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those few among us who are always European State. “Opinions,” he said, eccentric about everything, and those are divided as to the place which Irish and other Ultra-Romanists who, “ would be the most fitting capital of being at a distance from the Papacy, Italy. Some mention Venice, because have of course a much more correct “ the first want of Italy is to be a maritheory of what the Papacy should be “ time power." Then, after some detail than the Italians among whom it festers. of the reasons assigned in favour of It is rarely that so general and simple Venice, he proceeds :a belief corresponds so absolutely with

“ Others are led by history and by ancient that which all study and all high autho- memories to Rome. They say that Rome is rity also pronounce to be the right one. more central ; that it is within range of the It is interesting at the present moment

three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and to know, for example, that the unity of

Corsica ; that it is convenient for Naples, the

largest population of Italy; that it is at a Italy, besides being the idea of all the

proper distance from all points of the frontier greatest Italians from Dante downwards, that can be attacked ; that, whether the enemy and of all the ablest political thinkers presented himself on the French frontier, the who in other countries have recently

Swiss frontier, or the Austrian frontier, Rome is

at a distance of from 120 to 140 French leagues ; concerned themselves about Italy, was

that, were the boundary of the Alps forced, also an idea of the First Napoleon-is, Rome is protected by the boundary of the Po, in fact, one of the Ideés Napoléoniennes. and, finally, by the boundary of the Apennines Among Napoleon's dictations at St.

that France and Spain are great maritime

powers, although they have not their capitals Helena was one remarkable memoir

at a port; that Rome, near the coasts of the about Italy, which, besides being the Mediterranean and the Adriatic, is in a posivery best geographical description of tion rapidly and economically to provide, by the

Adriatic and through Ancona and Venice, for any country in a small space with which

the defence of the frontier of the Isonzo and the we are acquainted, contains the great

Adige ; that, by the Tiber, Genoa, and Villaexile's views as to the necessary political franca, she could provide for the needs of the future of the land that was his native frontier of the Var and the Cottian Alps ; that land till France borrowed him. “ Italy,”

she is happily situated for harassing, by the

Adriatic and the Mediterranean, the flanks of he there says, “isolated by her natural

any army that should pass the Po and engage “ limits, separated by the sea and by in the Apennines without being mistress of

very high mountains from the rest of the sea ; that from Rome the supplies which a Europe, seems to be called to form a great capital contains could be transported

upon Naples and Tarento, so as to recover “great and powerful nation; but she

them from a victorious enemy; that, in fine, “ has in her configuration a capital vice, Rome exists; that she offers many more re“ which one may consider as the cause sources for the wants of a great capital than “ of the misfortunes she has experienced,

any city of the world ; and that, above all, she

has in her favour the magic and the nobleness " and of the morselling out of this beau

of her name. We also think that, though she “ tiful land into several independent may not have all the desirable qualities, Rome is, “monarchies or republics. Her length beyond contradiction, the capital which the " is out of proportion to her breadth.” Italians will one day choose.Even this difficulty-now nearly anni- This, it will be observed, was dictated hilated by the railways and steamers at St. Helena; and it may be only of which he did not foresee-Napoleon those Ideés Napoléoniennes which the was convinced might be got over.

He First Napoleon ventilated when he was predicted that Italy would one day be Emperor of the French that his successor, a nation; he specified particularly that, the present Emperor, may consider himowing to the extent of her sea-coast, it self bound to be the executor. Indeed, would be as "a maritime power” that in the very picture sketched by the First she would be great-greater, as such, Napoleon, of the future of the United than either France or Spain; and he Italy—of the power of such a State to occupied himself with the question, rival France herself—there is much to which of all the chief Italian cities dissuade his successor from being in any would be the best capital for the new violent hurry to see the picture realized.

Doubtless this feeling - dislike to see Catholics in these islands would do the new Power of formidable promise, well to think that, by maintaining it which he has helped to build, fairly in the manner some of them have been launched, and desire to prolong her weak doing lately, they may perchance rouse and incomplete condition, or, at least, to among their fellow-subjects a new and keep her on the stocks a little longer- reinvigorated and even more reasonable has operated in the Emperor's protracted form of that “No Popery” cry which obstinacy in keeping his French troops has long been unheard among us save in Rome. Else, surely, the opportunity he in fanatical corners.

We have not for has recently had of leaving the Pope to many a day seen a better, a more finelyhis own subjects, without disgrace and worded, or a more truly English bit without giving the French Catholics of remonstrance, than that which has any reasonable ground for finding fault, been addressed by the Saturday Review was as good as he could look for. But he to Cardinal Wiseman on his recent pasmay feel himself, on the Roman question, toral apropos of the Garibaldi Riots, in a greater complication of difficulties through the Cardinal, to British Roman than we in Britain can understand. Here Catholics. The passage on the Cardinal's we press for a simple solution. But rhetoric ought to be preserved as a piece the French Emperor is not a man whom of descriptive criticism quite masterly simple solutions suit. “A simple solu- for its verbal exactness : tion!” he is said to have replied to a

“If we might be permitted to describe in British diplomatist, whom he invited to appropriate language Cardinal Wiseman's Pasbe frank with him as to what he would toral, addressed on Sunday last to his dear do in this very matter of Rome, and

children, we should say that it was what the

ladies call a sweet pretty letter. It is so very who hinted the simple solution of with

rich and unctuous in language, so greasy and drawing the troops ; “Oh, yes, I dare slobbering in thought and diction, such a feast say! It would be a simple solution of of luscious things compounded of lollipop that, and of many other things at the and goody, that it very nearly turns a man's same time, if I were to leap out at that

stomach. Perhaps it is of the nature of these

ecclesiastical writings, which survive as the window; and many people would be sole relic of the style of the Lower Empire, glad to see it. But I am not going to that they suggest how a Narses would have do it, for all that.” Nevertheless, written. There is a semivirous and emasculate it is the part of Great Britain, by all

squeaking treble in the whole composition.

There is no manly ring—no plain, bold, decided prudent means, to press, through the

exhortation-no clear, strong enunciation of French Emperor-or past him, if it can- duty-but a coaxing, wheedling, purring, and not be through him—towards this simple fondling tone, which is only not simply dissolution. He has, in the meantime,

gusting because here and there the manly tones signalled the indefinite continuation of

of Scripture are struck. Of course, we are not

such judges as the Cardinal is likely to be what his past Italian policy, by appointing as suits his dear · Children of St. Patrick ;' but his foreign minister, and as his ambas

we should much doubt whether an English sador at Rome, men who are pledged to

cabman or costermonger would feel compli

mented by being addressed in language fit, if that view of the Papacy which regards for anybody endowed with a rational soul, it as a cosmopolitan institution requiring scarcely for a puling girl just in her teens.

To for its soil and territorial basis a temporal judge only by the sort of language addressed kingdom in Central Italy-which ill

to them, one would imagine the London Irish fated portion of Europe must, if requisite,

to be some soft, flaccid, placid, mild-eyed

Tahitan people, full only of gentle thoughts, be deprived'of that rightof independence and susceptible only of mild, affectionate interand self-government accorded to all the

* * If the demon of Irish discord rest, in order that the cosmopolitan

can be soothed by these honey-cakes, the Roman

Catholic clergy have been much to blame for tree may have quiet manure at its roots.

not scattering such very cheap oil on the Even among French liberals this view

waves of many an old and bloody sedition and But here in Britain rebellion." -among Protestants, at least-it can It is to be hoped that there are Roman

Nay, and the Roman Catholics in Britain capable of another

courses.

has supporters.

have none.

rhetoric and another style of thought some modification of the Papacy in its than those of the Cardinal. There are political relations with Italy. Waiting signs that such is the case; among for this moment, he is content to keep which is the starting of a new first-class things as they are at Rome, and to bear Roman Catholic periodical in London, with both the obstinacy of the Pope not devoted to the Cardinal's views of and the indignation of the Italians. what Catholicism is and requires. But But that he should thus, in the face of the prime necessity for the develop- the opinion of all liberal Europe, still ment of such a style of thought among persist in avoiding the “simple soluBritish Roman Catholics as shall ex- tion" that seemed the other day almost empt them from that richly deserved forced upon him, suggests ominously castigation of the Cardinal which we the nature of the arrangements which have quoted, and shall give any exposi- he hopes to make when the proper tions they may have to make of the moment comes. It seems clear that, if claims of Catholicism a chance of being he can help it, the unity of Italy will listened to by men who know manly not be achieved, and that he is still thought when they see it, is that among occupying himself with some dream of them too there should be a recognition a divided or federalized Italy in which and open avowal of the doctrine held the Papacy shall have its suitable part by many eminent Catholics abroad, that and French influence shall be mainthe Papacy is a spiritual institution, to be tained. That he may be thwarted in left to its own intellectual chances in this, and that he may find himself comthe world, and not a temporal power pelled after all to accept “the simple requiring, for the benefit of all, to be solution," is what we are bound ferrooted in the misery, the corruption, vently to wish. It is to his advantage, and the detestation of any mass of and to the detriment of the Italian selected victims.

cause at present, that the administration The French Emperor, it is believed, of the kingdom of Italy should be in looks forward to the death of the present the hands of a Ratazzi. But Italy will Pope as likely to be a fit moment for find means to accomplish her destiny.

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE.

DECEMBER, 1862.

GENIUS AND DISCIPLINE IN LITERATURE.

BY THE EDITOR.

THERE is a passage in Cæsar in which tions since, and is now a commonplace he tells of the panic that there was in all our discussions respecting the among all ranks of his army at the first military prowess of communities in comprospect of having to fight with men of parison with each other. But there is such tremendous reputation for size, a world of undeveloped meaning in the strength, and courage as the Germans. maxim, as applicable not only to collecHe had to call an assembly of his officers tive bodies of men, but to individuals, and soldiers and reason with them on and not only to the conduct of war,

but the subject. The substance of what he to matters more intellectual and spiritual. said was, that superiority of discipline, Every individual man among us may be such as the Romans possessed, had al- viewed in respect of what may be called ways been found to be more than equi- his natural powers, or the quantity of valent to the kind of odds that was then various faculty discernible in him ; but causing alarm, and that so confident he may be viewed also in respect of the was he in this experience, that, should discipline to which he subjects these all the rest of his army desert him, he powers, and by which he directs, inwould march against the Germans with creases, and regulates their use. Essenthe Tenth Legion alone. The reasoning tially, the two things are inter-related. had its due effect at the time; and, so The nature of the discipline to which long as the Romans kept up their su- a man will of his own accord submit his periority of military discipline, and had natural powers is determined ultimately leaders with a touch of Cæsar in them, by the nature and the mutual proportheir armies, though composed of men tions of those powers themselves; and, of moderate stature and strength in- on the other hand, whatever a man gains dividually, were more than a match for from discipline may be considered as so those masses of great-limbed and blue- much added to his stock of natural eyed Goths that lay on the frontier of endowments. But the distinction is the empire. In the end, the sons of not, on this account, the less real or Odin did thunder in victoriously and useful. The military discipline of the trample the Roman rule to pieces; but Romans was undoubtedly a gradual by that time the balance of discipline creation of the natural powers and dishad been turned, and the intrinsically positions of the Roman people, and would more vehement human stuff was also have been different had these been difthe better led and the more strongly ferent; and yet we speak properly regulated.

enough of the Roman discipline as someThe maxim which Cæsar propounded thing distinct from the natural Roman so long ago has received many confirma- virtus, and rendering it tenfold more

No. 38.-VOL. VII.

a

G

terrible and effective. And so, in the length and grandeur of the head, and case of an individual, we adhere with then in the care-worn, thought-worn, equal certainty to the distinction that and sorrow-furrowed face, that matchmay be drawn between the amount of less union of vast original power with natural faculty apparently possessed

laborious and highly-disciplined purpose. and the discipline needed to turn that It is in thinking of such a man, at all amount of possibility to good actual events, that one sees what discipline is account. Every hour we are using the and

may

be in an individual life-not a distinction. Here, we say, is So-and-So, mere substitute for genius, or the mere a man of splendid abilities, who might drill of poor natural stuff into some show have been or done almost anything he of efficiency; but the means by which had chosen in the world, but who has genius itself is fitted to do its utmost, wasted his life, done nothing of visible and leave a train of adequate results. mark or worth, and sunk, already a What was the life of the Mongolian veteran, into the mere oracle and cynic Attila, squab-visaged sovereign though of a dinner-table. There, we say again, he was of a momentary empire extendis Such-another, a tight well-knit fellow ing from China to the Danube, or what of by no means great natural capacity, but were the nobler lives of the Gothic who has worked what he has to the Alarics and Hermanns, those savage sons uttermost, and achieved results and of genius and chiefs of the yellow-haired position accordingly! But perhaps we hosts, compared with the life of the realize to ourselves most strikingly both civilized, pale-faced, fastidious, and epithe distinction between natural power leptic Roman Imperator ? and discipline and their relations to What has been said more than hints each other, when we think of instances in what Discipline, as regards the indiof men who have combined original vidual, may be said to consist. It congenius of the highest mortal order with sists in law or regulation-in power used a co-equal stringency of self-discipline. to govern power.

It identifies itself Perhaps in the whole history of the with Reason or Will, considered as world there is not such another in- the master-faculty of the total mind. stance of this combination as in Cæsar The mind is compounded of tenhimself. He was the greatest and ablest dency, appetite, acquisition, habit, wish, of all Roman men, or actually by nature power, aptitude, and other things; and the most powerful brain that Rome in all at each moment this compound of her generations produced-no mere soul, powers and dispositions may be coneither, of cool regular procedure, but with sidered as having rushed on to a given all that liability to phrenzy and inspired point, beyond which, if nothing interecstasy, all that power of erratic and feres, its course is a matter of physical inexplicable resolve, which we associate certainty. But at this point, we know, with the word genius; a man who would there may be interference. Reason, which stake his life on a vast cast, and cross a is speculative Will, or Will, which is Rubicon, or dash open the doors of a practical Reason, may step in--a power treasury, after one meditative motion of belonging to the same mind, and yet his finger to his forehead. Yet, in this somehow rising freely out of it and man, so endowed, what superb self-con- looking down upon it; and this power trol, what ruling of the life from enter- may arrest the current, dam it back, prise to enterprise and from moment to send it on at an angle to its original moment, what severe rationality of end direction, or let it proceed in that diand method! There is an ancient bust rection charged with a new impulse. of Cæsar in the British Museum before The power of the mind to say No to which one could stand and look for hours. itself is one of the most eminent, as it Gazing at this bust, one seems to see in is one of the most common, parts of the massive temples broadening back to discipline. But discipline does not conthe space over the ears, in the total sist exclusively in restraint or conti

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