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all his congenital competency, from which the discerning observer may estimate how much ability he has and judge if he has enough to be considered normal. Let six-year-old children of normal competency grow up without instruction in school subjects, and therefore below the point of literacy on the intellectual scale, and they will be arrested in development at the level which defines the low grade imbecile. Let them, however, grow in stature, strength and endurance, in social conformity and sexual proficiency, and they could raise and support a family, if it were not for the difficulties provided by what in our pride we call “civilization.” During the war, some imbecile children in the city of Philadelphia, arrested under the compulsory education law, were earning more than the truant officer who arrested them. It is not the inherent difficulty of earning a living and raising a family which makes the task impossible for those whose mental age is not more than six years; it is the grocer, the landlord and the employer, competitors whom they must outwit in the struggle for existence, ease and comfort. Civilization implies an average intellectual level. The farther a man's intellectual level falls below the mode, the more intelligence y he will need.
No one has ever devised an intelligence test that tests intelli1 gence and nothing else. In consequence, the results of so-called
intelligence tests have significance only when analyzed and interpreted in relation to a particular set of antecedent conditions and attending circumstances. The Binet intelligence quotient, for example, is a measure of proficiency, and in those making low scores it may indicate anything in the way of ability or deficiency except intelligence. We do not observe or measure intelligence—we observe performance and measure its effects. A few intelligent performances will cause us to anticipate more of the same sort, and even an intelligent look may lead us to expect intelligent behavior. Intelligence is not a fact, but an explanatory concept derived from the observation of facts. It is a diagnostic category like courage or honesty, the diagnosis being in effect the verbal expression of an expectation.
In order to test the ability to solve a new problem, an intelligence test must provide that many members of a homogeneous group will fail, and that all but a few will make many errors before they achieve success. Those who make many attempts in a given time are more likely to succeed than those who make only a few attempts. Intelligence, therefore, is directly proportional to initiative and inversely proportional to the number of errors made, provided the errors are not too few. To measure a performer's intelligence one must know the time reguired to achieve success, but one must
not neglect to observe the performer at work and to take into the consideration the number and kind of errors made and how he corrects them. Intelligence is displayed through the operation of trial and error. An intelligence test is adjusted to the intellectual level of a group when those who succeed do not outnumber those who fail.
At the Psychological Clinic, an eleven block formboard is employed as an intelligence test. It may be solved in eleven moves in about eleven seconds, but anyone who solves it thus displays efficiency not intelligence. This formboard is an intelligence test at or about the four year old intellectual level, because not more than 50 per cent. of four year old children are able to solve it, even with a time allowance of one hundred seconds. No two year old child has ever passed the test; about 25 per cent. of three year old children have passed it, and approximately 100 per cent. of six year olds. If I know nothing about a particular child except that he is four years old, the odds are even that he will pass the test. If he is three years old, the odds are three to one that he will fail.
Intelligence is displayed in a performance that succeeds against adverse odds; stupidity is failure despite favoring odds. At any moment a future of some sort confronts us, and often we have nothing better than a gambler's guess for guide. When the odds favor failure, we have only a gambler's chance of winning; if we plunge and win despite the adverse odds, we have had a gambler's luck. The success of an intelligent player who uses all the resources at his command to win fortune, whether at cards or in business, has a very different diagnostic significance from the “dumb luck” of inheriting money or finding it.
Intelligence, then, is a successful leap into the dark. “A man never rises so high," said Oliver Cromwell, “as when he knows not whither he is going.” Converting the words of a madman into a slogan of success, Browning thus portrays the morale of the adventurer at the critical moment when success or failure hangs upon the issue of performance:
There they stood, ranged along the hillsides, met
To view the last of me, a living frame
For one more picture! in a sheet of flame
And blew, “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower came.
long as it be original to the performer, the product of an imagination that outruns knowledge, of an ingenuity that outdoes skill.
If this is a novelty to the beholder, it may inspire admiration, appreciation or wonder. If it is too novel, it will arouse distaste, fear and a destroying hatred. The more shocking a product of the creative imagination, the greater the presumption that genius inspired it, provided the production is something worth while.
The American readers of Walt Whitman's “Leaves of Grass" were too shocked to appreciate the singular novelties of thought and diction concealed beneath the innocent botanical title. When he walked the streets of Philadelphia and Camden, he was ignored by those whom a recent French critic calls his “rustic compatriots.” Now that French and English writers have discovered him to be the most original of American poets, his peculiar genius is not without honor even in his own country, save only perhaps in those classic centers of intellectual conservatism—the departments of English literature in our universities.
The Declaration of American Independence started a long war; it eventuated in a form of government as new to the Europe of that day as the Russian Soviet is now; it enthused and emboldened the French Revolutionists; it brought in its train the doctrine of self-determination; it helped to promote the Russian revolution and the success of the Irish Sinn Fein; it was signed by men who felt the hangman's noose about their necks, and only the successful outcome of the adventure kept the noose from being drawn tight.
nor what anything is for),
American patriots, those in particular who would be considered sons or daughters of the Revolution, ought to bear tenaciously in mind that resistance to constituted authority, as well as intelligence and compromise, went into the making of our Constitution.
Intelligence, then, plays a lone hand. It is individualism rampant, and may stake livelihood, happiness, life itself against the opinions and concerted actions of a public horrified by the strangeness of its creations. It is a minor group trying to outplay the majority. It is youth and inexperience trying to outdo old age and wisdom. It is eccentricity successfully opposing the prevailing mode.
The judgments of society, like the verdicts of juries, are not always easy to predict, and are susceptible to strange and rapid
transmutation. Not more than a century ago a Unitarian could be stoned on the streets of Boston. To-day, a Unitarian is Chief Justice, a member of the most conservative branch of one of the most conservative governments in Christendom. John Brown's body hardly lay a-mouldering in the grave before his soul went marching on at the head of forces, military and political, which made possible Lincoln's “Emancipation Proclamation," a document destroying much private property, but, nevertheless, acceptable to what had become, by then, the dominant opinion in American politics. When Socrates was condemned to death, his moral teachings were, by due process of law, adjudged subversive of religion and good government, a source of corruption to youth. “When men revile you and persecute you, rejoide' and bé exceeding glad, for great is your reward in Heaven, for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you."
The non-conforming genius appears to lose; but once dead and safely buried, he lives in monument and story, the stakes he plays for being held by the unborn, while those who seemingly outplayed him join the unknown multitudes that survive, if at all, only in their progeny.
What, then, is success? It is the approbation of the many, or a few, now or at some future time. In the last analysis, it is what the individual himself deems worth while. Originality, therefore, is appreciated non-conformity. Intelligence is successful eccenx tricity. It is energy so controlled and directed that a worth while pattern of performance is created. Except for the necessity of conforming to some standard of appreciation, and it may be merely self-appreciation, intelligence is free initiative, unconstrained by
definite ends. To exercise a man's intelligence, he must be left ( free to do what he desires ; he must be given every opportunity to
make mistakes, in the hope that he will profit by experience. If a child falls down, don't pick him up unless he is in imminent danger-let him learn to pick himself up. If men fall into error, don't correct them by telling them the truth; let them flounder in error until they find out the truth for themselves. This is Nature's way of promoting intelligence.
When our first schoolmaster entered the Garden of Eden in the guise of a serpent, and forced Eve to choose between innocence and knowledge, he made the oldest recorded test of human behavior, and Eve responded to it with intelligence. If this first disobedience brought death into the world and all our woe,” it also brought what we hold dear-civilization (we thought it worth fighting for), the home, the church, the state, our educational system, private property and the inventions of intellect and art. Without fully
realizing what she was doing, Eve rejected a life of ease, comfort and machinelike perfection, choosing the hard and devious path that led from Paradise to the civilized communities which harbor her descendants. Her choice assured them a life of toil, discontent and conflict, all the trouble necessary to exercise their intelligence, train their efficiency and develop their intellect. What more successful outcome would you ask of a simple venture into the unknown, inspired by hardly more than curiosity, motivated by discontent, and determined, it would seem, by the spirit of revolt against authority? Curiosity is the mother urge of science and truth; discontent awakens aspiration, and amongst the traits of character most frequently associated with creative imagination are ambition, audacity, aspiration, the love of adventure, and, most significant of all, a disregard of authority, leading perhaps to the defiance of privilege and public opinion. “He had every quality of a great commander except insubordination,” Lord Fisher said of the British admiral who lost, or won, the battle of Jutland.
To teach a student to think for himself is to teach him to disregard authority, including his teacher's. For this reason it is not a common practice of the teaching profession, although it receives much enthusiastic verbal appreciation. Parents, however, are not at all hesitant about expressing their disapproval when a child produces some new idea contradicting well-established convictions. The father of Richard Feveril states a parental ideal in these words: “I require not only that my son should obey. I would have him guiltless of the impulse to gainsay my wishes.” He would have added “opinions'' could he have conceived it possible for these to be called in question.
Freedom of thought began with the liberty of conscience so outspokenly maintained by the Hebrew prophets, of whom the greatest was also the last, the apostle Paul, who borrowed the characteristic freedom of Hellenic thought to project a new religion. Christianity has fostered freedom of thought and action, though not excessively nor hurriedly. Intellectual, like material, possessions are acquired arduously, and, once acquired, they are held with the same bitter tenacity--the old time religion, the old Constitution, the ancient literature and even that intellectual absurdity—the old science. A mother recently wrote to the dean of a scientific school, asking whether a boy who studied engineering there would be exposed to the theory of evolution, because if this were possible, she proposed to send him to some other school. “Why does a professor have to introduce new and debatable topics for discussion in the classroom?” I have heard the question asked even in academic circles. “Isn't there a large enough body of safe