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erected in Bondgate. At each end of the town of Appleby is a stone obelisk, or cross; the upper one, or High Cross, bears the words

"Retain your loyalty,
Preserve your rights."

The grammar school, chartered at Appleby by Queen Elizabeth, has produced, amongst other eminent men, William Bedell, Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh;* Thomas Barlow, Bishop

* Bishop Bedell was born in 1570, at Black Notley, Essex. On leaving the University of Cambridge, he was presented to the living of Bury St. Edmund's Suffolk. In 1604, he became Chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton, Ambassador at Venice during the period of the Interdict. There he formed a friendship with Padre Paolo Sarpi, the celebrated historian of the Council of Trent, who was then engaged, with other Venetian divines, in a struggle against the Papal supremacy: this probably gave rise to Bedell's translation into Italian of the English Prayer-Book, which was so highly approved by the seven divines appointed by the senate to conduct the controversy, that they resolved to take it as their model, had their assertion of the independence of their Church proved successful. Bedell also assisted the renowned Antonio de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalato, in the correction of his well-known book, "De Repub lica Ecclesiastica." After this be returned to Bury St. Edmund's, and in 1615 was presented to the living of Horningsheath, in the same neighbourhood. In 1627 he was elected Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, and two years after (partly through the influence of Laud, then Bishop of London) he was consecrated Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh. He found the Church in Ireland in great disorder, and applied himself vigorously to reform the abuses of his own diocese. He began with plurality of benefices and non-residence; and in order to furnish an additional motive for obedience, he set the example to his Clergy, by himself resigning the Bishopric of Ardagh. His ordinations were public and solemn; and he was so strongly impressed with the necessity of providing an Irish-speaking Clergy for the people of Ireland, that he not only rejected candidates deficient in this respect, but also himself sat down, in the sixtieth year of his age, to learn the Irish language, preparatory to a complete translation of the whole Bible into that tongue, which was effected under his supervision, and with his learned aid, by Murtogh King, the best Irish scholar of the day, and who, some years previously, had assisted in the translation of the New Testament, by desire of William Daniel, Archbishop of Tuam. Bishop Bedell also procured a translation of the Common Prayer into Irish, and caused service to be performed in that language every Sunday in his cathedral, himself preaching twice regularly, and catechising once. He had family prayers three times a day in his household, viz., in the morning, before dinner, and after supper. Every day at the close of dinner, and again at the conclusion of supper, a Bible was laid before each person at his table, and a chapter was read. He behaved towards all people with the most winning humility, and at Christmas-time he always had the poor to eat with him at his own board. He convened a synod in September, 1638, in which he made many canons, which are still extant. He sat as chancellor in his own ecclesiastical courts, and heard causes with a select number of his Clergy, by whose advice he gave sentence. When the rebellion broke out in Ireland, in October, 1641, the native Irish had conceived so great a veneration for him, that his was the only house in the county of Cavan that remained unmolested. His premises soon became filled with people who fled to him for shelter; and on his refusing to turn away these desolate refugees, the rebels seized him on the 18th of December, together with his sons, and Mr. Clogy, the Clergyman of Cavan, and carried them to Lockwater (Cloughboughter) Castle, a ruinous tower in the midst of a lake, where (for a time) they put them all, except the Bishop, in irons. The Bishop, however, ceased not to give spiritual consolation to those with him, and on Christmas-day administered the Holy Communion to them in prison. On the 7th of January, by an exchange of prisoners, the Bishop and the rest were allowed to go to the house of Denis O'Sheridan, an

of Lincoln; and the two Langhornes, joint translators of "Plutarch's Lives." Dr. Christopher Potter (sometime Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, Canon of Windsor, and Dean of Worcester) was a native of Appleby. He was Vice-Chancellor of Oxford when the civil wars broke out, and sent all his plate to the King, saying, he would drink, as Diogenes did, in the hollow of his hand, before His Majesty should want. He was appointed to the deanery of Durham, but died in 1645, before he was installed.

Appleby was formerly of much greater extent than it is at present; it has been a county-town ever since the reign of Edward the Confessor, and its early importance is evident from its having given name to one of the shires into which that monarch divided Northumbria. This town (to which Henry II. had granted privileges equal to those of the city of York) was taken by surprise by William, the Lion King of Scotland, but was recovered by King John. The Scots reduced it by conflagration in the reigns of Henry II. and of Richard II., and in 1598 it suffered greatly through pestilence; since which time it has never recovered its original extent.

The castle of Appleby (which now belongs to Sir Richard Tufton) was founded at a very early period, probably long before the Norman conquest; indeed, there is a floating tradition that the keep (which bears the name of Cæsar's Tower) was originally built by the Romans. The barony of Westmoreland (or Applebyshire) anciently consisted of the honours and seignories of Appleby and Burgh (Brough), and was granted by William the

Irish minister, residing in Dublin. Here the good Bishop Bedell spent the few remaining days of his pilgrimage; his death, which was chiefly occasioned by his late imprisonment, and the weight of sorrow which lay on his mind, occurred on the 7th of February, 1642. According to his especial desire, he was interred on the 9th, in his own diocese, close by the remains of his wife. He was so beloved, that even the rebels paid him honours at his interment. Nearly all his writings perished in the rebellion; his translation of the Holy Scriptures (which, together with a valuable Hebrew MS. of the Old Testament, afterwards presented by Bishop Bedell to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, of which college he had been fellow, had been providentially rescued from the insurgents) lay for forty years unnoticed, and was at last printed by the celebrated Robert Boyle.-Dr. Hook's Ecclesiastical Biography. Summary of Irish History, by Selina Martin.

*Bishop Barlow was born in the parish of Orton, Westmoreland, in 1607; he became a Fellow, and subsequently Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, and was in 1660 chosen Margaret Professor of Divinity. He was nominated to the see of Lincoln when nearly seventy years of age. He died at the palace at Buckden, 1691. He was a decided Calvinist, and was singular for being so compliant in his principles, that, under all the changes of the eventful period in which he lived, he obtained the countenance and patronage of the ruling powers. His writings in theology are many. He left to the Bodleian Library all such books in his collection as were not already in that repository, and the remainder to Queen's College. He appears to have retained a grateful recollection of Appleby, having, in conjunction with Dr. Smith, Bishop of Carlisle, erected a Market-house in that town, which was pulled down in 1811, to make way for a more modern structure.-Dr. Hook's Ecclesiastical Biography, &c.

Conqueror, together with the county of Cumberland, to Ranulph de Meschiens, (or Meschines,) one of his followers, who married Lucia, daughter of Hugh de Abrinois, (surnamed Lupus,) nephew of the Conqueror, and Count Palatine of Cheshire. In the reign of Henry II., these fiefs were held by Hugh de Morville, (a descendant, in the female line, of the above-mentioned Ranulph and Lucia,) one of the four barons of the King's bedchamber, who, during vespers, sacrilegiously stained the altar of S. Benedict, in the Cathedral Church of Canterbury, with the blood and brains of Archbishop Thomas à Becket. The estates of the perpetrators of this disgraceful outrage being sentenced to forfeiture, the castle of Appleby was committed to the custody of Gospatrice, son of Orme, (whose family was considerable in this neighbourhood,) till, in 1202, King John granted Appleby, and the late Morville possessions, to Robert de Vetripont, son of Maude, sister to Hugh de Morville, who had married William de Vetripont, a Norman of noble extraction, being descended from the Lords of Curraville. Robert was a great public character; he was entrusted with the guardianship of some of the youthful members of the royal family, and had the custody of much of the royal treasure, and of prisoners taken in the French wars. He was sheriff of Caen, in Normandy; eleven times sheriff of different counties in England; keeper of the castles of Windsor, Salisbury, Carlisle, Bowes, and several others; a justice in Eyre,* and a great accumulator of estate. He took the Cross in the Holy Land, and was a large benefactor to the Abbey of Shap. His wife was Idonea, heiress of John de Builly; he died in 1228. His grandson Robert, having, in the reign of Henry III., enlisted under the banner of Simon de Montfort, the estates became forfeited; they were, however, at the intercession of Prince Edward, divided between the daughters of the house of Vetripont, and in this manner passed by marriage into the De Clifford family, who claimed a direct male descent from the third Richard, Duke of Normandy, grandfather of the Conqueror. One of the descendants of Roger de Clifford and Isabella de Vetripont was Thomas de Clifford, who, in 1438, surprised and took Poictiers, with an army clad in white, during a heavy fall of snow; and also, in 1440, successfully defended the town against Charles VII. of France. This gallant knight was a faithful adherent of Henry VI., when (as though in judgment for the barbarous condemnation of Joan of Arc) the vengeance of GOD fell on England, in the civil wars of the Red and White Roses. He fell, with his uncle, Henry Percy, in the battle of

*"Justices in Eyre are said to have been appointed in John's reign, to see the forest laws put in execution, when the woods were numerous and extensive. They derived their name at their first institution, from their custom of sitting in the open air to determine causes."-Richmal Mangnall.

S. Alban's, 1455, and was buried in the Abbey Church. His mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of the famous Harry Hot, spur. This was the Thomas Lord Clifford who, about 1454, rebuilt the chapel, and other "chiefest parts" of the castle of Appleby. Henry VIII. conferred the earldom of Cumberland on the house of De Clifford. The first earl was the son of Anne St. John of Bletsoe, and that Henry, Lord Clifford, who lived above twenty years disguised as a shepherd-boy, until the acces sion of Henry VII. enabled him to assume his hereditary dignities with safety. The fear of discovery had prevented any attention to his education, and he is stated to have been unable to write more than his own name; nevertheless he behaved with much wisdom in public life, though his chief delight was the reparation of his castles, and rural affairs. He built Barden Tower, Yorkshire, for the "study of astronomy, in which he did exceedingly delight."* Indeed, though a simple man, he seems altogether to have been a more truly estimable character than his son, the Earl of Cumberland, whose early friendship with Henry VIII., and strong passion for parade and greatness, appear to have robbed his heart of filial affection. The second earl, who possessed great taste for chemistry, had (shortly after the decease of his first wife, Eleanor Brandon, daughter of the Duke of Suffolk, and Mary, the beautiful sister of Henry VIII., whose hand was for a few short months reluctantly given to Louis XII. of France, though her heart had been previously pledged to Charles Brandon, whose bride she ultimately became) a providential deliverance from living burial while in a kind of trance. He afterwards married the Lady Anne Dacre, and their son George, Earl of Cumberland, renowned for his maritime enterprises, and for his skill in tournaments, (in token whereof Queen Elizabeth presented him with her glove, which he afterwards wore in his hat at all public festivals,) was the father of the celebrated Anne, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery.

This excellent and pious lady was born in 1590, at Skipton Castle, in Craven, Yorkshire; her father died in her girlhood, leaving her under the tuition of her good mother, the accomplished Lady Margaret Russell, youngest daughter of the Earl of Bedford; but her chief breeding was under her aunt, the Countess of Warwick, principal lady of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth. The Lady Anne Clifford married first (in 1609) Richard Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of Dorset; and secondly Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. From the time of her second widowhood in 1649 till her decease in 1675, she devoted herself to works

*Pembroke MS.


of public weal and private charity. Barden Tower, the castles of Skipton, Pendragon, Brough, Appleby, and Brougham, the Churches of Skipton, Appleby, Bondgate, and Ninekirks,* and the Chapels at Barden, Matterstang, and Brougham, she either entirely rebuilt, or restored out of ruins. She also founded in Appleby a hospital for a governess and twelve widows, styled "the Mother and twelve Sisters." In imitation of her ancestress, Isabella de Veteripont, she sat personally in court at Appleby, and officiated as high sheriffess of Westmoreland. This faithful daughter of the Church evinced her loyalty to King Charles the First by fortifying Appleby Castle in the royal cause; caused the Anglican Liturgy to be duly performed in her own private Chapel throughout the darkest days of puritan misrule; daily alms, as well as weekly distributions, were given at her gate; she purchased with ready money, in the towns and villages around her, such articles as the consumption of her household required, seldom procuring aught from the metropolis, through desire of conferring benefit on the traders in her dependencies; she regularly inscribed in a diary the occurrences of each day, and the names of all strangers who came to her residence, whether on pleasure or business: many of these quaint records are still extant in Appleby Castle. She was an indefatigable reader, a great proficient in history, extremely temperate in her diet, and unassuming in her apparel, which consisted of a petticoat and waistcoat of black serge: she describes herself as 66 of strong and copious memory, sound judgment, discerning spirit, and strong imagination." Dr. Donne declared that "she knew well how to discourse of all things, from predestination to slea-silk;" that is to say, from matters of the gravest import to the graceful table-talk of womanhood. Yet she seems, like many other highly-gifted women, to have been moulded for a life of celibacy rather than for the married state; since she herself says of the two lords to whom she was by Divine Providence successively united, that though "they were in their several kinds worthy noblemen as any in the kingdom," yet had she "crosses and contradictions with them both" and she describes herself to have lived in the great families of each of her lords "as the river of Roan, (or Rhodanus,) runs through the Lake of Geneva, without mingling any part of its streams with that lake."

Perhaps a fundamental difference in modes of thinking and feeling lay at the root of these incongruities; and it may be well doubted whether one so rich in self-dependence, and so apt

*Ninekirks is the parish Church of Brougham, and it is supposed to have been dedicated to S. Ninian. It stands in a charming sequestered position, on the banks of the Eamont.

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