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removed out of his way by death. He lations. He is the first man in Europe falls under the guardianship of a rich for wealth and prestige, for the power of Catholic uncle, delighted to make a con- ruling mankind, and overawing them by vert of so promising a relative. He the exhibition of grandeur and sterntravels, no one exactly knows how, nor ness; not to omit those qualities so dear where; becomes familiar with many parts

to the German heart, his glorious conof Europe ; and, like Michael Scot, tempt for Jesuits, Frenchmen, Spaniards, " learns the art that none may name,' Italians, and Welschen of every colour, at Padua, under a professor of astro- and his solemn pretensions to superlogy. At five-and-twenty, he makes, like natural knowledge. Yet all this time, Macaulay's Marlborough, a prudential his exploits, in a military sense, were investment of his personal charms, but as nothing. He never won a pitched in a more legitimate way; marrying a battle, properly so called, in his life.1 rich widow of twice his age, who becomes His campaign on the Baltic, announced desperately jealous, nearly kills him with with such flourishes of trumpet througha love-potion, dies forth with, and leaves out Catholic Europe, proved a wretched him her fine estates in Moravia. The failure. He kept his armies togetheruncle immediately follows her, and be- it cannot be said, kept them in order queaths him seven first-class lordships merely by the assiduous use of the in Bohemia. At thirty, the adventurer two coarsest stimulants: the terror of is the richest subject of the Kaiser; yet sanguinary discipline, the attraction of not so rich as to account at all for his unlimited plunder. For the execution subsequent gigantic expenditure. He of his purposes he

shrank from no marries another fortune, and a court cruelty whatever : and Wallenstein, lady of high influence into the bargain. who, in good sooth, was quite free from In the death-struggle of his native religious zeal, and cared no

more for Bohemia he takes no part; but, imme- the Pope than for Luther, left among diately after the battle of the White his contemporaries a name as deeply Mountain, he comes forward with seven stained by savage excesses

as that of million florins-nearly a million sterling the fanatic Tilly himself—“unmerciful -to buy up from the Court of Vienna “ in his executions, inexorable in his the confiscated lands of his countrymen “ commands, incessantly thirsting for and relations. “His extraordinary com- money :” “odium et nausea generis mand of money,” says his English ad- “ homini," so he is designated by his mirer, Colonel Mitchell, “still remains Court enemies. These enemies, and an enigma in his history." But the the cry of oppressed provinces, prevail land, it is added, was worth five times against him. In 1631, he is superseded

He is now a prince, and, from his command, and submits to his unlike other princes of that day, a man fall with that curious composure someof ready millions into the bargain. He times met with in overbearing men, raises forty thousand men at his own when fairly mastered; for he was expense; gives away fortunes ; builds “ timid,” as our sharp Italian decastles, palaces, towns ; lords it over scribed him, “ towards those who show North Germany, from the Mayn to the “ their teeth ;” and that philosophy Baltic; continues his vast system of of resignation, which his biographers landed investments, taking care, how- term magnanimous, may, if read by ever, to set off his “ military expenses the light of his subsequent history, against the purchase-money, and thus be interpreted as a kind of moral colreducing the actual cash, received by lapse. “You may read it yourselves in his imperial vendor, to a fraction. His the stars," he said to the astonished property is now estimated at thirty

1 " Viel Kriegsmacht hat er zusammengcmillions of florins, or four millions

bracht, sterling—a sum which must be trebled Doch nie geliefert recht eine Schlacht," or quadrupled to suit modern calcu- says one of his jingling epitaphs.

No. 41.-VOL. VII.

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the money.


lent scene,

envoys who brought him the news of vailed, recent discoveries seem to place it his dismissal, and who expected a vio- beyond a doubt, first, that his schemes in

“ that the Genius of the cluded treason to his sovereign and ingra“ Elector of Bavarial dominates just now titude to his benefactor; next, that they “over that of the Emperor.” And he were both conceived and carried out with retired without a murmur into private an imbecility of purpose which takes all life—but that of a Diocletian. Called grandeur from his crime. Then-when once more forth in the disastrous posi- detected and exposed, when chief after tion of Austria after the battle of Brei- chief deserted him, and the net of detenfeld, he rallies at once round him struction was drawing closer and closer all the Catholic elements of the Empire round him-his presence of mind and -raises a hundred thousand men, con- fertility of resource seem to have failed trives somehow to pay them, and takes him altogether. He opposed to his desthe field against Gustavus ; but, when tiny nothing but a kind of proud but there, the marvellous adventurer subsides dull self-confidence, which partook less into a general of very ordinary quality. of dignity than of the fatuity of despair, His most distinguished achievement con- and exposed his bosom to the halberts sisted in judiciously declining to fight of his military executioners only when the Swede at Nuremberg, with seventy absolutely at his wits' end to finish the thousand against fifty thousand, and drama by any other catastrophe. preferring a war of intrenchments-a .Such was the Wallenstein of history, commendable policy, doubtless, but which according to the best of my judgment. ended only in the decimation of both How strangely different from the Wal. armies, and in his own crowning defeat lenstein of poetry! And yet while the at Lützen. His tactics in that battle historical “Duke of Friedland” is only a have been described, and their conse- vague remembrance in men's minds, exquences. But slowly and, as it were, cept those of a few painful antiquaries, reluctantly, did Fortune abandon her the hero of fiction has become a reality, as strange favourite. The death of Gus- far as the intimate syinpathy of thousands tavus gave him more than he lost by of readers can make him so. The subdefeat. He became again, and more ject is a threadbare one now; yet it is than ever, sole master of his own side

scarcely possible to dismiss him from in Germany; but he lost his vantage in our thoughts without letting them the vain endeavour to become what the dwell a while on that incomparable work stars could not make him—arbiter be- of art, the Wallenstein of the drama, the tween the two sides, and reconciler of central figure of Schiller's magnificent parties fighting for convictions which

trilogy. Not that he is a character of he could scarcely comprehend. And the highest dramatic order, properly so now the want of real stamina, of which called. He is not life-like, as is a hero I have spoken as the negative basis of of Shakspeare-one whom we seem to his character, becomes painfully apparent. have known, and could recognise in the Whatever doubts may have formerly pre- street ; there is something vague about

1 “Ihr Herren, aus den Astris könnt ihr es him. Perhaps the sharpness of outline selbst sehen, dass des Kurfürsten von Baiern has been a little rubbed off by elabospiritus dominirt über des Kaisers seinen.”

rate execution. He is less an individual Such was the wonderful jargon which Wallenstein, as well as other distinguished Germans,

man than an embodiment of a thouthen wrote, and, as it seems, spoke. Here is sand thoughts, instincts, emotions. But another specimen, from a report which he then-and that is the secret of his made to the Emperor of an action against Gustarus :"Der König hat auch damit sein

triumph—these thoughts and emotions Volk über die Massen decoragirt, dass er sie

Different as our sphere so hazardosamente angeführt, dass sie in vor- of destiny may be from Wallenstein's, fallenden occasionen ihm desto weniger trauen the texture of life, whether the fabric be werden,- und ob Ew. Mag. Volk valor und courage zuvor überflüssig hat, so hat doch

small or great, has its warp and woof of diese occasion sie mehr assicurirt."

the same hopes, fears, meditations, dis


are our own.

appointments; and Wallenstein has a imagination lingers, though one was word suited for every mood of him who assuredly both worse and lower than is struggling to attain success in life, or his reputation : the other so far elestruggling to keep his position there. vated by fate and his high purpose above As Hazlitt said with such truth of the ordinary sons of men that he loses Hamlet, it is we who are Wallenstein. something of mere human interest. Such And it is in this point of view that the as they were, they left no successor bethread of superstition, which Schiller hind them. Except the short-lived hero, took from his historical authorities, is so Bernard of Saxe Weimar, no subsequent wonderfully interwoven in the poet's personage of that war has made any design. That superstition seems almost appreciable mark in history. Unconan anomalous trait, in a spirit so refined trolled by master spirits, the contest and so cultivated as the dramatic Wallen- lingered on, bloodier and more indecistein's: it has no overpowering influence; sive, till, out of the two parties, the one he can throw it at times altogether aside: bent on subjugation, the other on indebut it is a pervading agency, mixing with pendence, a mere confused and mangled all others, and making him, not inferior residue remained, with scarcely voice -as in the hand of a less skilful artist he enough left to expend in feeble groanings would have become—but superior to his for peace at any price. Famine, sword, fellows, men trained only in this world's and pestilence had uprooted a whole ordinary cunning. Now, for us, or most generation. Equal horrors may have of us, in this waning nineteenth century occurred in barbarous countries, but —for those, at least, who cannot get up never, assuredly, in a civilized and any interest in the material communi- Christian community like that of Gercations with the invisible world conveyed many, where numberless active pens by table-turning and spirit-rapping, cold were engaged in chronicling them. Its hands under green baize, and ghosts population, say some authorities, shrank playing accordions-such vague and sha- from sixteen or eighteen millions to four dowy impulses as those which haunt millions. Whether this be accurate or the mind of Schiller's hero, rather than no, one curious evidence of the extent influence his firm judgment, constitute of depopulation is to be found in its the last influences whereby the “anarch forest history. The country had thriven old” Superstition still maintains a relic so greatly in the fifteenth and sixteenth of her dominion. Who is there among centuries, that its vast sylvan riches us whose heart has not seemed to move were beginning to show symptoms of in unison with his, when he exclaims exhaustion. In North Germany nuthat

merous edicts were issued before A.D. "There are moments in the life of man 1600 for the preservation of the woods. When he is nearer to the world's great Spirit It is recorded of a certain Duke Augustus

' Than is his wont, and may at pleasure ask

of Saxony, that, on his walks, he always One question of his fate. 'Twas such a mo

carried a hollow brass rod filled with ment When I, upon the eve of Lützen fight, acorns, to drop one by one into the Leaning against a tree and full of thoughts, ground. There are three things, MeGazed forth upon the plain;"

lanchthon used to say, which will fail Or when, in the ominous darkness of before the end of the world comes : the night of his murder, he longs for good friends, good money, and firewood. one glimpse of Jupiter

The Thirty Years' War effectually ad“ Methinks,

journed these complaints to another age. Could I but see him, all were well with me.

The forest covered again whole tracts He is the star of my nativity,

which had been under cultivation. What And often marvellously hath his aspect with the diminution of people, and what Shot strength into my heart.”

with the increase of wood, no need of And so farewell to Wallenstein and the old kind seems to have been again to Gustavus-characters over which the felt until the middle of the eighteenth century; and it is said that the forests raise her again after a hundred years, had then become so overgrown, that and that but partially; and even the the tempestuous seasons which prevailed Germany of the nineteenth century, in 1780-1790, destroyed many square miles which political lags so far behind every of them. Germany went back in culti- other class of thought, bears the impress vation, and in political spirit and inde- of that long reign of darkness and terror pendence, even more than in mere num- which broke down the medieval spirit bers; it required a Frederic the Great to of self-government.

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ing a predetermination to use his own CHAPTER XXVI.

discretion, or rather indiscretion, as to


Nor was this shadow, which had It must not be supposed from Rose's fallen upon them, confined to their first ambiguous answer to her father's covert meeting : it resisted the action of time, inuendo, that she had not drawn her and hung more or less over their subseown conclusions from the short dialogue quent intercourse. Now and then the given in the last chapter; and these con- one or the other would fall into old clusions were, that her father would

ways, use the once familiar intonations, never have spoken to her as he had talk on once familiar topics ; but, then, done, had he not altered his mind with this always occurred in the presence of respect to Vincenzo's suit--nay, even a third person, never when aloneaccepted him as his future son-in-law, though, indeed, that they seldom were. subject of course to her consent. She Not that they positively avoided each was confirmed in this view of the case other's company, only they did not seek beyond all doubt, when she heard her to be tête-à-tête as of yore; and, when a father, as the weeks passed, repeatedly chance rencontre threw them together, alluding to Vincenzo's expected visit it was curious to observe how studiduring the vacation as a settled matter. ously one or the other, or both, tried to Well—the consciousness of all this, put between them somebody else—either added to newly-awakened feelings in tottering Don Natale, or Barnaby, or her own bosom for her old playmate, Giuseppe, or (at a later period, when gave to her reception of him, when he there were several visitors staying in the did come, a tinge of reserve and embar- palace) any of the guests. Since we rassment which made it quite a different have named Barnaby, let us mention affair from what it had been up to this that, from the moment of Vincenzo's day. The alteration in her manner could arrival, he had magnanimously resumed not fail to react on the young lover, even communication with his master on the had he not had other causes to make him old footing. Even Rose's father, who look and feel embarrassed on his side : was anything but a keen observer, could the chief among these causes being his not help at last noticing this state of concertainty that she was in possession of straint between the two young people; his secret through Barnaby—the old and, much as he wished to set them at fellow's evasion of any promise of se- their ease, he still shrank from procrecy, when Vincenzo had tried to nouncing the word which alone could extract one from him, too clearly imply- do so. Had he, then, once more changed


his intentions ? Yes, and no. The Sig- time was in consequence much occupied, nor Avvocato still faithfully adhered to Vincenzo's society much in demand, and the engagement he had taken with him- there were no opportunities for têtes-dself to give his daughter to Vincenzo ; têtes. at the same time there is no denying The Signor Avvocato was repaying, the fact, that all the ardour in the by this hospitality, the many debts of matter he had brought back with him kindness which his elevation to the from Turin had vanished. Two full knighthood of San Maurice and Lazare months of reflection had given him time had entailed upon him. Foremost on the to measure the void which Rose's ab- list of his invitations stood his relations sence would leave in his home-surely and old friends in Turin, including his it was a sacrifice for which there need new one, Signor Onofrio—who, howbe no hurry! She was so young-but ever, had declined going to Rumelli on just nineteen-and Vincenzo himself the plea of business ; then his friends was hardly yet of the age at which of Ibella, comprising most of the funcyoung men marry ! He should have tionaries there, the Intendente at their her—in a year or so—when his bright head—all of whom had called to conprospects began to be realized ! And so, gratulate him on his new honours; and from one thing to another, the good after them, the mayor of this place, and gentleman had ended by consigning the the parson of that, who had performed evil to that distant future sine die so the same civility, and so on. Of course, dear to spirits irresolute.

this mighty array of guests were not Having once established himself com- asked in a lump, but in driblets of six fortably in this passive position, Rose's or seven at a time; to which if we add father naturally dreaded nothing so much chance visitors, we arrive at an average as shifting it for one where there might of no less than ten persons enjoying at be something to do; hence his unwill- one time the hospitality of the palace; ingness to break the ice, at the risk of and a cordial, unceremonious, plentiful making a question, which he hoped he hospitality it was, worthy of a true had set at rest for ever so long, one open knight of old. It rarely happened but to discussion. But, being as soft-hearted that the company should be more than as he was incapable of decision—that is, doubled on Sundays by arrivals from wishing to mend the situation without Ibella and Rumelli, Don Natale for cerrenouncing the status quo—he hit upon a tain among these last. We do not see middle course, which only made matters young Del Palmetto figuring in


of He took to giving little hints, these gatherings, for the very perempwhich were meant to be encouraging, tory reason that he had long ago left but which proved only the source of the castle in high dudgeon : in fact, he new perplexity to the parties concerned. had gone away immediately after he For how could Rose, a bashful girl just had been given to understand that Miss awaking to love, or Vincenzo, discreet as Rose (to use Barnaby's metaphor) "was we know him to be, and bound more- no bread for his teeth.” And so the over by a solemn promise—how could villeggiatura went on happily through they be expected to take advantage of the usual months, until the time came such vague insinuations ?

for Vincenzo and the few visitors who Luckily, the acute period of the trial had lingered to the last also to take to both the young people was short, their departure. After breakfast of the extending scarcely over the first three morning previous to Vincenzo's deparweeks of Vincenzo's stay at the palace, ture, the Signor Avvocato had a long, while there were as yet no strangers there, confidential talk with his godson, chiefly or only a stray one or two. The end of about the probable epoch of his being July brought an influx of guests, which employed, the nature of the employwent on without any solution of con- ment, and its locality. On these two tinuity to the end of the season. Rose's last points, Vincenzo could throw no


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