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which has been identified with the to the future. The system is throughout Chinese ko." The last identification the same, but the materials are differmay seem doubtful ; and, if we suppose ent. Shall we say, therefore, that these that choung, too, had been given up in languages cannot be proved to be related, Cochin-Chinese as a term of plurality, because they do not display the same how would the tests which we apply for criteria of relationship as French and discovering the original identity of the English, Latin and Greek, Celtic and Aryan languages have helped us in Sanskrit ? This would be to cut the determining the real and close relation- wings of the Science of Language, and to ship between Chinese and Cochin- confine it like a prisoner in its Aryan chinese?
cage. The present indicative is formed in As I intend to limit this present Cochin-Chinese by simply putting the course of lectures chiefly to Greek, personal pronoun before the root. Latin, and Sanskrit, and their modern Thus,toy men,
representatives, I thought it necessary thou lovest.
thus from the beginning to guard no men, he loves.
against the misapprehension that the The past tense is formed by the addi
study of Sanskrit and its cognate diation of da, which means already.
lects could supply us with all that is
necessary for the Science of Language. Thus-toy da men, I loved.
It can do so as little as an exploration mai da men, thou lovedst.
of the tertiary epoch could tell us all no da men, he loved.
about the stratification of the earth. The future is formed by the addition But, nevertheless, it can tell us a great of chè.
deal. By displaying before us the minute Thus—toy chè men, I shall love. laws that regulate the changes of each mai chè men, thou wilt love.
consonant, each vowel, each accent, it no chè men, he will love.
disciplines the student and teaches him Now, have we any right, however respect for every jot and tittle in any, convinced we may be of the close rela- even the most savage, dialect he may tionship between Chinese and Cochin- hereafter have to analyse. By helping Chinese, to expect the same forms in the us to an understanding of that language language of the Mandarins ? Not at in which we think, and of others most all. The pronoun of the first person near and dear to us, it makes us perceive in Cochin-Chinese is not a pronoun, but the great importance which the Science means “servant.” “I love” is expressed of Language has for the Science of the in that civil language by “servant loves." Mind. Nay, it shows that the two are In Chinese the same polite phraseology inseparable, and that without a proper is constantly observed, but the words analysis of human language we shall used are not the same, and do not in- never arrive at a true knowledge of the clude toy, servant. Instead of ngo, human mind. I quote from Leibnitz : I; the Chinese would use kud ģin, little “I believe truly," he says, “that lanman ; téín, subject ; tšie, thief; iu, guages are the best mirror of the blockhead. Nothing can be more polite; “human mind, and that an exact anabut we cannot expect that different "lysis of the signification of words nations should hit on exactly the same “ would make us better acquainted than polite speeches, though they may agree “ anything else with the operations of in the common sense of grammar.
The “the understanding." past tense is indicated in Chinese by It is my intention, therefore, in the particles meaning " already” or “for- present course of lectures, to confine merly," but we do not find among them myself as much as possible to the Aryan the Annamitic da. The same applies family of speech; and to explore more 1 Léon de Rosny, l. c. 302.
especially those familiar quarries in Endlicher, sect. 206.
which we have all laboured with more
or less success,-Greek, Latin with its their origin, their formation, and the Romance offshoots, English with its laws which determine their growth and Continental kith and kin, and the much- decay. In this part we shall have to abused, though indispensable, Sanskrit. deal with some of the more important My principal object, however, will be, principles of Etymology. not so much to describe the mere struc- In the second part I mean to investure of these languages, as to show how tigate what may be called the soul or their analysis and comparison lead to the inside of language ; examining the the discovery of certain principles which first conceptions that claimed utterance, ought at all times to guide and to
their combinations and ramifications, control the researches of the their growth, their decay, and their parative Philologist.
resuscitation. In that part we shall I propose to divide my lectures into have to inquire into some of the fundatwo parts. I shall first treat of what mental principles of Mythology, both may be called the body or the outside ancient and modern, and to determine of language, the sounds in which lan- the sway, if any, which language guage is clothed, whether we call them such exercises over our thoughts. words, syllables, or letters : describing
BY RICHARD GARNETT.
WHOSE bark from Baltic isles to ours
Forerunner of the spring.
Thy ocean way dost trace,
And follow to the place.
Before whose face this day
A cloud is rolled away.
A VISIT TO LÜTZEN IN OCTOBER, 1862.
BY HERMAN MERIVALE.
doubtful. Here, as we have seen, the
Imperialists had set fire to the buildSEQUEL OF THE BATTLE.
ings 'about Liitzen, with the view of The death of the King was soon known, impeding the enemy in any attempt to but seems to have had no effect in turn their right wing; and under the lurid damping the ardour of the Swedes. On cover of the conflagration and the fog, their side of the field, and in the centre,
they repulsed Duke Bernard of Saxe the road, with its ditches, and the bat
Weimar's repeated charges, drove him tery of seven cannon, were soon re
back across the road, which, with the covered, and the neighbouring squares
windmills beyond it, he had for a moonce more assailed and brought into
ment won, and endangered the whole utter disorder. Wallenstein's cavalry
left flank of the Protestanta
tarmy. Rightly behaved ill, except some of the cuiras. judging, however, that the real way to siers ; as he afterwards complained.
victory was to follow up the advantage Numbers of the carbineers turned their
obtained by the Swedes on the cast, horses' heads as soon as they had dis
Bernard, as soon as he heard of the charged their pieces, and fled in the
King's death, moved in person to that direction of Leipzig. As for Isolani's
quarter, leaving the command of the Croats on his left wing, they executed a
left to Nils Brahe, whom the King had brilliant stroke in their own professional
named as the best qualified to command way. Avoiding the charge of the Swedes,
an army of all his countrymen, except they crossed the Flossgraben, wheeled to
Torstenson. And Brahe justified the the right, turned, and rode completely
confidence reposed in him by driving round the Swedish right; made a dash
the Imperialists once more from their for the village of Meuchen, two miles in
windmills, and turning their own cannon the rear, where the Swedish baggage
against them. Bernard hastened to lay, and plundered it to their hearts Knyphausen, who commanded the re
, ' content; while, at the same time,
serve, and informed him of the King's Wallenstein had the satisfaction of hear
death. Knyphausen, a cool veteran, ing that another troop of bis runaway simply replied that his troops were in Croats had made their way to the Gal
good order, and could make an excellent lows Hill, in his rear, and were em
retreat. “ It is the hour of revenge, ployed in the same satisfactory way in
not retreat," was Bernard's answer, as ransacking his baggage and camp equip
he hastened to place himself at the head age; where, no doubt, they found loot of the same Smaland regiment which of greater value than their brethren in
Gustavus had led into action. Only the quarters of Gustavus.
just in time; for Pappenheim now apBut, on the west, the battle was
peared, bringing his whole cavalry, six
or seven thousand men, to strengthen 1 He issued, in consequence, two remarkable
Wallenstein's left, but leaving his inorders : one enjoining more strictly the use of the cuirass; one depriving part of the horse fantry still on the march. The accounts of their firearms. He said that the trooper's of the exact period of Pappenheim's habit was to discharge his carbine and pistols arrival vary singularly. The old French as soon as he came near the enemy, and then to "caracole," that is, wheel round, and get
contemporary narrative, translated and out of danger. Neither order had any per
reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany, manent effect.
says expressly that it was between two and three o'clock; but this seems too herself as dying "vor langer Weile" late. Wallenstein, in his short report to in his absence. Pity that her lord's the Emperor, ingeniously implies, with- hand, which she “ kisses many million out actually asserting it, that Pappen- times," was still red with the blood of heim was with him at the commence- Magdeburg, shed in participation with ment of the action-evidently a fib, to the ferocious Tilly. draw off attention from his own blunder Under the cover of this reinforcein having detached him two days before. ment, Wallenstein rallied part of his And now the Swedes had to draw up troops; and then began the fiercest once more their shattered brigades, with ' struggle of this day of many vicissitheir backs, as it should seem, to the tudes; one which every witness and high-road, and abide the furious charge every historian describes as of unexof Pappenheim's cavalry. Pappenheim ampled severity. The question was, himself led them on, exclaiming, “Where in Wellington's words, which of the is the king ?” but at the very first on- two shattered armies “could pound the set fell, pierced with two bullets, and longest.” Nils Brahe was killed, his was carried out of the field only to die. brigade beaten back across the road; The last hasty order to rejoin Wallen- the whole Swedish infantry, of the first stein, which he had received from that line, was almost cut to pieces. In half general, was found beneath his gorget, an hour, says one writer, the entire stained with his blood, and is now pre- yellow regiment lay on the ground, in served in the archives of Vienna. Such order, where they had stood before. was the end of the noblest among the The fog, towards the close of the day, servants of the Kaiser; not only brave descended thicker than ever; but it sudto a fault, but displaying in his subor- denly cleared again half an hour before dinate capacity high qualities of general- sunset; and then Bernard, reduced to ship. Gustavus himself emphatically the laste straits to hold his ground, termed him “the soldier ; the learned discovered, to his infinite satisfaction, called him, from his prodigious personal that Knyphausen’s reserve remained in strength, the Telamon of the Imperial unbroken order, as yet untouched by army. His soldiers adored him, and
The sorely-thinned remthe populace bestowed on him that nants of his first line rallied in the superstitious awe with which, in those interval of the second, and Knyphaudays, they loved to encompass their sen's charge decided the day. For the favourites ; he was born on the same day last time the road was crossed; the with Gustavus, they observed, and subject Imperialist cannon captured. And now to the same stellar influence; his forehead the early November darkness came on. was marked with two cross swords, which Just at this crisis arrived Pappenheim's came out fiery red in moments of ex- infantry, six regiments strong. Had citement; nay, the evidence of his nurse they charged the Swedes, the event of was gravely invoked, to establish that he the day would probably yet have been cried when he was first washed, and different. But they took no part in never afterwards in the whole course of the action. According to the common
Out of the field as well as in account, they were prevented by the it , he passed for a model of old-fashioned darkness. But among the Imperialists chivalry; a devout and humble Catholic, the notion spread, that the advance of of blameless life, and strong domestic these battalions was arrested by the order attachments. There is extant the ten- of Marshal Holk, who, at this crisis, comderest of all possible new-year's letters manded Wallenstein's left, and who was to him (printed by Förster, in his Wal- thought to have been long meditating lenstein's Prozess : Germans will print treason. This question, like many others everything) from his wife," her loveliest raised in that age of dark suspicions, " angel's submissively obedient maid- must remain undecided ; for Holk died "servant Anna Elizabeth," who describes shortly afterwards, and "made no sign.”
Wallenstein retreated on Leipzig under cent Wallenstein was in truth a great cover of the night. He left, it is said, impostor-a humbug of enormous pre8,000 or 9,000 of his troops, with 5,000 or tensions. His whole demeanour savours 6,000 Swedes, killed or wounded on the of that intimate combination of enthusifield of battle. The Swedes remained mas- asm with jugglery which imposes most ters of that field, and in possession, after successfully on mankind. He was an many vicissitudes of taking and retaking, actor through life. A subtle Italian spy, of most of the enemy's heavy cannon. set to watch him in 1628, describes his Gallas, in his report of the battle, makes “bizarre" and violent manners as nothing an excuse for this loss which is curious, but a trick, assumed in order to deceive and may be true: he says the artillery
at once the multitude by an appeardrivers were peasants, impressed, with ance of power, and his superiors, by their horses, from the neighbourhood of persuading them that one capable of such Leipzig, whose heart was on the other extravagance could not be capable of conside, and who, as soon as they found nected designs. In addition, he could opportunity, cut the traces and abandoned import at will into his proceedings that their charge. Wallenstein, however, at touch of the mystic, that smoke-flavour first claimed the victory in his des- of the supernatural, which especially inpatches, chiefly on the strength of the fluences his wonder-loving countrymen. King's death. But his own exaspera
Of the real genius of the general or the tion at his defeat was intense. Accord- statesman, I cannot find that his life ing to one story, as soon as he arrived exhibits a single trace.
But he was, at Leipzig, he "shut himself up in a above all things, Fortune's favourite. I room and swore for an hour;" which, do not remember where I fell in with a says Philippi, oddly enough, “is scarcely pretty piece of criticism on a picture of
credible, considering his well-known Gérard's, in the French division of this “ disposition to silence.” At all events year's Exhibition, not so interesting from he allowed his mortification to rankle, its execution as from its quaint fancy. deeply and grimly, in his breast. Not The goddess Fortune - arridens nudis in
– until he had rallied his beaten army as fantibus—has fallen in love, beside a vilwell as he could, and established it in lage well, with a charming infant boy. winter-quarters in Bohemia, abandoning Her wheel is resting at her feet—her corSaxony to the victor, did he proceed, in nucopia is pouring out its neglected treacold vindictiveness, to hold his "bloody
“ sures—while the saucy little idol is laughassize” on those who had misconducted ing in her face, and fencing with her hand themselves in the action. His wrath as it caresses his dimpled cheek. The was particularly directed against his affairs of this unstable world are at a cavalry officers, who had fled from the standstill while she indulges in her field. About a dozen, colonels and fancy; and, as for the unconscious child, others, were executed, and many sen- he may be anything he pleases—cardinal, tenced to inferior punishments.
pope, emperor, Wallenstein, Napoleon. people,” said one young colonel to the Those whom the blind goddess thus crowd, at his execution, “I am come selects have about them something " here to die for running away together dæmonic, as the Germans express it. “ with my generalissimo.” At the same Wallenstein's life, so dazzling in its midtime, with his accustomed liberality or career, is veiled in mystery both at the policy, he made magnificent presents, on beginning and the end. The cadet of his own part and not the Emperor's, to a poor though noble Bohemian house, those who had distinguished themselves. the third son of a sixth son, both his For my own part I must say, though parents addicted to the Protestant per
I quite aware of the storm of Teutonic suasion, his prospects of rising in the indignation which such an avowal is Austrian service might have seemed likely to provoke, that I never could get slender enough; but, just as he is entering rid of the impression that the magnifi- on the world, both of these parents are