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show that they must have arisen from what have been called Parasitic Hymenoptera, and the structure of the ants and bees shows that they in turn must have arisen from primitive Sphecoids or Vespoids.

(2). The social wasps comprise several groups which have evolved independently from primitive, solitary Vespoids, but there are also a few Sphecoids that exhibit subsocial propensities.

(3). Both the Sphecoids and the Vespoids are primarily predaceous and feed on freshly captured insects, but the adults are fond of visiting flowers and feeding on nectar. Some social wasps store honey in their nests, but it is probably not an exclusive or essential constituent of the larval food. One small and aberrant group of solitary Vespoids, the Masarinæ, however, provision their cells with a paste of honey and pollen, like the solitary bees. The insect prey on which at least the young of nearly all the wasps subsist, being extremely rich in fats and proteids, is an ideal food, but has to be provided in larger quantity than such concentrated vegetable substances as pollen and nectar. It is also scarcer and more difficult to obtain. Hence the definite tendency in adult wasps towards a honey regimen at least for the purpose of eking out the primitive animal diet.

(4). We are able to observe in the social wasps more clearly than in other social insects the peculiar phenomenon which I have called "trophallaxis," i. e., the mutual exchange of food between adults and their larval young.

(5). The study of the wasps and of their ancestors among the Parasitic Hymenoptera furnishes us with a key to the understanding of parthenogenesis and the peculiar dominance of the female sex (gynarchy) which is retained throughout the whole group of stinging Hymenoptera (wasps, bees and ants).

(6). In the social wasps we witness the first gradual development of a worker caste and also of polygyny and swarming.

(7). We observe in wasps a high degree of modifiability of behavior and an extraordinary development of memory, endowments which have led McDougall to claim for them "a degree of intelligence which (with the doubtful exception of the higher mammals) approaches most nearly to the human," and Bergson to point to their activities as one of the most telling arguments in favor of his intuitional theory of instinct. Although I believe that these and many other authors have been guilty of some exaggeration the wasp's psychic powers compared with those of most other insects or even of many of the lower Vertebrates seem to me, nevertheless, to be sufficiently remarkable.

We shall have to examine each of these generalizations more closely. Some of them may be considered forthwith, others more advantageously after the description and illustration of a selected series of species.

Recent studies of the parasitic, or as I prefer to call them with 0. M. Reuter, the "parasitoid” Hymenoptera, have revealed certain peculiar traits which recur in a modified form in the behavior of their Sphecoid and Vespoid descendants. But what are these parasitoids? You are all familiar with the fact that a large number of insects regularly lay their eggs on or in plants and that the hatching larvæ devour the plant tissues and eventually pupate and emerge as insects which repeat the same cycle of behavior. There is, however, another immense, but less conspicuous, assemblage of insects that lay their eggs on or in the living eggs, larvæ, pupa and adults of other insects, and the eggs thus deposited develop into larvæ which gradually devour the softer tissues in which they happen to find themselves. Species that behave in this manner are not true parasites, but extremely economical predators, because they eventually kill their victims, but before doing so spare them as much as possible in order that they may continue to feed and grow and thus yield fresh nutriment just as it is needed. For this reason and also because, as a rule, only the larval insect behaves in the manner described, it is best called a parasitoid." The adult into which it develops is, in fact, a very highly organized, active, free-living creature, totally devoid of any of the stigmata of “degeneration” so common among parasites, and with such exquisitely perfected sensory, nervous and muscular organs that it can detect its prey in the most intricate environment and under the subtlest disguises.

The parasitoids exhibit another peculiarity which was destined to acquire great importance in their descendants, the wasps, bees and ants, namely, parthenogenesis, or the ability of the female to lay unfertilized eggs capable of complete development. As a rule, if not always, these parthenogenetic eggs develop into males, whereas fertilized eggs laid by the same female develop into individuals of her own sex. Thus the female has become to some extent independent of the male in the matter of reproduction. It will be seen that if the parthenogenetic egg were able to develop into a female, as it frequently does in certain insects like the plant-lice, the male might become entirely superfluous. There are a few insects in which this has occurred or in which the male appears only at infrequent intervals in a long series of generations. But matters have not come to such a pass in the parasitoids or in the wasps, bees and ants, though these insects have perfected another method of reducing the male to a mere episode in the life of the female. Individuals of this sex are provided with a small muscular sac, the spermatheca, which is filled with sperm during the single act of mating, and this sac is provided with glands, the secretion of which may keep the sperm alive for months or even years. According to a generally accepted theory, the female can voluntarily contract the wall of her spermatheca and thus permit sperm to leave it and fertilize the eggs as they are passing its orifice on their way to being laid, or she can keep the orifice closed and thus lay unfertilized eggs. The mother can thus control the sex of her offspring or if she has failed to mate, or has exhausted all the sperm in her spermatheca, may nevertheless be able to lay male-producing eggs. There seems also to be something compensatory, or regulatory, in this ability of the female parasitoid to produce males parthenogenetically, for if she be unable to meet with a male—and this predicament is very apt to arise among such small and widely dispersed animals as insects—she can produce the missing sex and thus increase the chances of mating for the next generation of females.

Certain facts indicate that the sex of the egg may not be determined in the manner here described, but their consideration must be postponed till they can be taken up in connection with the honey-bee. We are justified, notwithstanding, in regarding the female parasitoid, wasp, bee or ant, after she has appropriated and stored in her spermatheca all the essential elements of the male, as a potential hermaphrodite. The body, or soma, of the male, after mating, thus really becomes superfluous and soon perishes. In the solitary wasps the male is a nonentity, although in a few species he may hang around and try to guard the nest. But in the bees, ants and social wasps he has not even the status of a loafing policeman, and all the activities of the community are

rie on by the females, and mostly by widows, debutantes and spinsters. The facts certainly compel even those who, like myself, are neither feminists nor vegetarians, to confess that the whole trend of evolution in the most interesting of social insects is towards an ever increasing matriarchy, or gynarchy and vegetarianism.

Now if we carefully observe a parasitoid while she is ovipositing in her prey, we obtain a clue to the meaning of the peculiar behavior of the solitary wasps which has led Fabre to certain erroneous conclusions and philosophers like Bergson to his peculiar interpretation of instinct. The parasitoid is furnished at the posterior end of her body with a well-developed ovipositor, a slender, pointed instrument for piercing the tough integument of her victim. But this instrument also has another function, namely, that of making punctures through which droplets of the victim's blood may exude and be devoured by the parasitoid. She may often be

seen thrusting her ovipositor into her prey without ovipositing and merely for the sake of obtaining food, or she may feed at a puncture she has made while ovipositing. Obviously feeding and oviposition are here congenitally, or hereditarily conditioned reflexes, to use Pawlow's expression. In other words, the internal hunger and reproductive stimuli, or appetites, are so intimately associated with one another that mere contact with the prey releases either the feeding or the ovipositing reactions, or both. And, of course, both of these reactions are purely selfish, the one being concerned with getting food, the other with getting relief from the discomfort of egg-pressure in the ovaries, and both may initiate elaborate trains or patterns of behavior (instincts). This is true not only of the parasitoids but also of insects in general.

Turning now to the solitary wasps we find that, like the parasitoids, they prey on other insects and that each species of wasp usually has a predilection for a particular species (Figs. 18 and 19), genus or family of insects, or even for a particular sex, as in the case of one of our common wasps, Aphilanthops frigidus, which preys only on queen ants. The chief difference

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Dolichurus stantoni of the Philippines dragging a young cockroach (Blatella

bisignata) to her burrow. x 6. (After F. X. Williams).

between the parasitoid and the solitary wasp lies in the fact that the latter lays her egg on or near her victim after stinging it till it is motionless. The sting is merely the ovipositor which is now used only for defence or for reducing the prey to impotence, while the mouth-parts and especially the mandibles are used for obtaining food. Many solitary wasps, after stinging their prey,

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FIG. 19 A. Female of a Bethylid wasp Epyris extraneus, of the Philippines; B. Tenebrionid beetle, Gonocephalum seriatum; C. Larva of the same with egg of E. extraneus on middle of ventral surface; D. Young E. extraneus larva feeding on the larva of G. seriatum; E. Later stage of same; F. Pupa of E.

extraneus; G. Cocoon of same. (After F. X. Williams).

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