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In disussing this bill we should explore all possible means for implementation. I urge the use of the talents, staff, and organiz trocal srxtures of an existing Federal agency. Also, all agenci wbose ongoing programs hare any bearing on sea grant college pr gars stoc.d partie pate in a group advisory basis.

Pencaps a coordinating committee should be established by th Sze. baring primary responsibility to expedite interagency con

9:00 ard cooperation. Aso be discussed is the question of where this new program mig perus be estabashed. I believe there is merit in starting out th parim mrder the segis of the Smithsonian Institution, with its tra Son of giving temperary haren to various programs and then spir ringibeca to more pertanent sponsors. The important issue her

obes de considerable knowledge we already have may be profit SC Terra as opp to the development of basic research.

Ss, we are to the actual hearing and to the witnesses. Thos cineretai mom, if you can't hear the witness. I wish you woul wire rabai to izdaie that you can't hear. I can notice it an Issaben to ta mere directly into the microphone. If you ::ze, roc do te same thing.

wirect I will call Dr. Francis H. Horn, presi decine Caress of Rzode Islard, where this hearing is being i Firaragaz testift. I would like to pay particular tribute

eef belorgarnetion that the l'niversity of Rhode Iserine sve bitte ned of aranology. The University of

xe Isscabitis lorg interrement going back to 1937 when Czarne wisesa shed at the mouth of Narragansett Hir. Aivan raas sier, in 1958. Dr. Horn came to the UniTESTO de Isandardseda report at that time which shortly para pria Head the bari of trustees that some day inner Ecerant as outer space, and in 1961 Dr. Horn ve ir sang the graduate school of oceanography Vrei sa 16 Dr. Hom became interested in the

:ita si prozi conference on that. The National Sea

ctxers rear in Newport under the sponsorSD Fica: Sethern New England Marine Sciences

Sissipatingas that we welcome Dr. Horn here r* be bas deze for oceanology and our State.

ir bearing is being held at the university, sesso Febirgisa tribute, as well, to Dr. Horn

UIT Relea. From my own recollection in versione me bare had a hearing not in a Fed

Cele mai it. Till you come forward, Dr. Hir. *reiser! TID OF?3 FRANCS I HORN, PRESIDENT, UNIVERSITY


e recibe and remarks, Jr. Chairman. As TURISKIENoc se mord, I am Francis H. Ecran LETER of Rhode Island, which is one of

*Specs of higher learning in this State. Hircier lere, is the first time a senatorial

this country.

bearing has been held at a university. We are proud that the Unirersity of Rhode Island has that honor. We are grateful to you, sir, and to the chairman of the full committee, Senator Hill, for holding this hearing on our campus. May I also express my profound regret

at the death of your colleague on this committee, Senator McNamara. i Senator PELL. Thank you.

Dr. HORN. It is a pleasure to testify here today because I believe the bill to establish sea grant colleges presents the Nation with a great opportunity and even greater responsibilities. I believe that we stand at an important crossroads in the history of the marine sciences in

After 8 years of intimate involvement with the faculty in what since 1981 has been a graduate school of oceanography and with other people working in the marine sciences in this region, I am convinced that we must provide a more effective educational structure to help solve the problems involved in harvesting the wealth of the oceans. If we don't seize this opportunity, I'm afraid others will. A Russian scientist summed up the outlook this way: "The nation which first learns to understand the seas will control them, and the nation which controls the seas will control the world." In other words, whether we realize it or not, we are now engaged in a race to see who will control the inner space of the oceans. While our eyes are focused on the heavens, I hope we don't lose sight of what is happening right off the shores of this and every continent in the world. Many informed observers claim that the Russians are seeking mastery of the seas, not only for the wealth to be realized, but also because this control provides a unique instrument of foreign policy, For instance, Russia's advanced knowledge in fisheries is being used to win them new friends among the underdeveloped nations of the world. Tons of Russian fish are being landed for consumption in Africa and in other parts of the world. Millions of people have benefited from the addition of fish protein to their diet, and Russian prestige has been advanced.

While we struggle in this country to salvage a faltering fishing industry, Russian factory ships and fishing vessels cruise the major ocean highways and establish port and other facilities in strategic locations astride the avenues of ocean commerce.

While we in the United States attempt to coordinate the activities of dozens of Federal agencies concerned with marine activities, we learn that the Russians have recently organized a National Council for the Utilization of the Resources of the Sea. The function of this latter group is to speed up economic and political exploitation of the sea.

If time would permit, I am sure other examples could be developed of how we suffer in comparison to rising Soviet excellence in oceanography and the marine sciences at present. However, I believe it will become evident in the course of these hearings that we need a national oceanographic policy that places major emphasis on the utilization of the brains and talents in our institutions of higher learning. The partnership between the Federal Government and our collecpe and universities has been most successful in the past. I see r' why we shouldn't adapt it to today's needs.

I emphasize the word “partnership.” This is what : in this sea grant college bill.


It is being proposed that the Federal Government and the Nation's colleges and universities enter into an alliance for exploring and harvesting the seas. This effort would be financed with 10 percent of the funds received by the Federal Government from the lease of lands on the Continental Shelf.

An official of the U.S. Interior Department has said that $17 million a year could be expected as the 10-percent share from leases granted primarily for the extraction of oil, gas, and sulfur from the underwater property. What can the Nation expect by the way of return from the Government's investment in this partnership? There are two ways to answer this question. You can begin by examining partnerships of a similar nature which are already in existence. In looking around for parallel situations, it is inevitable that we focus our attention, at least briefly, on the land grant colleges and universities.

Here we have a vigorous eductional system founded on the principles of public service, education for “the industrial classes," and research. In the case of research, a wise balance was struck between projects of an applied nature, where a short-term benefit or economic gain has been the goal, and investigation of a long-range nature, where the object has been to advance man's basic knowledge of life processes.

At the time of their establishment, the land grant colleges represented a sharp break with educational tradition and the prevailing views about classical education imported from Europe. The land grant concept is distinctly American in character. It incorporates the democratic ideals of the frontier and of our pioneer forefathersthe idea that each man should progress in accordance with his abilities, and the idea that almost any problem can be solved, given the proper tools, time, and knowledge. Parenthetically, it is interesting to note that many of today's emerging nations are looking toward the American land-grant system for guidance in framing their own programs of higher education.

If we examine the record, the optimism of Senator Morrill and Jonathan B. Turner was not unfounded.

Today, although the land grant colleges comprise only 5 percent of all the colleges and universities in the United States, they enroll onefifth of the students and conduct the world's largest off-campus edulcational programs.

Research centers at land grant institutions came up with such scientific achievements as hybrid corn and st reptomycin.

The unparalleled efficiencies achieved in agriculture have given this Nation a surplus of food and fiber. But even more important, these efficiencies released a surplus of people from the farm so they could contribute elsewhere to our industrial and economic growth. For instance, it has been estimated that if output per man-hour had remained the same in the last half century, we would need to employ over 29 million persons today in agriculture. Actual employment in the field of agriculture is less than 7 million persons.

This then is the educational pattern followed under the land grant legislation which the National Manpower Council has called the most important single Government step in connection with the training of scientific and professional personnel.

A variation of this formula came into being--more as a matter of necessity than anything else--during and after World War II. The Government mobilized the scientific know-how of the universities, first to help win the war, and secondly to assist in solving the problems of

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a relatively peaceful world where science and technology had assumed a new significance. Billions of dollars have been channeled into university laboratories through a complex structure of grants and contracts. In many ways the financial relationships that have evolved have been less satisfying and fruitful than the formula-type allocations upon which an institution may build a solid and reasonably permanent structure. The land grant allocations can be considered a type of endowment, whereas grants and contracts are here today and gone tomorrow. To me this is the essential point to be grasped in considering the sea grant legislation.

The name “sea grant” implies an institution of higher learning offering a broad spectrum of studies relating to the sea. Its mission would be to train the scientists, engineers, economists, political scientists, lawyer, doctors, and hundreds of others who will be needed if we are going to live and work on and under the sea. We also need what Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus has so aptly called the county agent in hip boots to transmit our knowledge of the ocean environment to the people who will apply it.

Formula or institutional grants would be required to support such a system of sea grant colleges. Possibly there should be one such institution in each of the 30 states bordering the Great Lakes and the oceans. In addition, it would be reasonable to allocate about half the available funds on a competitive basis to any college or university which could make a contribution to understanding the sea and its creatures.

Any examination of the sea grant concept would be incomplete, if it did not touch on at least one other area. “Admittedly, full-scale exploration of any new frontier, whether it be space or the ocean depths, carries with it an element of romance and adventure. However, the oceans and their depths promise much more. In support of this argument, I would make passing reference to the 50-page report published by the Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council entitled “Economic Benefits From Oceanographic Research.” I understand some of the authors of this document may be called as witnesses, but a few figures should be mentioned. This report estimated that a continuing national investment of approximately $165 million a year in fisheries production, undersea mining, marine recreation projects, improvement of sewage disposal methods, reduction of shipping costs, and improvement of weather forecasting techniques could produce savings of nearly $3 billion a year or increase annual production by nearly that much. Finally, if for no other reason, we need sea grant colleges as a weapon in the global battle against hunger and disease. Experts have estimated that at least 500 million persons suffer from critical deficiencies of animal protein. Meanwhile, the world's population increases by nearly 200,000 persons each day. At the present rate, the global population of 3.4 billion persons will more than double by the year 2000.

In many countries, such as Japan, there is little possibility of converting any substantial amount of additional land to agricultural use. In other parts of the world, poor weather and lack of adequate moisture make it difficult to cultivate the soil. However, each square mile of ocean contains up to 4,000 tons of vegetation and a majority of all

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anical Eteerise in the ses. With dir's takrology, we could prodze, for issons per pocisse proces concerinte also career-cat coeleszed tre soci Gorernment seientists at toe luesity of Mayo decere the techniques developed tbere c'i siso beesporedio presso lii

Erec atce receais me bare of bearing in the sea, it is est raced we coc rc greaser es present tecnology, incatre rei of sea mer forse. But, what if we learned to this farm toe ea! Waaf we to bow to fertilize tbe za anisasie beg of vee sees! The beretits to be gred are terordze...

Toere is a seast to be ere that the cas barbe an urtapped some of tbe Dew meses Vereinspecties were or girls forod terortelring size soil, but the oceans teena olie. I: soce of beerders bere at the l'nivesy of Rbode Ised is the reper of the es patent for a irre az boce. Howerer, we reabre so dea of what other uses saares cign be found in de ocean deze oc'y limited researcsberg poiresinde

Trese are some of the stoe reason. I am conria kat Fadenl fairg for xa a cages moc'd be one of tée rost signissi eczas.ocal see we coca cate at this time in cortisor. Irenefore urge of this legatioc. Tuank you.

Sess:or Peu. This mu. Ir. Hot bear ef rocr proceerirz sorkari stare:oiesti: s university bere ceara a rey leading role in this sed or ite est coast of the tritei States

I tare a couple of onre bere on which I am noclering about For thing. Fiv: The trorgot has come to that pertaps the originaisisson of this

briga bese berent in the hands of the Smithsonian Institution or ace oczer azer:TOC a tecporary basis rober tbar. tce Sadical Seere Fonds Do you have any tkorget one way or the order os tons riter!

IrHax. Tel.Ibirert te bexit. sr. bore I should thirk that berer ny is manerai ir erg that tbese funds are scenes darba were tres can be best xiscoord be the oce to get the prime the groeni (ne of the disculties is giring or risengre fins er ser in the bar is of the Variocase Forritia rere ressourche point that ibey gire tersrs' spot to be inirThere's growing feeling terasbreer vir interesires of serce or the uniresies. I wyjmie narxier isrer.

Secst. Pill. Arxer questo arg the same line is whether or rotire $7 ritor is erect to a rite Dovou have any roc. is tots! Do you tant is too much! Do you thirka it is in little Was do roninink!

Dr. H. ex. We", rymwne, szand Bus: "cris peanuts contenitore busive NASAs bon. I is. I hope that erenteshrine imperare of espontion of the inser ateispalare care il vereis erre: space'l become erider to ocr fese and that the res's were rather schantial.

Cereris Indartinis interesarrere's to a percece of incoce from the city of obere explotoc.

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