resources.
The Department of the Interior now has broad authority to conduct research directly in marine resources and for supporting such authorities in marine science institutions. Some of these authorities are the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, as amended (16 U.S.C. 742a), the Commercial Fisheries Research and Development Act of 1964 (16 U.S.C. 779–779f), the Water Resources Research Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 1961 et seq.), and the act of October 30, 1965 (79 Stat. 1125). Also, the Department manages the resources of the Outer Continental Shelf under the act of May 20, 1964 (16 U.S.C. 1081-1085) and the Outer Continental Shelf Act (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.). In addition, we are requesting Congress to give the Secretary authority to expand our contract research activities in this area and other areas of importance to this Department.
S. 944 which is now awaiting final action covers a number of activities included in this bill. Your committee may wish to await the outcome of S. 944 before taking final action on this bill.
The Bureau of the Budget has advised that there is no objection to the presentation of this report from the standpoint of the administration's program. Sincerely yours,
STANLEY A, CAIN,
Assistant Secretary of the Interior. Dr. Bates. I agree. I believe this was put in with the understanding that things were moving very rapidly with that bill and hopefully it would soon come out of the committee and therefore this would not mean any delay.
Senator PELL. Right.
Thank you very much indeed, Dr. Bates. There are some further questions here.
Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Dr. Bates, what is your estimate of the amount of funds which would be necessary to run this program?
Dr. Bates. We have not, in preparing this testimony, gone so far as to make such estimates. I would be glad to proceed to do so and give you a ball park idea.
Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. I think that would be helpful. (A memorandum subsequently supplied by Dr. Bates follows:)
MEMORANDUM FROM DR. THOMAS F. BATES, SCIENCE ADVISER, DEPARTMENT OF THE
The Department estimates that after a buildup of 3 to 4 years for organizational purposes, $30 to $35 million per year would be required to take full advantage of the capabilities of a number of sea grant centers. This recognizes that operations at sea are more expensive than most types of land-based research and development. It also recognizes that the program should be a highly varied one with colleges specializing in different subjects according to needs and opportunities in each area.
Senator KENNEDY of Massachusetts. Since so much of this program is involved at the university level, it does seem to me that the National Science Foundation is the agency where this should be located.
However, although I know you respect your sister agency, I would be interested if you could draw that distinction somewhat more precisely between the National Science Foundation and the Department of the Interior.