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43 Stat. 177.
Sec. 5. The last sentence of section 46 of the Healing Arts Practice Corporation Act, District of Columbia, 1928, as amended (D.C. Code, sec. 2–137), Counsel, enforce- is further amended by striking out "by said Cnited States District ment functions. Attorney when instituted on behalf of the Commission, and” and hy 45 Stat. 1340.
striking out “when instituted on behalf of the Commissioners of said District or by the major and superintendent of police of said District”.
Sec. 6. The fourth sentence of section 8 of the Act entitled “An Act to define the term 'registered nurse' and to provide for the regis
tration of nurses in the District of Columbia", approved February 9, 45 Stat. 1521. 1907, as amended (D.C. Code, sec. 2-407), is amended by striking out
"United States Attorney for the District of Columbia" and inserting in lieu thereof “Corporation Counsel of the District of Columbia”.
Sec. 7. Section 2 of the Act entitled “An Act to regulate the practice of optometry in the District of Columbia”, approved May 28, 1924 (D.C. Code, sec. 2-502), is amended by adding at the end thereof the
following new sentence: “Prosecutions for violations of this Act shall 79 STAT. 1308. be conducted in the name of the District of Columbia by the Corpora79 STAT. 1309. tion Counsel."'. Accountants.
Sec. 8. Section 9 of the Act entitled “An Act to create a board of
accountancy for the District of Columbia, and for other purposes", 42 Stat. 1263. approved February 17, 1923 (D.C. Code, sec. 2-909), is amended by
adding at the end thereof the following new sentence: “Prosecutions for violations of this Act shall be conducted in the name of the District
of Columbia by the Corporation Counsel.”. Repeal.
Sec. 9. (a) Sections 425 to 428, inclusive, of the Act entitled “An Act to revise and consolidate the statutes of the United States, general and permanent in their nature, relating to the District of Columbia, in force on the first day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three”, approved June 22, 1874
(D.C. Code, secs. 4-168–171, inclusive), are hereby repealed. Private detec- (b) The Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia tives, bond shall by regulation require that bonds in the amount of not more requirement. than $25,000 shall be furnished and kept in force by all persons
licensed as private detectives in the District of Columbia. Bonds required by this section shall be corporate bonds and shall run to the District and shall be conditioned upon the observance by the licensed private detective and any agent, employee, or person actirig in behalf of the licensed private detective of all laws and regulations in force in the District of Columbia applicable to the conduct of persons licensed as private detectives. Such bonds shall be for the benefit of any person who may suffer damages as a result of violation of any law or regulation by or on the part of any licensed private detective or any agent, employee, or person acting on the behalf of any private detective. In addition to any right to any other legal action, any person aggrieved by the violation of any law or regulation by a licensed private detective may bring suit against the surety on a bond required by this section either alone or jointly with the principal thereon and recover damages for such violation of law or regulation in an amount not to exceed the penal amount of the bond. The provisions of the second, third, and fifth subparagraphs of paragraph (b) of the first section of the Act entitled “An Act to grant additional powers to the Commissioners, and for other purposes”, approved December 20, 1944 (58 Stat. 820; sec. 1-244 (b), D.C. Code), shall be applicable to each bond authorized by this section as if it were the bond authorized by the first subparagraph of such paragraph (b): Provided, That nothing in this subsection shall be construed to impose upon the surety on any such bond a greater liability than the total amount thereof or the amount remaining unextinguished after any
79 STAT. 1309
SEC. 10. The last sentence of the first section of the Act entitled "An Act to provide for the conservation and settlement of estates of absentees, etc. absentees and absconders in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes", approved April 8, 1935, as amended (D.C. Code, sec. 20701), is amended by striking out "The United States attorney in and for the District of Columbia" and inserting in lieu thereof "The Ante, pp. 733, Corporation Counsel of the District of Columbia".
SEC. 11. Sections 5 through 8, inclusive, and section 10 shall take effect thirty days from the approval of this Act, but shall not in any case apply to proceedings instituted prior to the approval of this Act. Section 9 of this Act shall take effect on the first day of the first full license year for licensing of private detectives and detective agencies prescribed by section 7 of the Act approved July 1, 1902 (32 Stat.
49 Stat. 111;
785. Effective date.
622, ch. 1352), as amended (sec. 47-2301, et seq., D.C. Code), which 47 Stat. 550. begins at least ninety days after approval of this Act. Approved November 8, 1965.
HOUSE REPORT No. 1129 (Comm. on the District of Columbia).
8 9th Congress, s. 1357
June 22, 1966
80 STAT. 214 To revise existing bail practices in courts of the United States, and for other
Be it enacted by the Senate and Ilouse of Representatives of the I'nited States of America in ('ongress assembled, That this Act may Bail Reform be cited as the “Bail Reform Act of 1966".
Act of 1966. SEC. 2. The purpose of this Act is to revise the practices relating to bail to assure that all persons, regardless of their financial status, shall mot needlessly be detained pending their appearance to answer charges, to testify, or pending appeal, when detention serves neither the ends of justice nor the public interest.
SEC. 3. (a) Chapter 207 of tit le 18, United States ('ode, is amended by striking out section 3116 and inserting in lieu thereof the following 62 Stat. 821; new sections:
68 Stat. 747. "3146. Release in noncapital cases prior to trial
“(a) Any person charged with an offense, other than an offense punishable by death, shall, at his appearance before a judicial officer, be ordered released pending trial on his personal recognizance or upon the execution of an unsecured appearance bond in an amount specified by the judicial officer, unless the officer determines, in the exercise of his discretion, that such a release will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required. When such a determination is made, the judicial officer shall, either in lieu of or in addition to the above methods of release, impose the first of the following conditions of release which will reasonably assure the appearance of the person for trial or, if no single condition gives that assurance, any combination of the following conditions:
“(1) place the person in the custody of a designated person or organization agreeing to supervise him;
“(2) place restrictions on the travel, association, or place of abode of the person during the period of release;
"(3) require the execution of an appearance bond in a specified amount and the deposit in the registry of the court, in cash or other security as directed, of a sum not to exceed 10 per centum of the amount of the bond, such deposit to be returned upon the performance of the conditions of release;
“(4) require the execution of a bail bond with sufficient solvent sureties, or the deposit of cash in lieu thereof; or
“(5) impose any other condition deemed reasonably necessary to assure appearance as required, including a condition requiring
that the person return to custody after specified hours. "(b) In determining which conditions of release will reasonably assure appearance, the judicial officer shall, on the basis of available information, take into account the nature and circumstances of the offense charged, the weight of the evidence against the accused, the accused's family ties, employment, financial resources, character and mental condition, the length of his residence in the community, his record of convictions, and his record of appearance at court proceedings or of flight to avoid prosecution or failure to appear at court proceedings.
“(c) A judicial officer authorizing the release of a person under this section shall issue an appropriate order containing a statement of the conditions imposed, if any, shall inform such person of the penalties applicable to violations of the conditions of his release and shall advise him that a warrant for his arrest will be issued immediately upon any such violation.
“(d) A person for whom conditions of release are imposed and who after twenty-four hours from the time of the release hearing continues to be detained as a result of his inability to meet the conditions of release, shall, upon application, be entitled to have the conditions reviewed by the judicial officer who imposed them. Unless the conditions of release are amended and the person is thereupon released, the judicial officer shall set forth in writing the reasons for requiring the conditions imposed. A person who is ordered released on a condition which requires that he return to custody after specified hours shall, upon application, be entitled to a review by the judicial officer who imposed the condition. Unless the requirement is removed and the person is thereupon released on another condition, the judicial officer shall set forth in writing the reasons for continuing the requirement. In the event that the judicial officer who imposed conditions of release is not available, any other judicial officer in the district may review such conditions.
“(e) A judicial officer ordering the release of a person on any condition specified in this section may at any time amend his order to impose additional or different conditions of release: Provided, That, if the imposition of such additional or different conditions results in the detention of the person as a result of his inability to meet such conditions or in the release of the person on a condition requiring him to return to custody after specified hours, the provisions of subsection (d) shall apply.
*(f) Information stated in, or offered in connection with, any order entered pursuant to this section need not conform to the rules pertaining to the admissibility of evidence in a court of law.
“(g) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prevent the disposition of any case or class of cases by forfeiture of collateral security where such disposition is authorized by the court. “8 3147. Appeal from conditions of release
“(a) A person who is detained, or whose release on a condition requiring him to return to custody after specified hours is continued, after review of his application pursuant to section 3146(d) or section 3146(e) by a judicial officer, other than a judge of the court having original jurisdiction over the offense with which he is charged or a judge of a l'nited States court of appeals or a Justice of the Supreme Court, may move the court having original jurisdiction over the offense with which he is charged to amend the order. Said motion shall be determined promptly.
“(b) In any case in which a person is detained after (1) a court denies a motion under subsection (a) to amend an order imposing conditions of release, or (2) conditions of release have been imposed or amended by a judge of the court having original jurisdiction over the offense charged, an appeal may be taken to the court having appellate jurisdiction over such court. Any order so appealed shall be affirmed if it is supported by the proceedings below. If the order is not so supported, the court may remand the case for a further hearing, or may, with or without additional evidence, order the person released pursuant to section 3146(a). The appeal shall be determined promptly. "S 3148. Release in capital cases or after conviction
"A person (1) who is charged with an offense punishable by death, or (2) who has been convicted of an offense and is either awaiting sentence or has filed an appeal or a petition for a writ of certiorari, shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of section 3146 unless the court or judge has reason to believe that no one or more conditions
80 STAT, 216 a danger to any other person or to the community. If such a risk of flight or danger is believed to exist, or if it appears that an appeal is frivolous or taken for delay, the person may be ordered detained. The provisions of section 3147 shall not apply to persons described in this section: Provided, That other rights to judicial review of conditions of release or orders of detention shall not be affected. "83149. Release of material witnesses
“If it appears by affidavit that the testimony of a person is material in any criminal proceeding, and if it is shown that it may become impracticable to secure his presence by subpena, a judicial officer shall impose conditions of release pursuant to section 3146. No material witness shall be detained because of inability to comply with any condition of release if the testimony of such witness can adequately be secured by deposition, and further detention is not necessary to prevent a failure of justice. Release may be delayed for a reasonable period of time until the deposition of the witness can be taken pursuant to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. "g 3150. Penalties for failure to appear
“Whoever, having been released pursuant to this chapter, willfully fails to appear before any court or judicial officer as required, shali, subject to the provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, incur a forfeiture of any security which was given or pledged for his release, and, in addition, shall, (1) if he was released in connection with a charge of felony, or while awaiting sentence or pending appeal or certiorari after conviction of any offense, be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, or (2) if he was released in connection with a charge of misdemeanor, be fined not more than the maximum provided for such misdemeanor or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both, or (3) if he was released for appearance as a material witness, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. "83151. Contempt
"Nothing in this chapter shall interfere with or prevent the exercise by any court of the United States of its power to punish for contempt. "S 3152. Definitions “As used in sections 3146–3150 of this chapter
“(1) The term 'judicial officer means, unless otherwise indicated, any person or court authorized pursuant to section 3041 of this title, or the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, to bail or otherwise release a person before trial or sentencing or pending appeal in a court of the United States, and any judge of the District of Columbia Court of General Sessions; and
“(2) The term 'offense' means any criminal offense, other than an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal, which is in violation of an Act of Congress and is triable in any court established by Act of
Congress." (b) The analysis of chapter 207 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking out the last item and inserting in lieu thereof the following: *3146. Release in noncapital cases prior to trial. “3147. Appeal from conditions of release. "3148. Release in capital cases or after conviction. "3149. Release of material witnesses. "3150. Penalties for failure to appear. "3151. Contempt.