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there in millions, ready for the doctors they do not have hooping-cough, they to bring them in band-boxes at night, cannot be babies at all ; and, therefore, when children want a new little brother there are no babies in the moon.or sister.

Q. E. D. Which must be a mistake, for this Which may seem a roundabout reaone reason : that, there being no atmo- son ; and so, perhaps, it is : but you sphere round the moon (though a certain will have heard worse ones in your time, gentleman, who is no fool, says there and from better men than you are. is on the other side, and that he has But one thing is certain ; that; when been round at the back of it to see, and the good old doctor got his book written, found that the moon was just the shape he felt considerably relieved all over; of a Bath bun, and so wet that the and the foul flood-water in his brains man in the moon went about on Mid- ran down, and cleared to a fine coffee summer-day in Macintosh and Cord- colour, such as fish like to rise in; and ing's boots, spearing eels and sneezing); very fine, clean, fresh-run fish did begin that therefore, I say, there being no to rise in his brains; and he caught two atmosphere, there can be no evapora- or three of them (which is exceedingly tion; and, therefore, the dew-point can fine sport, for brain rivers), and anatonever fall below 17.5 above zero of mized them carefully, and kept what he Fahrenheit; and, therefore, it cannot learnt to himself; and became ever after be cold enough there about four o'clock a sadder and a wiser man ; which is a in the morning to condense the babies' very good thing to become, my dear little mesenteric apophthegms into their left boy, even though one has to pay a heavy ventricles ; and, therefore, they can price for the blessing. never catch the hooping-cough; and if

To be continued.



Is not this a jolly title for a book ?- through as you lie on the sofa after Of Anagrams: A Monograph treating of

dinner, with the decanters and nuts their History from the earliest ages to the handy ; but with this in its favour bepresent time; with an Introduction, contain- sides—that, being really a learned little ing numerous specimens of Macaronic Poetry, book in its way, it is worth keeping for Punning Mottoes, Rhopalic, Shaped, Equivocal, Lyon, and Echo Verses, Alliteration,

reference. For not only is it in itself a Acrostics, Lipograms, Chronograms, Logo brief history of those oddities of literagrams, Palindromes, 'Bouts Rimés. By H. ture which its title-page enumerates, B. Wheatley. Printed for the Author by Stephen Austin, Hertford; and sold by Wil

with picked samples of each ; but it liams & Norgate, Henrietta Street; J. R.

contains a list of works, to the number Smith, Soho Square ; T. & W. Boone, New of about sixty, in which whoever wants Bond Street; London, 1862.”

to know all that is to be known about There! Have you read it? But you Anagrams, Anagrammatists, and the should see the little book itself. It is principles of Anagrammatism, will find

. the prettiest little book possible, printed the materials amassed. You may turn on toned paper; and the above title,

up your nose as you like, my solemn instead of the little mass of small type friend, at the thought of having such a which we have made of it, fronts you subject thrust upon you ; but, when Mr. in a page of red and black letter-press, Wheatley tells you that anong those shaped exactly like a wine-glass, and who have interested themselves in anatempting you to taste. It is, indeed, grams, and made them too, have been precisely the kind of booklet to skim Plato, Calvin, Rabelais, Camden, and


others to whom you could not hold a Omnes drownderunt qui swim away non po candle, the best thing you can do is to


Trumpeter unus erat qui coatum scarlet turn your nose down again. Or did

habebat, you ever try to make an anagram your- Et magnum periwig tied about with the self? It is so nice ; you have no idea ! tail of a dead pig.' Positively, when Xerxes offered the re- II. PUNNING MOTTOES.

These are ward—I forget how much it was—to mottoes, whether for heraldic or other the man who should invent a new plea- purposes, involving a play upon words. sure, if anybody had stepped forward Mr. Wheatley gives but a few specimens, and said, “I have it, О king," and then selected for their likeness to anagrams. and there put the king up to the making Perhaps the best in his list are—Fight of anagrams, he would have been sure

on, quoth Fitton," the motto of the Fitof the prize.

It would have been ex- ton family ; “ Antiqui mores” (“ Ancient actly the amusement for Xerxes.

customs,” or “The ancient Morrices," as But, before we speak of anagrams,


you like), the motto of Morrice of Belus dispose of those other intellectual shanger, Kent; "Set on,” the motto of curiosities which Mr. Wheatley has as- the Scottish Setons;

" Ver non semper sociated with them, and which, though viret” (“Spring does not always flousome of them are akin to the anagram, rish ;” or “Vernon flourishes always "), or even involve it, have yet distinct the motto of the Vernons; and Fare,

fac” (“Speak, Do”), the motto of the Fairfaxes. Patior ut potiar" ("I suf

. I. MACARONIC POETRY. Everybody, fer that I may possess”) is another of course, knows what it is; or, at family-motto that occurs to us, in which

the least, everybody who has ever tasted the pun

lies within the motto itself, and Italian dish from which the name is

not in the relation of the motto to the supposed to be derived.

But stay!

name of the family using it; and there May there not exist some wretched is something of a pun, though more of persons who have not tasted macaroni ? wise epigram, in a motto which we Is it not right that we should remember always think of as the very best in the that all knowledge is relative, and that,

Heralds' Records, and which, if mottoes though we may be safe as regards maca- were transferable, we should certainly roni, it might go hard even with our

borrow—viz. that of the old family of selves if a higher standard were pro

the Keiths, Earls Marischal of Scotposed, and the gentleman who writes land; “ Aiunt; Quid aiunt ? Aiant,or those letters on Dinners in the Times

They say :

What say they? Let were to move for a return of the number

III. RAOPALIC VERSES. Goodness of those among us to whom caviare, for example, after the lapse of two centuries gracious! what are they? Not know and a half, is still the mystery that it

what Rhopalic Verses are? Why, "every was in Shakespeare's time? In these schoolboy knows that,” as clever writers circumstances, we may condescend to say when they bring in some bit of explain that Macaronic Poetry is poetry learning they have just got hold of in which Latin · or Greek words are

themselves, and will forget in a day or mixed with vernacular words adjusted two. Rhopalic Verses are-But before more or less to the Latin or Greek syn

I tell you what Mr. Wheatley tells tax. There are tons of such in the me they are, let me put you up to various European literatures; and, with

two ways of avoiding the disgrace of out troubling Mr. Wheatley, here is an being detected as ignorant of what you English specimen :

are expected to know. The best way of

all, when it can be followed, is to say “ Patres Conscripti took a boat and went to Philippi ;

nothing at all, but look as wise as you

can. Boatum upsettum est magno cum grandine

But that was not Bob Silver's way venti;

when he received the note of invitation

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them say."

you do.”



with the letters “R. S. V. P.” in the inferences which they will doubtless corner, and was at his wits' end what suggest. they might mean. He went to a friend IV. SHAPED VERSES. These are pieces of his, tossed down the note, and said of verse, ingeniously constructed, by due carelessly, “ By the bye, it is very odd “

arrangements of short and long lines, so how few people know so simple a thing as to exhibit, when written or printed, as the meaning of these four letters; the shapes of certain physical objects, I wouldn't be sure, Ned, that even such as bottles, eggs, hats, crinolines,

“Come," said his friend, coffee-pots, tea-pots, candlesticks, vases, who saw his drift; “ that's too bad.” altars, saddles, axes, and birds flying. “Well but, for the fun of the thingIn prose, of course, where the printer what do they mean ?” “Mean? Why, can help by means of large letters and of course, that, if you do not go, the spacing, there is no great difficulty in party is to be put off !” “Well, I such shaping—though even here there didn't think you could have guessed is room for art; as may be seen in it,” said Bob, quite satisfied. But epitaphs and dedications, where somethere is another way still, which may times a line of a single word will follow be sometimes put in practice. A learned with amazing effect a line extending from lion at an evening party was appealed margin to margin, or in Mr. Wheatley's to by the ladies as to the meaning of a own pretty wine-glass on his title-page, Greek inscription on a medal which had which neither you nor I could have been puzzling all the gentlemen before blown. But to shape a wine-glass in he came in. “What is it; what is it?" verse, in real rhyming lines—think of said the ladies, pressing round him. He that! Or, still more wonderful, a comb looked at it deliberately, and, making or a pair of scissors in verse ; both of nothing of it, replied with great gravity : which feats Dryden speaks of as per" Ladies, I am sorry; but this is some- formed by masters of the art. I confess thing that it would not be proper for I should particularly like to see a comb me to translate in your presence.” Now in verse; but, as it is, for the most Rhopalic Verses are quite as innocent accessible specimens of shaped verses, I things as was the inscription on that must refer to George Herbert's hymns, medal. Rhopalic Verses (from the Greek where there is nothing nearly so remarkword Ropalon, a club or bludgeon) “are able in this admirable style of poetry. 80 formed," says Mr. Wheatley," that V. EQUIVOCAL VERSES. These are " the first word is a monosyllable, the verses so arranged as to give totally dif“ second a dissyllable, and so on, each ferent meanings, according as they are "succeeding word being longer than read in the ordinary way or in another "the one preceding it." He gives six way known to the initiated. For exexamples; among which are this Greek ample, read these lines first in measure one:

as they stand and then in alternate 'Ω μάκαρ Ατρείδη μοιρηγένες ολβιόδαιμον.

pairs :and this Latin one :

“I hold for the sound faith

What England's Church allows; “Dux turmas propius conjunxerat auxiliares.”

What Rome's Confession saith

My conscience disavows; He gives no English instance; but, Where the King is head taking this line, humbly offered as a The flock can take no shame ; pattern, for want of a better,

The flock is sore misled

That holds the Pope supreme.” “ Goose, gather metrical monstrosities,”

What a comfort it must be for oppressed any one who chooses may employ him- countries to have this mode of expressself in searching for the instances of ing their sentiments and eluding the unconscious rhopalism in Shakespeare, police! In a free country like Britain Milton, or Wordsworth, arranging them Equivocal Verses need not be one of the in order, and drawing the important institutions of literature; but let us not

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measure the needs of other nations by our vile English pronunciation, but as ours. And, what straightforward metre she herself would have read it :is to Equivocal Verse, public meetings « Domine Deus, speravi in te ; and open talk are to conspiracies; so let O care mi Jesu, nunc libera me ; us not be too hard even on conspiracies.

E durâ catena, e miserâ pænâ

O libera me: VI. LYON VERSES (so called, it is said,

Languendo, gemendo, genuque flectendo,! as having first been practised by Sidonius

Adoro, imploro, ut liberes me.” Apollinaris, a Gallic bishop and poet of

Mr. Wheatley recognises as Leonine the fifth century, born at Lyons) are verses the words of which are the same

verses those English verses in which

one of the beats within the line proper whether read backwards or forwards. Mr. Wheatley's only English specimen

is also a rhyme; but I suspect this is is this epitaph from a church in Corn

an improper extension of the term. If not, Campbell's well-known line, the

first of these two, will suffice as an “ Shall we all die?

instance :-
We shall die all.
All die shall we;

“ To the fame of your name
Die all we shall.”

When the storm has ceased to blow." If this is the usual style of Cornish Is not the sound of the first of these thought, we should say that the Cornish lines like the flapping backwards and people are not by any means a people forwards of a flag? And this suggests that it would be safe to contradict.

that the question of Leonine Verses is VII. LEONINE VERSES. Though Mr. really a part of the great question of Wheatley does not mention these in his Rhyme in general. The philosophy of title-page, he treats of them in the text of Rhyme is not yet fully worked out. his work. They are not to be confounded VIII. ALLITERATION, which also conwith the Lyon verses. Strictly speaking, nects itself with the philosophy of Leonine verses are Latin hexameters and Rhyme, and is, in fact, within due limits, pentameters in which rhymes occur. There an art or an instinct of high validity and are many such lines in the classic poets, significance, need not detain us here. and particularly in Ovid, notwithstand

“And apt alliteration's artful aid” ing our tradition that the Latin poets avoided rhymes as systematically as we

is a well-known example on a small

scale. But it is not of such natural and seek them. But the device became

incidental bits of alliteration that Mr. habitual in the middle ages, when the

Wheatley speaks; but of more stupendous instinct towards rhyme asserted itself

exercises of the art of which there are even in the ecclesiastical Latin ; and

examples in literature. Among the minor Leoninus, a monk of the twelfth century,

wonders of the world must certainly be is said to have given an impulse to it.

reckoned those long poems composed Numberless specimens remain; such

entirely of words beginning with one

letter, as A, C, or P; and other poems “En rex Edvardus, debacchans ut Leopardus." there are in which the writers have gone Less properly Leonine verses, but still in this way through all the letters of included under that name, are those the alphabet successively. Latin rhymed verses, not in the classic IX. LIPOGRAMS. These proceed on hexameter or pentameter at all, of which a trick almost exactly the opposite of the “Stabat Mater" and others of the that of protracted alliteration ; for the hymns of the Roman Catholic Church essence of the Lipogram (from the Greek are fine specimens. But one of the most “ Leipo,“I leave") consists not in plaintive examples I know of Leonine favouring one letter above all the rest, verse in this laxer sense is a scrap of not but in rejecting some one letter and very classical, but very intelligible Latin, making it an outcast. The most gigantic attributed to Mary, Queen of Scots, in lipograms on record are two Greek prison. For any sake, don't read it with poems produced in those early centuries



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of our era during which the world, or of season be shouting his name did not the greater part of it, seems to have at first appear except to those who knew been in a state of blue mould for want that Verdi, letter for word, stood for of work—the one a kind of Iliad in Vittore Emanuele Re D'Italia. Now twenty-four books, each excluding abso- this at least was an acrostic with a soul lutely the letter of the alphabet marking in it. its own number; the other an Odyssey

XI. Echo VERSES. These are verses composed on the same noble principle. constructed so that the last syllable or Minor lipograms are plentiful as mites. syllables of each line, being given back Disraeli tells a good story of one by a as it were by an echo, form a reply to the Persian poet. He had shown the poem, line itself or a comment upon it. There which was a short one, to a critic, who is no great capability in this device; did not express himself very enthu- and, though Mr. Wheatley gives several siastically about it. "You will allow it

“You will allow it examples of it, the best is that from a to be at least curious," said the author, number of the Sunday Times in 1831, on “ for you will observe that the letter A the high charge made for tickets to hear does not once occur in it from beginning Paganini at the Opera Houseto end." To which the reply was, “Well, What are they who pay three guineas but don't you think the piece would To hear a tune of Paganini's ?". be greatly improved if you were also

Echo.“ Pack o'ninnies." to leave out all the other letters ?But the best echo I have heard of for a But is the lipogram or any other great long time is an echo exclusively the form of activity to be put down by a property of a certain newspaper writer, snarl like that?

in one of whose articles it is introduced X. ACROSTICS, in the ordinary ac- as follows :-“Shall we resist this inceptation of the term, are poems the “tolerable oppression? Shall we pledge initial letters of whose lines taken in ourselves to do so? Echo answers in succession form some proper name.

Sir " the affirmative.” John Davies, the English philosophical XII. CHRONOGRAMS are hardly worth poet, wrote twenty-six such acrostics in mentioning. They are merely inscriphonour of Queen Elizabeth—the initial tions, of any length, in which, by putting letters of the lines in each forming the a few letters in different characters from words Elizabetha Regina; and similar the rest, these are made to signify a date. acrostics may be found scattered through Thus, on a medal of Gustavus Adolphus, the works of other poets of that age. the capital letters of the following inscripBut there are many developments and tion, “ ChristVs DuX; ergo trIVMvarieties of the acrostic; and “ph Vs,” make together MDCXVVVII; minute variety, which Mr. Wheatley which is a clumsy indication of the date specifies, is worth mentioning, as having 1627. Neater is the chronogram on something vital and electric in it. It is Queen Elizabeth's death, "My Day that kind of acrostic which consists in Closed Is In Immortality;" the initials reading the initial letters of the words of which make MDCIII, or 1603, the of one sentence as a single word, or, date of the Queen's death. conversely, in flashing in a single word XIIL Bouts Rimés, or“Rhymed Ends." the initials of a whole unuttered sen- This ingenuity, in its simplest form, is tence. Thus, Mr. Wheatley tells us, well known as the parlour amusement when the Italians, out of the Pied- of making verses to certain prescribed montese States, did not dare as yet rhymes. But the world does not know, openly to shout for Victor Emanuel and and perhaps never will know, how much Italian unity, they managed the thing of the total Art of Poetry, as practised neatly and thrillingly by the street cry of even by good poets, consists of this very Viva Verdi. Why the popular composer process, performed with incessant subtlety had suddenly become so very popular and under deep disguises. In the case that all Italy should in season and out of a true poet, indeed, we are rather to No. 37.-YOL, TII.



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