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IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 3 The reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce as to imports show only the country shipping the goods, which is not invariably the country of origin. For example, the graphite entered in that bureau's statements as imported from France probably originated in Madagascar, and that imported from Great Britain should probably be credited to Ceylon and possibly in part to Madagascar. The shipments from Japan probably consisted of graphite from Chosen. In the table below the graphite imported from the United Kingdom has been arbitrarily credited to Ceylon, that imported from France to Madagascar, and that imported from Japan to Chosen. Imports of more doubtful origin are included under "Other countries."

Graphite imported into the United States, 1918–1923, by countries

(General imports)

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In 1923 the imports of graphite for consumption increased 6,946 tons, or 56 per cent in quantity, and $141,073, or 30 per cent in value, compared with 1922. Compared with the pre-war five year average of 24,345 tons the quantity imported in 1923 showed a decrease of 20 per cent, and compared with the maximum quantity imported—42,930 tons in 1916—there was a decrease of 55 per cent.

Graphite imported for consumption in the United States, 1914–1923

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. Composed of "amorphous," 11,252 tons, $149, 831; “crystalline chip or dust,” 7,243 tons, $426,417; and "crystalline flake," 939 tons, $37,871. Classes not separately shown for earlier years.

* The figures showingimports and exports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the United States Geological Survey, from the records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce.

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The quantity of graphite exported annually from the United States is comparatively small. In 1923 the exports of unmanufactured graphite increased 59 per cent in quantity and 77 per cent in value compared with 1922. The average value increased from 6.86 cents a pound to 7.63 cents. The value of manufactured graphite exported showed an increase of 32 per cent.

The exports of lead pencils and pencil leads are not included in the tables showing value of manufactured graphite, nor are those of crucibles for 1922 and 1923. Exports of pencils other than metalcasing lead pencils and pencil leads in 1923. were 10,035,600 dozen, valued at $1,636,417. The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce groups the exports of crucibles as “Crucibles, clay and graphite,” hence no figures for exports of graphite crucibles are available. Under this heading 463,265 crucibles, valued at $132,228, were exported in 1923. The corresponding figures for 1922 were 355,155 crucibles, valued at $92,273.

PRICES

In 1923 the price of domestic crystalline graphite at the mine ranged from 3 to 6.4 cents a pound, compared with 4 to 5 cents in 1922. The average price of domestic crystalline graphite at the mine was 3.8 cents a pound, or 0.8 cent less than in 1922.

The following table is based on information furnished by importers prior to 1920. Since then the figures have been furnished by Mr. Charles Pettinos, of New York.

Average prices of Ceylon graphite c. i. f. New York, 1914-1923

(Cents per pound]

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1914 1015. 1916. 1917

1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923

646- 942 747- 872 774-784 64-7 43-574 347- 4 Low first half; high second hall.
998-20 8 -14 7 -14 0112 747 912 612- 912 Do.
20 -28 14 -21 1397-20 1147-17 947-12 97-10 Do.
28 -32 21 -23 20 -23 17 -19 11 -13 10 -12 High level maintained throughout

the year.
1544-284414 -22 1247-211211 -18121017-12 9-10 High first hall; low second hals.
14 -15'4 12 -13 10 -11

8 - 9 694- 7425 - 6 Low throughout the year. 9-14 7 -11 7 -10 51 - 721 5 - 7 344- 5 High first half; low second half. 51 - 6 49- 5 412- 5 312-4 344-34 2 - 2 2 Low throughout the year. 5 - 6 4 412 34-414 314-384 3 - 312 2 - 212 Do. 5 - 6 4 412 374-44 34-354 3 312 2 - 21 Do.

WORLD'S PRODUCTION

The following table, prepared by W. I. Whiteside, shows, so far as figures are available, the production of graphite throughout the world. The most striking features of this table are the large increases in production, compared with 1922, in Madagascar, 4,093 tons (61 per cent), and Mexico, 3,435 tons (167 per cent); and the large decreases in Austria, 4,631 tons (33 per cent), and Chosen, 4,554 tons (24 per cent).

World's production of natural graphite, 1919–1923, in metric tons

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resources of information.--Australia: New South Wales, Dept. Mines Ann. Rept.; Western Australia, Dept. Mines Rept. Austria: Bundesmin. 1. Handel u. Gewerbe, Ind. u. Bauten, Mitt. u. oesterr. Bergbau. Brazil: Commercio exterior do Brasil.

British East Africa (Kenya): Imp. Mineral Resources Bur., London. British India: India Geol. Survey Rec. Canada: Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Ann.

Rept.; Dominion Bur. Statistics Ann. Rept. 1921, Preliminary Repts. 1922-1923. Ceylon: Data furnished

by Insp. Mines, Govt. of Ceylon; consular report Feb. 26, 1924. Chosen: Table of Trade and Shipping. Czechoslovakia: State Bur. Statistics Rept. Finland: Data furnished by Industristyrelsen through United States consul. France: Statistique de l'industrie minéralo en France et en Algérie; data furnished by Direction des mines, Ministère des travaux publics, Paris. Germany, Vierteljahrshefte zur Statistik; Glückauf, June 9, 1923; consular report July 1, 1923. Greenland: Data' furnished by Director of Greenland colonies through United States consul. Indo-China: Consular

report April 9, 1921. Italy: Rivista del servizio minerario; consular report April 3, 1924. Japan: Data furnished by the United States embassy, Tokyo; Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, July 9, 1923. Madagascar: statistique de l'industrie minérale en France et en Algérie; Bull. mines. Mexico: Bol. minero, Departamento de mipas; Secretaría de hacienda y crédito público, Departamento

de impuestos especiales. Norway: Bergverksdrift, Norges Offisielle Statistikk. Spain: Estadística minera de España. Sweden: Bergshantering, Sveriges officiella Statistik. Union of South Africa: Sec. Mines Ann. Rept.; Dept. Mines and Ind. Monthly Rept. Esports. • Data not available. Less than one-half ton

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• Bavaria only. (Estimated.

By JEFFERSON MIDDLETON

GENERAL CONDITIONS

The progress in the fuller's earth industry indicated in the report for 1922 continued in 1923, the production being the largest recorded and 7 per cent larger than that of 1922. There has been a steady increase in the production of fuller's earth since 1912, except in 1921, when there was a sharp decline of 18 per cent, but this was more than overcome in 1922 and 1923. The output in 1923 was nearly four times as large as that of 1913. The value of fuller's earth in 1923 was the third largest recorded, being exceeded by that of 1920 and 1922. It was only 2 per cent less than that of 1922 and 10 per cent less than that of 1920 but was 14 per cent greater than that of 1921 and six times as great as that of 1913. Since 1920 there has been a steady decline in average value per ton. Notwithstanding this decline, the value for 1923—$15.07—was higher than that of any year prior to 1919. Imports decreased markedly in 1923, the quantity being the lowest in more than 25 years.

The Department of Commerce does not report the exports of fuller's earth, but five operators reported that about 3,700 tons was exported to Canada, Cuba, Denmark, Dutch East Indies, Egypt, England, France, Germany, Holland, India, Mexico, Poland, Scotland, South America, and Sweden. This would indicate a domestic consumption in 1923 of about 154,000 tons, of which the domestic supply constituted about 94 per cent.

OCCURRENCE

Fuller's earth has been reported as occurring in Alabama, Ari zona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Washington, but in 1923 it was produced only in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Texas. Plants in Arkansas and Pennsylvania that reported production in 1922 were idle in 1923.

USES

Fuller's earth is used principally as a filtering medium in the clarifying or bleaching of fats, greases, and mineral and vegetable oils. Its original use was in the fulling of cloth, from which it derived its name. This use, however, at least in this country, has almost

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