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1 ticipants in such programs of such areas of the submerged 2 lands of the Outer Continental Shelf as may be appropriate, 3 which will not cover any part of the Outer ('ontinental 4 Shelf needed for national defense or interfere with or en

5 danger any operations under any lease maintained or granted


pursuant to the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act.


“ (e) For the purposes of section 3 (a) (10) and this

8 section



“(1) The term ‘marine sciences' means oceanographic and scientific endeavors and disciplines, engineering, and technology in and with relation to the marine environment, including, but not limited to the

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fields oriented toward the development, conservation, or


economic utilization of the physical, chemical, geological,


and biological resources of the marine environment; the


fields of marine commerce and marine engineering; the


fields relating to exploration or research in, the recov


ery of natural resources from, and the transmission of


energy in, the marine environment; and the fields with



respect to the study of the economic, legal, medical, or sociological problems arising out of the management, use, development, recovery, and control of the natural re

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“(2) The term 'marine environment means the


oceans; the Continental Shelf of the United States; the



Great Lakes; the seabed and subsoil of the submarine


areas adjacent to the coasts of the United States to the



depth of two hundred meters, or beyond that limit, to where the depths of the superjacent waters admit of the exploitation of the natural resources of the area; the seabed and subsoil of similar submarine areas adjacent




to the coasts of islands which comprise United States


territory; and the natural resources thereof.



“ (3) The term 'sea grant college' means any suit


able public or private institution of higher learning sup


ported pursuant to the purposes of this Act.”

Senator PELL. First, I wish to extend my sincere appreciation to Senator Lister Hill, chairman of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, who constituted this subcommittee.

Judging from the plethora of recent bills introduced in both the Senate and House, volumes of testimony, speeches, articles, and books on oceanology, it is clear that Americans are beginning to think about its practical possibilities. Their interest touches all aspects-defense, industry, science, and recreation. It should be true, as Victor Hugo once remarked, that there is nothing so powerful as an idea whose time has come. But the idea of oceanology still needs a push. For there are many ocean-related ventures in which this Nation is performing poorly.

Our merchant marine competes badly with other commercial fleets of the world. Our fishing industry has slipped from second to fifth place in a decade. Last year, fisheries products' imports equaled more than one-third of our deficit balance of payments.

If these sagging industries don't catch up, what chance will America have in marine industries of the future, such as: mining of marine minerals, drilling for oil, extracting dissolved substances, aquaculture, desalinization, underwater equipment, vehicles and bases of all kinds ? We are not adequately preparing the technology for these new or potential industries. Costly gaps can appear overnight. The lesson of sputnik is a painful reminder of weak long-range planning.

So I hope we begin today with a consensus that action is needed to strengthen the marine sciences and industries. To do this will require many more people skilled in various disciplines of oceanology. The sea grant college program will train them in the higher educational system.

I believe this move is important if we are to fashion a new "maritime tradition.” We must create an ocean-mindedness, just as we have built a “space-mindedness” among our citizens, particularly the young. In short, we must stimulate students to study in this vital, manyfaceted field.

The sea grant college concept parallels the land grant college idea in its intent to guide education toward practical application of knowledge. We should launch this now in the marine environment as we did last century in agriculture.

At present, some 50 colleges from 21 States and the District of Columbia offer courses in the marine sciences. Four of the States are inland, all bordering on the Great Lakes. Most of these institutions offer degrees in the marine sciences. A good base already exists for the sea grant college program. But there are notable lacks.

Only a half dozen colleges now run identifiable courses in ocean engineering or in fisheries training. These are the two areas which might receive immediate attention under a sea grant college program. This is not just one more addition to the existing array of oceanologic and marine programs. It can pull together a number of these and give them a sharper focus.

The program need not be limited to degree-granting institutions. It should include the invaluable resources of staffs, ships, shore laboratories of such excellent private institutions as the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, also the in-house laboratories of Federal agencies. All of these can contribute to education and training in the marine sciences and the fields of their application.

In discussing this bill we should explore all possible means for its implementation. I urge the use of the talents, staff, and organizational structures of an existing Federal agency. Also, all agencies whose ongoing programs have any bearing on sea grant college programs should participate in a group advisory basis.

Perhaps a coordinating committee should be established by the agency having primary responsibility to expedite interagency communication and cooperation.

Also to be discussed is the question of where this new program might probably be established. I believe there is merit in starting out this program under the aegis of the Smithsonian Institution, with its tradition of giving temporary haven to various programs and then spinning them off to more permanent sponsors. The important issue here is how best the considerable knowledge we already have may be profitably exploited as opposed to the development of basic research.

Now, we come to the actual hearing and to the witnesses. Those of you in the back room, if you can't hear the witness, I wish you would wave your hand to indicate that you can't hear. I can notice it and I will ask them to talk more directly into the microphone. If you can't hear me, you do the same thing.

Now, for our leadoff witness I will call Dr. Francis H. Horn, president of the University of Rhode Island, where this hearing is being held. Before having him testify, I would like to pay particular tribute to him because of the long connection that the University of Rhode Island and he have had with the field of oceanology. The University of Rhode Island had this long involvement going back to 1937 when a small marine laboratory was established at the mouth of Narragansett Bay. And then, 20 years later, in 1958, Dr. Horn came to the University of Rhode Island and issued a report at that time which shortly proved perfect. He told the board of trustees that some day inner space will become as important as outer space, and in 1961 Dr. Horn was responsible for establishing the graduate school of oceanography presently on the campus. In 1963 Dr. Horn became interested in the sea grant idea and proposed a conference on that. The National Sea Grant Conference was held last year in Newport under the sponsorship of Dr. Horn and the Southern New England Marine Sciences Association.

So, it is with particular pleasure that we welcome Dr. Horn here today because of all that he has done for oceanology and our State. Also, the very fact that this hearing is being held at the university, and not at or in some Federal building is a tribute, as well, to Dr. Horn and to the University of Rhode Island. From my own recollection in the committee this is the first time we have had a hearing not in a Federal building since I have served on it. Will you come forward, Dr. Horn, and present your testimony? STATEMENT OF DR. FRANCIS H. HORN, PRESIDENT, UNIVERSITY

OF RHODE ISLAND Dr. HORN. Thank you for those kind remarks, Mr. Chairman. As you already know, but I will put it on the record, I am Francis H. Horn, president of the University of Rhode Island, which is one of the three State supported institutions of higher learning in this State.

As you noted previously, this I believe, is the first time a senatorial


this country.

hearing has been held at a university. We are proud that the University of Rhode Island has that honor. We are grateful to you, sir, and to the chairman of the full committee, Senator Hill, for holding this hearing on our campus. May I also express my profound regret at the death of your colleague on this committee, Senator McNamara. Senator Pell. Thank you.

Dr. Horn. It is a pleasure to testify here today because I believe the bill to establish sea grant colleges presents the Nation with a great opportunity and even greater responsibilities. I believe that we stand at an important crossroads in the history of the marine sciences in

After 8 years of intimate involvement with the faculty in what since 1961 has been a graduate school of oceanography and with other peo

a ple working in the marine sciences in this region, I am convinced that we must provide a more effective educational structure to help solve the problems involved in harvesting the wealth of the oceans.

If we don't seize this opportunity, I'm afraid others will. A Russian scientist summed up the outlook this way: “The nation which first learns to understand the seas will control them, and the nation which controls the seas will control the world." In other words, whether we realize it or not, we are now engaged in a race to see who will control the inner space of the oceans.

While our eyes are focused on the heavens, I hope we don't lose sight of what is happening right off the shores of this and every continent in the world. Many informed observers claim that the Russians are seeking mastery of the seas, not only for the wealth to be realized, but also because this control provides a unique instrument of foreign policy, For instance, Russia's advanced knowledge in fisheries is being used to win them new friends among the underdeveloped nations of the world. Tons of Russian fish are being landed for consumption in Africa and in other parts of the world. Millions of people have benefited from the addition of fish protein to their diet, and Russian prestige has been advanced.

While we struggle in this country to salvage a faltering fishing industry, Russian factory ships and fishing vessels cruise the major ocean highways and establish port and other facilities in strategic locations astride the avenues of ocean commerce.

While we in the United States attempt to coordinate the activities of dozens of Federal agencies concerned with marine activities, we learn that the Russians have recently organized a National Council for the Utilization of the Resources of the Sea. The function of this latter group is to speed up economic and political exploitation of the sea. If time would permit

, I am sure other examples could be developed of how we suffer in comparison to rising Soviet excellence in oceanog; raphy and the marine sciences at present. However, I believe it will become evident in the course of these hearings that we need a national oceanographic policy that places major emphasis on the utilization of the brains and talents in our institutions of higher learning.

The partnership between the Federal Government and our colleges and universities has been most successful in the past. I see no reason why we shouldn't adapt it to today's needs.

I emphasize the word “partnership.” This is what is being sought in this sea grant college bill.

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