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CONTENTS.

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CHAPTER 1.—THE ORGANS OF MOVEMENT.

3

Exercise and Work-Muscle-Nerve ; Avalanche Theory-

The Spinal Cord; Reflex Actions; Unconscious Movements,

The Brain; Reflex Movements; Voluntary Movements-The

Motor Centres; associated Muscular Actions— The Will,

Agent of Work-Muscular Contraction, Course of a Volun-

tary Stimulus; Mode of Transmission, Nervous Vibration and

the Muscular Wave-Time of Transmission; Latent Period.

CHAPTER 11.—MOVEMENTS

Associated action of different Regions during Work—How a

Blow is given with the Fist-Co-Ordination of Movements;

Antagonistic Muscles; the Muscular Sense-Ataxic patients-

Static Contraction-Stiffness in Exercise-Muscular Education

-Association of the great Organic Functions with Muscular

Movement-EffortThe Porter and his Load-Effort during

slight Expenditure of Force :-Too Hard a Nut-Frequency

of Effort in Exercise-Long Distance and Sprint Running

- Influence of Movements on the Circulation - The Quicken-

ing of the Pulse; its Mechanism—The Pulmonary Circulation

and the Active Congestion of the Lungs-Congestion of the

Brain during Movement-Dancing Dervishes—A Runaway

Horse.

CHAPTER III.-HEAT

33

The Human Motor and Heat Engines - The Mechanical

Equivalent of Heat-Heat is a Cause of Movement, not its

Effect-Heat Lost-How the Temperature of the Body is

Regulated – Effects of Heat on Muscle – Experiment of

Marey on Caoutchouc-Observation of Daily Phenomena-

Muscle Heated and Muscle Numbed by Cold-Gestures of

Anger-Why we Make preliminary Passes in Fencing-The

Hare which has just been put up-Effects of too high a

Temperature-Death of Muscle at + 45° C.

CHAPTER III.-BREATHLESSNESS (continued

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Mechanism of Breathlessness-Reflex Disturbances of the Re.

spiratory Movements — Physical Sensations and Moral Im-

pressions - Stammering Respiration-Why we become less

Breathless at a Fencing-School than in a Duel-Reflexes due

to Carbonic Acid-Reflexes are at first Useful; They become

Dangerous when Exaggerated-Dangers of Instinctive Move-

ments—Part played by the Heart in Breathlessness-

Active Congestions—Fatigue of the Heart-Muscle and Passive

Congestion of the Lungs—The Influence of the Heart is

Secondary-Cessation of Breathlessness notwithstanding the

Persisterce of Circulatory Disturbances after Exercise-

Personal Observation ; the Ascent of Canigou-Effort ; its

part in Breathlessness-Prompt Advent of Breathlessness

in Wrestling-Sprint Running and Long Distance Running

-Our observations on the Rhythm of Respiration During

Breathlessness - Inequality of Expiration and Inspiration

during Breathlessness;- Causes of this Inequality – Grave

Phenomena of Breathlessness-Action of Carbonic Acid on

the Muscular Fibres of the Heart.

CHAPTER IV.-BREATHLESSNESS (concluded)

103

Three Stages of Breathlessness-First or Salutary Stage-.

Respiration more Active, but not Insufficient-Second Stage-

Symptoms of slight Carbonic Acid Intoxication; Leaden Com-

plexion ; Breathless Respiration ; General Discomforts—Third

or Asphyxial Stage-Cerebral Disturbances ; Symptoms of

severe Carbonic Acid Intoxication; Vertigo; Unconscious

Movements; Syncope; Stoppage of the Heart--Observations

-Dangers of Running as a Sport-Too vigorous an Assault-

at-Arms—Animals succumbing to Breathlessness; the Horse

ridden to Death-Death of a Carrier Pigeon-A Hunted

Beast which Breaks Cover.

CHAPTER V.-STIFFNESS

III

Return to the Gymnasium; a Sleepless Night-Febrile Stiffness

-Three Degrees of Stiffness of Fatigue-Causes of Stiffness;

Immunity due to Habituation-Explanation of Symptoms

Imperfection of Theories—Local Symptoms; They are due

to 'Trauma-General Symptoms; They are due to an Auto-

intoxication - Deposits of Urates Influence of Muscular

Exercise on their Formation ; Diversity of opinions of

Authors — Personal Observations -- Conditions which cause

Variations in the Formation of Deposits after Work-Slow

appearance of the Deposits after Exercise.— Influence of

the Intensity of the Work on their Formation - Hitherto

misunderstood influence of Training-Constant Correlation

observed between the Production of Stiffness and the

Formation of Deposits-This Correlation is found in all

circumstances which render the Individual more liable to

Fatigue--Influence of Moral Causes on Consecutive Fatigue

and on the Deposits

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CHAPTER VI.-STIFFNESS (concluded).

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Objection to Our Theory-Are Urinary Deposits due to the

Perspiration produced by Exercise ?-Observations opposed

to the opinion of Authors on this Subject-An Experiment

in Fatigue : Rowing from Limoges to Paimbeuf-Agreement

of Observations with Chemical Analysis-Exercise produces

a Uricæmic condition-Analogy of Stiffness of Fatigue

with certain Febrile conditions-Stiffness of Fatigue and an

Attack of Gout-Cause of Immunity from Stiffness when in

Training - Function of Reserve Materials Products of

Dissimilation Part played by Uric Acid in Stiffness

Stiffness is an Auto-Intoxication.

CHAPTER VII.-OVERWORK.

134

Overwork is Exaggerated Fatigue-Different forms of Over-

Work-Acute Overwork ; Death from Breathlessness-Sub-

acute Overwork—The Stag hunted to Death-Forced Game;

Rapid Cadaveric Rigidity; Prompt Putrefaction- Mechanism

of Death by sub-acute Overwork-Auto-Intoxication by pro-

ducts of Dissimilation-Extractives, Lactic Acid-Discoveries

of Gautier; Poisons of Living Organisms; Leucomaines-Rarity

of sub-acute Overwork in Man-The Soldier of Marathon

-Observations on rapid Cadaveric Rigidity in Men Dying in

a condition of Overwork-Curious positions of the bodies;

Horror-stricken Expressions in Persons who have been

Assassinated - Effects of Overwork the Flesh of

Animals—Dangers of Eating Overworked Flesh-Culinary

Qualities given to Flesh in certain cases by Overwork

Suffering a cause of Overwork — Cruelty of a Butcher,

Chronic Overwork the form most frequently observed in

Man.

CHAPTER VIII.-OVERWORK (continued)

145

The Disorders of Overwork—Pseudo-Typhoid Fevers—Auto-

infection and Auto-Typhisation-Opinion of Professor Peter

-Microbes and Leucomaines-Frequency of Fevers of Over-

work-Greater predisposition of Adolescents -Two personal

Observations—Abuse of Fencing and too much of the Trapeze

-Overwork in the Army-Too Energetic a Colonel-Forced

Manæuvres-Overwork a cause aggravating Disease--Infec.

tive forms assumed by the mildest Disorders in Overworked

systems-So-called Sunstroke of Soldiers on the March-The

large influence of Overwork in the production of these Dis.

orders-Rarity of Sunstroke in Horse-Soldiers; its frequency

in Foot-Soldiers-Spares persons habituated to Fatigue

Rarity of Sunstroke in Harvest Men.

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