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This is the first step toward the acquisition of an operating system. The feasibility study outlined here does not merely represent more information gathering, but serves as the working foundation for everything which is to come later. Let me discuss in a bit of detail the feasibility study. The primitive needs have been voiced by a large multitude in the Central Valley and San Francisco Bay area. There is unhappiness with the encroachment of bay waters into the delta region. There is unhappiness with the increasing salt content in the agricultural lands in the Central Valley. There is unhappiness in the San Francisco Bay area with pollution of the waters and with smog in the air. We need however to go from this statement of primitive need to a real definition of the problem.

We require an “analysis of needs” in terms of effects. What are the health effects? How does the pollution cause discomfort? What are the economic costs in terms of agricultural losses, in terms of cost to industry? What are the requirements in this region for recreation and for a beautiful and pleasing environment in which to live? When these needs have been defined in reasonably concrete terms, the feasibility study then turns to an analysis of what must be done in order to develop a solution. The amounts and types of waste being generated in this region must be measured and projections must be developed for the coming years during which the system will be in service. Data must be developed to provide a measurement of the capacity of the environment for receiving diluting and processing wastes. Quantitative relationships between pollution levels and the effects measured in the "analysis of need” step must be developed and then decisions must be made about the system boundaries and the interfaces which this system has with other activities of man of this region. When we have done this, then we have truly defined the problem and we are now in a position to initiate a search for plausible solutions.

A varity of plausible solutions must be identified and these can be sorted on the basis of which of these are potentially useful in terms of physical realizability, economical worth and financial feasibility.

The set of potentially useful solutions should have varying capability to reduce environmental pollution and will vary in their costs of implementation and operation. Their performance capability in terms of reducing pollution must be described in the same terms used during the "analysis of need” in order that the public or their representatives can make a selection of the type of system they want to buy. Only after there is clear understanding of potential costs and cost savings can the decision be made to enter upon the next step, that of preliminary design.

It should be pointed out that the feasibility study is a difficult one and extremely costly. Already large amounts of money have been spent in this region of California just trying to measure the amounts of pollution in the environment. The study and understanding of the relationship between amounts of pollution and their effects in the terms used under the “needs analysis” is a major research program in itself. The measurement of environmental processing capacity is another major research program. We anticipate that for this region a feasibility study to a depth adequate to permit proceeding to the next step in the development program will consume three to five years and cost between $8 to $10 million. Final costs and time spent to this point will depend upon other research and development programs being conducted by the state and federal government to provide fundamental information on the two research areas identified.

In addition to the need for a number of models and computer programs, our study has identified the need for a national environmental simulation facility for the study of the complex problems associated with environmental processing capacity and the relationship between pollution and effect. An artist's conception of this facility is shown in Figure 19. The geodesic dome covering approxi

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mately ten acres provides the capacity for experimentally determining the complex interactions of pollutants with environmental factors which can be controlled experimentally. This simulator would deal not only with gaseous pollutants but with liquid and solid pollutants and the interchange among all three states. Other simulators on a smaller scale are located in the attached building and are for the study of interactions of pollutants with environmental factors using only one or two variables. The central building is a supporting laboratory facility. A standby power plant is in the far corner, shops and maintenance facilities are to the left of the power plant and in the foreground, are the administration building and the animal and plant laboratories.

We feel that this facility will make significant demands upon a broad spectrum of aerospace sciences and because of this and the fact that California is a most suitable demonstration region for nationwide waste management problems, this facility should be located in California.

Senator Nelson. Our next witness is Mr. Jones, assistant to the president of North American Aviation. Mr. Jones, we are pleased to have you come here today. You don't have a prepared text?


NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC., LOS ANGELES, CALIF. Mr. Jones. Yes; we do. The text and illustrations are before you now.

We also have submitted to the committee volume I, our summary volume on our California report, I understand that the complete volume of the other four technical volumes is in the hands of the committee.

Senator NELSON. Do you want to make this presentation extemporaneously?

Mr. Jones. Yes, if I might, using the illustrations to show the group.

Senator NELSON. Fine.

Mr. Jones. Senator Nelson, I appreciate the opportunity to talk to the subcommittee.

I am Jack Jones, assistant to the president of the Los Angeles Division of North American Aviation.

I would like to emphasize, since we will be using colored slides with partial illustrations, this is just the top of the iceberg,

To be consistent with your suggestion that we should hold the presentation to 20 minutes or less, we will go very quickly through the portion of our work. However, I do not want to leave the feeling that this is just Buck Rogers and glamorous, because there is quite a bit of hard-core work behind the presentation, and I would like your subcommittee to examine it.

The work that North American did was contracted with the California Division of Highways in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads.

I believe we may be somewhat unique in the four contract orders in that we did have a Federal sponsor connected with our work and a Federal monitor throughout the entire work.

I would also like to emphasize that the Department of Commerce has evaluated our report, and I believe this evaluation can be obtained by the subcommittee if it desires.

I would also like to emphasize that we were to do three things. We were to survey the total field of transportation and try to appreciate the size of the problem and to identify the problems in transportation. Then we were to see if a system analysis team of management, or whatever you want to call it, could be applied fruitfully, and if so how.

Well, obviously, we found out that it can be applied.

We have made a detailed recommendation to the State of California as to how to apply it. It is detailed in years, and manpower

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scheduling is projected, but we were not to define transportation solutions. This was not specifically our job. Our job is to look at the entire picture.

The cover illustration has some meanings, because our task was to consider everything that moved within the State of California for the next 50 years—land, sea, and air movements.

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Of course, California has its urban areas and its recreational areas. The first task we had to do was to look at the transportation technology which might bring about changes in the future.

I am going to very briefly show a few examples of what we found we fully expect will be available in the next 50 years. Most of this equipment is expected to be available in the early part of this time.

First of all we have the tube trains. The recently passed high-speed ground transportation bill is evidence that this type of device will be developed in the very near future. When I say the near future, I am talking in the context of 50 years, so I believe Federal estimates of this sort of device can be developed and installed in the Northeast part of the Nation in about 12 to 15 years. That is the installation of the first major system.

There are several important characteristics of tube trains. First of all, those being considered seriously are in the jet airline speed class. They must be, because when you look at the economic justification of putting in a new type of installation like this, it has to be used by the public, and today we have jet airplanes flying, you know, in the 500-mile-an-hour class. There are about a half-dozen types of tube trains being pursued today, either in the laboratory or on someone's piece of paper.


The one area of longest and possibly the most extensive type is that at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Foa of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics has been experimenting with this type of device in a wind tunnel and with other experiments for over 15 years.

Just a few other remarks on what a tube train is.

The tube is provided to protect the train. It is not the usual pressure carrying device; although some tube trains require decreased pressure inside the tube.

It is primarily for the protection of the train in such cases as children throwing rocks. If the train is traveling at 500 miles an hour and hits something, it will be damaged.

The tube also protects the public from the noise of the train. Most of these devices are conceived so they can be installed above the surface, on the surface, or below the surface.

Another area of considerable technology and one which is being pushed at this time is the ground-effects machine or air-cushion machine.

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