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business of the Department to other China, Mexico, Brazil, Chili, and Peru; bureaux, the want of ample space is the Ministers Resident at those of Porgreatly felt, and the basement and attic tugal, Belgium, The Hague, Denmark, have been converted into offices, in Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Rome, order to retain, as far as possible, the Turkey, Japan, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, various branches of the service under the Guatemala, Honduras, New Granada, same roof.

The Secretary of State and Venezuela, Ecuador, the Argentine Conhis immediate staff, with the Library federation, and Bolivia ; and the Comof the Department, occupy the second missioners at those of Paraguay and the storey.

Hawaiian Islands. The annual salaries The ordinary officials attached to this of the respective Envoys to England and department, according to the “Official France are fixed by law at about 3,6451.; Register" of 1861, comprise the Secre- of those to Russia, Spain, Prussia, tary of State, Assistant Secretary, Chief Austria, China, Mexico, and Brazil, at Clerk, Superintendent of Statistics, and 2,500l.; of those to Chili and Peru, at twenty-one clerks, divided into four about 2,0831.; and of the Envoy to Italy, classes, besides two messengers and four all the Ministers Resident, and the two watchmen. The annual salary of the Commissioners, at about 1,5621.

To Secretary is about 16661. ; that of the each of these Legations (except those at Assistant Secretary, 6251.; of the Chief the Hawaiian Islands, Costa Rica, HonClerk, 4581. ; of the Superintendent of duras, and Paraguay) is attached a single Statistics, 4161.; of the clerks, from secretary. Those at London and Paris 2501. to 375l. ; and of the messengers only have also an assistant secretary.

; and watchmen, from 1251. to about No other attachés, whether paid or un1871. The aggregate of these salaries paid, are permitted in any instance, but, amounts to little more than 11,0001., on the contrary, are prohibited by law. and this sum covers only what may be The salaries of these secretaries are about denominated “office salaries,” other ex- 3121. and 3751. per annum, according to penses of a contingent character reaching the grade of the Legation—those of two to an amount it would be difficult to only (at London and Paris) rising to determine without pursuing statistical about 5471. ; and two others—at Conresearches to a disagreeable extent. stantinople (where the secretary acts also

The chief province of the State De- as dragoman) and Pekin—to 6251. To partment, since it has been relieved from the Japanese Mission is attached an inso many other duties formerly devolving terpreter, in lieu of a secretary, with upon it, consists in the management and about 5211., and to the Chinese Embassy control of all the intercourse of the one with about 1,0421. General Government with foreign na- The whole number of United States' tions, whether through representatives Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Commercial sent to such nations or accredited from Agents stationed in the countries already them.

named, or their dominions, as well as at On the 30th of September, 1861, ac- other points beyond the jurisdiction of cording to the last biennial Official

any legation, was, at the date mentioned, Register,” the Government of the United two hundred and sixty-one. Of these, States was represented by no less than one hundred and forty-seven received thirty-two Ambassadors, stationed at as fixed salaries, varying from about 1041. many different foreign Courts. Of these, to about 1,5621.— being not only entwelve ranked as Envoys Extraordinary titled to no perquisites in the nature of and Ministers Plenipotentiary, eighteen fees (the respective amounts of which as Ministers Resident, and two as Com- must be reported and paid over to the missioners. The twelve Ministers with General Government), but also profull powers were stationed at the re- hibited from engaging in any other spective Courts of England, France, business during their terms of office. Russia, Spain, Prussia, Austria, Italy, The other one hundred and fourteen received for their services only the fees bour, although the Assistant Secretaryaccruing from such business as might an officer of modern creation-occupies be transacted at their various offices, the a position somewhat analogous, and average amount of which would pro- assumes the management of the debably not exceed 501., or, at the most, partment in case of the death, resigna1001. per annum. Besides these, five tion, or absence of his chief. interpreters to legations and consulates, The supervision of the Diplomatic and and seven marshals to consular courts, Consular Corps of the United States is with salaries varying from about 2001. by no means an easy or a gracious task. to 1,0001., are officially recognised. Were the incumbents of these various

The relative rank and importance of responsible offices abroad always men of the different countries thus diplomati- education, skill, sound judgment, and cally and commercially connected with practical (or even theoretical) knowthe United States may be at once de- ledge of the world and its history, the termined by the fact that, besides the case would be different. But, much as envoy and two secretaries at London, I regret to say it, in nothing else has no less than fifty of the consuls, or that country, in modern times, so disnearly one-fifth of the entire number, played its weakness, and the unsound

are distributed among the British domi- ness of at least a portion of its governnions. Mexico ranks next, her share mental policy, as in its representation being twenty-two; then Spain, with at foreign courts. Of the thirty-two nineteen; while France claims only Ambassadors, of various ranks, it is fourteen, and the remainder are divided rarely that half-a-dozen could be found in still smaller proportions among the fitted, either by nature or by education, other nations of the globe. The aggre- for the important positions into which gate amount of the annual salaries of they have been heedlessly thrust. I all these officials at the English Court could readily enumerate a score, within and throughout the British territories is my personal recollection, who have not but little more than 20,0001.—to which even been endowed with the first and should be added, probably, a similar sum leading attribute of a legitimate diplomat, to cover contingent expenses, the cost –viz., the power of holding one's tongue. of the mail and messenger service, &c. I could also point to hundreds, ranking The regular appropriation for the Con- from Envoys to Consuls, thus entrusted sular and Diplomatic Service throughout with national business of the gravest the world, for the year ending the 30th importance, who not only have been of June, 1861, amounted to 241,3291., unable to speak the language of the which may be considered a fair annual countries to which they were sent, but average in modern times.

who knew no more of the laws, instituAlthough all these officials are ap- tions, or even history of those countries pointed directly by the President, “by than they did of those of the moon. “and with the advice and consent of These lamentable, if not disgraceful, " the Senate," once in office, they come results have their origin in what are immediately under the supervision and deemed the necessities of party ; or, in actual control of the State Department, other words, in the practical exemplifior, more properly speaking, of the Secre- cation of the principle-dangerous, but tary of State. All their correspondence seemingly inevitable in a democracyis to and from him, and the mere me- that “to the victors belong the spoils.” chanical labour of conducting this corre- Acting upon this principle, each party spondence, on the part of the Secretary, in turn, on succeeding to the control of can scarcely be computed, and could the Government, deems it to be its first never be properly accomplished, except and most imperative duty to oust sumby a man of the most energetic and marily from their respective offices all systematic habits. There are no Under- incumbents who hold their commissions Secretaries to relieve their principal from its political antagonist and prefrom considerable portions of this la- decessor; and this sweeping policy extends to and embraces all ranks and ral election, therefore, depend upon classes of Government officials—from the action of this particular Precinct. the Envoy to a foreign court, to the Within its limits there is certain to be lowest atiaché in a country post-office, one man whose local sovereignty is so and the man who trims the lamps in a confirmed and generally recognised that lighthouse. Indeed, the system pre- it cannot be defied with impunity. He vails, to a great extent, at every change may be a worthy and respectable man, of the Administration, whether the or he may be the keeper of a common political or partisan character of the pothouse, according to the character of Government changes or not; so that no a majority of the resident voters of the United States' official has


reasonable Precinct. But, whoever and whatever certainty, and scarcely any reasonable he be, for the time being the destinies hope, of retaining his position for more of the pending struggle hang upon his than four years—the period to which fiat, and his favour and assistance must the life of an Administration is limited be secured, either by conciliation or by law. Under these circumstances, it purchase, by the party that is eventually is needless to say that in the United successful. If the policy of the highest States there is no national school of bidder accords with his own, so much diplomacy, and no inducement pre- the better; but, if otherwise, he is sented to such persons as might other- satisfied to accept a promise of future wise be disposed to prepare and offer reward—for he knows that promise themselves as candidates for the Civil will be kept, the penalty of its violation Service. Where, in his own conceit, being his hostility on another similar and practically in that of the Govern- occasion. The bargain concluded, the ment itself, one man is as good as election over, and his faction in power, another; and where the patronage of the Ward politician claims the fulfilthe Government is distributed, not ac

ment of his bond. He has fixed his cording to the merit of individuals and heart on some post abroad-I will not their fitness for the posts to which they now say an embassy, but, at least, are assigned, but rather in response to a consulate. Everybody but himself the services they may have rendered to knows his utter unfitness for the posithe President himself, or to the party tion : he is a coarse, uneducated, even that chances to be in power; it could vulgar man, who, perhaps, can scarcely hardly be expected that all the vast write his own name. He is remonnumber of Government appointments strated with, flattered, cajoled, urged to should be conferred upon. even com- accept some station more suited to his petent men-and, really, the greatest capacities; but all in vain. The conwonder is that, small as this class gene

sulate he will have, and nothing else, rally proves, its number is not still They may give him that, or take the smaller.

consequences of their refusal. And he A few practical illustrations will serve obtains it. Although anathematizing to convey a better idea of the manner his obstinacy, his commission is signed, in which these appointments are some

and, a few weeks later, he appears in times made than I can present in any Europe, with all the conceit and swagger

consequent upon his unnatural elevaGiven, a State, a City, a Ward, and a tion, to become the laughing-stock of Precinct. The State is supposed to be the strange people among whom he able to turn the scale, at any general

struts and swells—the representative election, in favour of either of the rival of the great American Republic !1 candidates, and, in the political jargon

other way.

1 A consul of this class, who recently reas goes the City, so goes the ceived an important document from the State State ;' while the same rule holds good Department, intended solely for his private as to the influence of the Ward over

guidance in a delicate emergency, perhaps the City, and of the Precinct over the

ambitious of seeing his name in print, absoWard. The final results of the gene

lutely sent a copy of it to the local newspaper where he was stationed, whence it was quoted

in vogue,


I recollect an individual whose only fact that he was constantly darting previous training had been that of an hither and thither in every direction, itinerant preacher, but who eventually, and exceedingly profuse in his obeisances in some mysterious manner, acquired and genuflexions, I determined to be, at the friendship and patronage of a lead- the very least, in spite of his youth, ing politician in one of the interior some important officer of the Pope's States, who persuaded him to abandon body-guard, or deputy-master of the cerethe pulpit for the rostrum, and secured monies. His officiousness and impuhis return to the Lower House of Con- dence were indescribable, and he evigress from a district devoted to his dently regarded himself as an object of interests—a district in which the igno- the highest admiration to all those rance or stupidity of a majority of the whose attention was attracted to, and voters is said to be such that they have disgust excited by, his ridiculous antics. not yet learned of the decease of General What was my chagrin on being inJackson, but have continued to vote for formed that he was the American connim regularly, every four years, ever sul at one of the Italian cities ! Another since the year 1824. In Congress, the beardless boy was at that time the contransformed parson was the daily butt of sul at an important seaport in the same his colleagues, and the perpetual target territory. In these two instances, as for the more jocular reporters; but the the precocious youths were scarcely out great politician, who had now become of their teens,. it was impossible that President, still protected him, and finally, they could have rendered political serat his instance, a partisan Speaker made vices entitling them to such distinction him chairman of one of the most im- from the Government; but their fathers portant committees of the house. In a had, and thus they claimed and received short time his incompetency became so

their reward, and disposed of sons they grossly manifest, and the legislative did not know what to do with at home. business suffered so sadly under his A partisan politician-a Congressman, management, that the whole country perhaps a Senator-whose previous serprotested against his retention in the vices cannot be ignored, but who has post, and it was found absolutely neces- run through his fortune, and for whom sary that he should be deposed. But his creditors lie in wait at every turnhe had done the State, or rather the in other words, who has proved himself President, some service, and would not utterly incapable of managing his own submit peaceably to be thus cashiered. affairs—is unhesitatingly intrusted with Whether he himself fixed the price of those of the nation, and sent to mainhis resignation, which could not be tain its dignity at one of the most imsafely refused, or whether owing to the portant foreign Courts; and he does it, obstinate friendship of his powerful according to his notion, by imposing all patron, I know not; but I do know the labour of the embassy upon his that I soon after met him at one of the secretaries, while he reads novels in his Continental Courts, where he was swell- private apartment, chews tobacco incesing with all the importance of an envoysantly, and borrows money of every perextraordinary, and, if I had not known son who ventures to intrude upon his the two men apart, I should assuredly retirement. have mistaken him for the Emperor Another, who, after passing through himself.

the various grades of official life, becomes Some few years ago I passed the Holy a Cabinet Minister, and shortly after is Week in Rome. During one of the found implicated in certain peculations festivals at St. Peter's, my attention was on a magnificent scale, barters his seals directed to a beardless boy, dressed in a of office, in response to an intimation magnificent uniform, whom, from the that his resignation would be acceptable throughout the kingdom, to the amusement of (for he is still too powerful to be treated the people and the consternation and chagrin

more harshly), for an embassy abroad, of its authors.

and turns up an envoy somewhere between the poles and the equator, where necessary to a comprehension of each he remains until the old scandal is for- individual case. He must depend, of gotten.

course, to a great extent, upon the Such cases as these might be multi- assistance of his immediate staff and plied indefinitely, and I have no hesita- corps of subordinates, but still it is tion in recounting them, because the absolutely necessary that no order should evil is a glaring one, and one that might be issued, and no response received, and should be remedied. A little legis- without his personal cognizance. lation, resulting in the establishment of In connexion with this portion of civil service regulations even less strin- his duties, the Secretary of State is also gent than those adopted in England, the medium of communication between would effectually preclude the chances the Government and the representatives of at least nine-tenths of the applicants of foreign powers resident at Washingfor these offices, and enable the Govern- ton. The diplomatic corps in this city ment, without offending its partisans, to may be said to form a society of its make a more judicious selection of its own, almost exclusive in its character, representatives abroad. I do not mean as its members generally, although courto say that all, or even a large majority, teous and accessible on all proper occaof these representatives are of the cha- sions, naturally cling to the social cusracter indicated by the illustrations just toms with which they have been familiar presented; but I may safely declare, in their respective countries, and do without uttering treason, that too many not readily adopt the system of indisof them are.

I may also add that I criminate fraternisation that prevails know of but one country where the with the people and Government to United States' Government has been in- which they are accredited. In 1860, variably represented by men of the first their number was twenty-six ; of whom order—whether regarded in reference to sixteen were of the rank of envoys their private character, publiceminence, or extraordinary and ministers plenipogeneral statesmanship—and that is Great tentiary, five were ministers resident, Britain. The simple fact, that the Ame- and five chargés d'affaires. Except on rican Ambassadors to the Court of St. extraordinary occasions, their business James have always been the very best is all transacted with and through the men that the country could afford, while Secretary of State ; and, when it is relittle or no deference has been paid to membered that this business comprises other nations in this particular, ought that of every class and nature, from to be regarded as an evidence of the real the making of a treaty to the settlement respect entertained by the offspring for of a private claim, it may be readily the parent, in whose eyes it desires to seen that the duties of this official, in maintain a reputable appearance, in spite his character of Foreign Minister only, of the rebellious and obstinate attitudes are of the most complicated and laborious it may sometimes assume

on minor

character. occasions.

Besides and in addition to all this, he It is over this heterogeneous regiment supervises and controls the action of of diplomatists that the Secretary of the governors of the various territories, State must keep a constant and un- or incipient states, which, on the 30th wearying watch, and it cannot be doubted of September, 1861, were

seven in that he finds much difficulty in pre- number; also the commissioners apserving anything like discipline over pointed under certain treaties and conthat portion of it that may be properly ventions with foreign powers; and perdenominated the "awkward squad."

“ awkward squad." forms other duties that in England are His weekly, and often semi-weekly, more properly included within the procorrespondence with these officials is vince of the Home Department. It is, necessarily enormous, and it is no small however, in his capacity of Foreign tax upon his mental organization to Secretary that he is best known, and, retain in his memory the particulars as he conducts this branch of the

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