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also; which was probably done, according to a method we have often seen in the East, by introducing a wick into a lump of grease, which is set in a lamp, or in a round hollow vessel made for the purpose. The heat of the kindled wick, as in a candle, gradually melts as much of the fat as is required to feed the flame. The inconvenience of the deprivation of the useful lard of hogs for this and other purposes, seems to have given occasion to an explanation that the prohibition was not to be understood to imply that the fat of hogs might not be obtained by purchase from the Gentiles.
The prohibition of keeping hogs does not appear to have had complete effect, as regulations are made concerning towns in which hogs were kept; and the keepers of swine are mentioned as contemptible and infamous wretches, so that it was a favourite term of great abuse to call a person "a hog-breeder" or "a swine-herd." Although therefore it may be likely that the herds of swine, here mentioned, were the property of the heathen who certainly did live with the Jews in the towns of this neighbourhood, it is not impossible that they belonged to Jews, who kept them in despite of the prohibitions we have mentioned.
1 Christ sendeth his apostles to work miracles, and to preach. 7 Herod desired to see Christ. 17 Christ feedeth five thousand: 18 enquireth what opinion the world had of him: foretelleth his passion: 23 proposeth to all the pattern of his patience. 28 The transfiguration. 37 He healeth the lunatick: 43 again forewarneth his disciples of his passion: 48 commendeth humility: 51 biddeth them to shew mildness towards all, without desire of revenge. 57 Divers would follow him, but upon conditions. THEN 'he called his twelve disciples together, and gave them power and authority over all devils, and to cure diseases.
2 And he sent them to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.
3 And he said unto them, Take nothing for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip, neither bread, neither money; neither have two coats apiece.
4 And whatsoever house ye enter into, there abide, and thence depart.
5 And whosoever will not receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off the very dust from your feet for a testimony against them.
6 And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the Gospel, and healing every where.
7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said of some, that John was risen from the dead;
spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.
12 And when the day began to wear away, then came the twelve, and said unto him, Send the multitude away, that they may go into the towns and country round about, and lodge, and get victuals: for we are here in a desert place.
13 But he said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they said, We have no more but five loaves and two fishes; except we should go and buy meat for all this people.
14 For they were about five thousand men. And he said to his disciples, Make them sit down by fifties in a company.
15 And they did so, and made them all sit down.
16 Then he took the five loaves and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed them, and brake, and gave to the disciples to set before the multitude.
17 And they did eat, and were all filled: and there was taken up of fragments that remained to them twelve baskets.
18 And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him: and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?
19 They answering said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias; and others say, that one of the old prophets is risen again.
20 He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.
21 And he straitly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man that thing:
22 Saying, "The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and Chief Priests and Scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
23 And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow
24 For whosoever will save his life shall
Matt, 16, 13, Matt. 17.22. 7 Matt. 10, 38.
Matt. 14. 13. 4 Matt. 14. 15.
lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.
25 For what is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away?
26 For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels.
27 10But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God.
28¶"And it came to pass about an eight days after these "sayings, he took Peter and John and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.
29 And as he prayed, the fashion of his countenance was altered, and his raiment was white and glistering.
30 And, behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias:
31 Who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he should accomplish at Jerusalem.
34 While he thus spake, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud.
35 And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
36 And when the voice was past, Jesus was found alone. And they kept it close, and told no man in those days any of those things which they had seen.
37 And it came to pass, that on the next day, when they were come down from the hill, much people met him.
38 And, behold, a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child.
39 And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him hardly departeth from him.
Matt. 16, 26. Mark 8.36.
40 And I besought thy disciples to cast him out; and they could not.
41 And Jesus answering said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither.
9 Matt. 10. 33. 10 Matt. 16. 28. 15 Matt, 18, 1, Mark 9,34.
45 But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not and they feared to ask him of that saying. 46
Then there arose a reasoning among them, which of them should be greatest.
47 And Jesus, perceiving the thought of their heart, took a child, and set him by him,
48 And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me receiveth him that sent me : for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great.
49 And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not with us.
50 And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us.
51 And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,
52 And sent messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.
53 And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.
54 And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, "Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as "Elias did?
55 But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of.
14 Matt. 17. 22.
56 For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another village.
57¶And it came to pass, that, as they went in the way, a certain man said unto him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.
58 And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
59 And he said unto another, Follow
18 Matt. 8. 19.
Verse 53. "Because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.”—The road from Galilee to Jerusalem lay through Samaria. One of the grand points of controversy between the Jews and Samaritans was, as stated by the woman of Samaria, "Our fathers worshipped in this mountain (Gerizim); but ye say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship" (John iv. 20). Believing therefore that their own temple, on Mount Gerizim, was the place to which all worship should tend, their zeal and the bitterness of their hate was particularly excited against those Jews who. on the periodical occasions, passed through their lands to worship at Jerusalem, at the passover and other public festivals. There does not seem to have been much hospitality or kind feeling between the Jews and Samaritans at any time; but probably they would not have refused to receive Jewish passengers into their towns and villages merely from understanding that they were going to Jerusalem, unless they knew that they were going there expressly to worship at the Temple, which they could not but know when numerous people passed through their lands on the recurrence of the great festival. Of all festivals the one most likely to excite their animosity was the Feast of the Dedication of that tempie, which was to them so obnoxious, and which appears to have been the very festival which Jesus and his disciples were now proceeding to attend.
me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.
60 Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God.
61 And another also said, Lord, I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell, which are at home at my house.
62 And Jesus said unto him, No men, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.
19 Matt. 8. 21.
We learn from Josephus that the journey from Galilee to Jerusalem, on occasion of the festivals, usually took three days; and he mentions that the passage through the land of the Samaritans on such occasions was sometimes attended with disturbances and even bloodshed. He relates in particular one remarkable affray, after the time of our Saviour, when some Galileans were attacked, and many of them slain by the Samaritans in their way to Jerusalem at one of the festivals. This affair made a great stir, particularly when the Jews, finding that the procurator (Cumanus, the predecessor of Felix) had been bribed by the Samaritans, avenged their own cause upon them with fire and sword. In consequence of this, many Galileans were put to death by Quadratus the president of Syria, who ultimately sent all the leading parties to Rome for trial. The result was that the emperor Claudius ordered all the Samaritans who had been sent to Rome to be put to death; Cumanus, the procurator, to be banished; and Celer, the tribune who had been active against the Jews, to be sent to Jerusalem, and there to be drawn through the city and publicly executed.
60. "Let the dead bury their dead.”—This, certainly, has a singular sound, and has taken its place among the difficult passages of Scripture. But to a Jew, who was familiar with the idea involved, its meaning must have been instantly clear. The term “dead” is here used both in its figurative and literal acceptation. It was common among the Jews to describe an ungodly or sinful person as one dead though alive. Our Saviour therefore means to say that one who had an urgent call to follow Him, might leave even his dead father to be buried by his other sons or other relatives who were "dead" to the great concerns of eternal life. By this remarkable instance-strong even to seeming harshness-our Lord did most pointedly indicate the superior object and higher duty to which all others must give place.
62. "Put his hand to the plough, and looking back."-This proverbial expression, derived from the labours of agriculture, has been illustrated by parallel citations from the heathen poets. It was necessary that the ploughman should give his undivided attention to the work before him, that his furrow might be kept straight. This therefore aptly inculcates that he who would take up his cross to follow Christ, should not-" Cast one longing, lingering look behind" upon the world and its concerns.
1 Christ sendeth out at once seventy disciples to work miracles, and to preach: 17 admonisheth them to be humble, and wherein to rejoice: 21 thanketh his Father for his grace: 23 magnifieth the happy estate of his Church: 25 teacheth the Lawyer how to attain eternal life, and to take every one for his neighbour that needeth his mercy: 41 reprehendeth Martha, and commendeth Mary
AFTER 'these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.
1 Matt. 10. 1.
* Matt. 9. 37.
5 Matt. 11. 21. • Matt. 10. 40. 7 Many ancient copies add these words, And turning to his disciples, he said, 9 Matt. 22. 35. 10 See Matt, 20, 2.
Matt. 13. 16.
thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves?
37 And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.
38¶Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house.
39 And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his
40 But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me.
41 And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things:
42 But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.
Verse 4. "Salute no man by the way."-See the note on Ps. cxxix. 8. In their salutations, on meeting, much time is often consumed by the Orientals in mutual inquiries and compliments, manual and oral. They are also fond of inquiring into all the business-such as the name, native place, residence, and present object of persons they meet on the road and who return their salutation. In this no offence or impertinence is intended or taken. It is the habit of the people and the custom of the country. But a stranger not familiar with the custom, or, from the more reserved habits of his own country, not disposed to disclose himself fully to every one he meets, is apt to be much annoyed, and finds it difficult to get rid of the questioner without exciting suspicion. The Orientals, who in general have little idea of the value of time, do not mind the loss of it which is thus involved. Yet they were so far sensible of it, that it appears to have been the practice to inculcate upon messengers, who were sent upon business which required dispatch, that they should not salute any one by the way. Compare 2 Kings iv. 29. The restriction on this point, will be the better understood when it is stated that it was a maxim among the Jews to salute every one by the way. Exceptions were indeed made with respect to such as were mourners, and those who fasted; these not being expected to offer or return any salutation. That our Saviour did not intend to intimate any objection to proper salutations of civility and respect, appears clearly enough from what immediately follows, where the disciples are instructed to salute the house to which they came in the customary form ;-" Peace be to this house."
13. "Chorazin.”—This place is nowhere mentioned but in this and the parallel texts, and in these only by way of reference. It would seem to have been a town of some note, on the shores of the lake of Galilee, and near Capernaum, along with which and Bethsaida its name occurs. The answer of the natives to Dr. Richardson, when he enquired concerning Capernaum (see the note on iv. 31), connected Chorazin in the same manner with that city.
30. "Went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves."-Jericho was at this time a very important city; indeed, it would seem from Josephus to have been next in consequence to Jerusalem itself. At this place also twelve thousand priests and Levites were stationed, with a view to the rotation of service at Jerusalem. Hence the peculiar propriety with which our Lord introduces the priest and Levite as passing this way. The road to Perea, beyond Jordan, also passed this way, whence it was one of the most frequented roads of Palestine. How fitly the road from Jerusalem to Jericho was made the scene of this interesting story, will appear when it is understood that this road has always been infested by numerous daring and desperate robbers; and its character is so notorious, even at the present day, in this respect, that travellers are rarely allowed by the governor of Jerusalem to proceed to Jericho and the Dead Sea without an escort. Josephus intimates, and Jerome says, that the savage mountainous wilderness through which this road passed had acquired the name of the bloody way. The monks however have restricted this name, or rather that of the "Valley of Abdonim" (blood), to a small round, grassy valley, which they have fixed upon as the place where the supposed facts of this parable took place. That the region is well suited for a scene of robbery and murder will appear by the following, from Mr. Buckingham:
"The whole of this road from Jerusalem to Jericho is held to be the most dangerous about Palestine; and, indeed, in this portion of it, the very aspect of the scenery is sufficient, on the one hand, to tempt to robbery and murder, and, on the other, to occasion a dread of it in those who pass that way. It was partly to prevent any accident happening to us at this early stage of our journey, and partly perhaps to calm our fears on that score, that a messenger had been despatched by our guides to an encampment of their tribe near, desiring them to send an escort to meet us at this place. We were met here accordingly by a band of about twenty persons, on foot, all armed with matchlocks, and presenting the most ferocious and robber-like appearance that could be imagined. The effect of this was heightened by the shouts which they sent forth from hill to hill, and which were re-echoed through all the valleys; while the bold projecting crags of rock, and the dark shadows in which every thing was buried below, the towering height of the cliffs above, and the forbidding desolation which everywhere reigned around, presented a picture that was quite in harmony throughout all its parts. It made us feel most forcibly the propriety of its being chosen as the scene of the delightful tale of compassion which we had before so often admired for its doctrine, independently of its local beauty. In these gloomy solitudes, pillage, wounds, and death would be accompanied with double terror from the frightful aspect of every thing around. Here the unfeeling act of passing by a fellow-creature in distress, as the Priest and Levite are said to have done, strikes one with horror, as an act almost more than inhuman. And here, too, the compassion of the Good Samaritan is doubly virtuous, from the purity of the motive which must have led to it, in a spot where no eyes were fixed on him to draw forth the performance of any duty, and from the courage which was necessary to admit of a man's exposing himself, by such delay, to the risk of a similar fate to that from which he was endeavouring to rescue a fellow-creature."
If space allowed, we should also be glad to transcribe the account which Sir F. naked by the Arabs, and left severely wounded, on this road, in the year 1820. cumstance happened to the monk Brocard (not indeed two hundred years ago, thirteenth century. Many other testimonies might be collected of the dangerous
Henniker gives of his being stripped As this traveller states, a similar cirhe says, but), towards the end of the character of the road from Jerusalem