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Drug Reporter, were 6 to 634 cents a pound in January, 612 to 634 cents to the middle of March, 7 to 744 cents until the middle of December, and 63% to 658 cents until the end of the year.

BARIUM CHEMICALS

The quantity of barium chemicals made in the United States from barytes ore and sold in 1923 was 21 per cent greater than the corresponding quantity in 1922 but less than in 1917 to 1920.

Domestic barium chemicals sold in the United States, 1915-1923, in short tons

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• The quantities of chemicals manufactured in less than three plants are combined in the table to avoid divulging confidential information, as follows: 1915-1918 and 1920: Binoxide, hydroxide, nitrate, and sulphide; 1919: Binoxide, nitrate, and sulphide; 1921: Chloride, hydroxide, and sulphide; 1922: Binoxide, hydroxide, sulphide, and sulphydrate; 1923: Hydroxide and sulphide. Revised figures. Domestic manufacturers of barium chemicals in 1923

(Includes only those using barytes ore)

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Metals & Chemicals Extraction Corporation, Oakland, Calif.
Chicago Copper & Chemical Co., Chicago, Ill.
Grasselli Chemical Co., Cleveland, Ohio
Titanium Pigment Co. (Inc.), New York, N. Y
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del.
Durex Chemical Corporation, New York, N. Y. (New Jersey Zinc Co.).
Barium Reduction Corporation, New York, N. Y. (succeeding Rollin

Chemical Corporation).

Oakland, Calif.
Blue Island, III.
Grasselli, N.J.
Niagara Falls, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Sweetwater, Tenn.
South Charleston, W. Va.

The average value reported by manufacturers for barium carbonate sold in 1923 was $2.35 à ton less than in 1922 and $11.86 less than in 1921. Barium chloride brought $0.91 a ton more than in 1922 and $20.31 more than in 1921; barium sulphate brought $2.24 a ton more than in 1922 (revised figures) and $0.35 less than in 1921.

Average quotations on barium chemicals at New York, 1921–1923 a

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• Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter. From Jan. 1, 1921, to July 24, 1922, “per pound," 40-45 cents; from July 24, 1922, to Dec. 31, 1923, “in kegs, per pound," 14-15 cents.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Germany has been the chief source of barytes and barium products imported into the United States. The World War naturally shut off this trade, and during 1918 a few hundred tons of ground witherite made up the total imports of barium in any form. Importation was resumed in a small way in 1919 but by 1922 was considerably greater than before the war, the imports of lithopone in particular being several times larger. The imports in 1923 were in general less than in 1922.

Barium compounds imported for consumption in the United States, 1919–1928

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The exports of lithopone are considerable, though not so large as the imports.

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The chief center for barytes consumption in the East is in the region near New York and Philadelphia, in which the prices are based on quotations at New York. In the Middle West barytes is consumed mainly about Chicago and St. Louis, where the prices are

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Sept. Oct. 26792902392038-22 Na38685 SONR"9289838

Barium dioxide

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FIGURE 7.- Weekly quoted prices of crude barytes and of barium products and barium chemicals, 1923 based on quotations at St. Louis, which is close to the barytes fields of Missouri. The price of barium products is based on quotations at New York.

Figure 7 shows graphically the weekly average New York prices quoted for barium products and, for comparison, the price of crude barytes f. o. b. mines. The quotations on barytes, crude and ground, and on barium carbonate, usually expressed in lots of short tons, are reduced to prices per pound for convenience in plotting the graphs. All prices except those of crude barytes are taken from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter. The prices quoted for crude barytes are taken from Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering.

The qualities and conditions of the barytes and barium products and chemicals included in the graphs of prices are designated as follows:

Crude barytes, "f. o. b. mines, bulk.”
Ground barytes, “western domestic floated, including barrels, f. o. b.

mills."
Lithopone, “in barrels, car lots."
Barium chlorate, “kegs."
Barium chloride, “crystals, bags."
Barium dioxide, “drums."
Barium nitrate, “casks.”
Barium sulphate (blanc fixe), “dry, less than car lots."
Barium carbonate, “bags.'
Barium binoxide, “drums."

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CUSTOMS DUTIES

The tariff act of 1922 contains the following paragraphs relating to duties levied on imports of barytes and barium compounds:

Par. 12. Barium carbonate, precipitated, 1 cent per pound; barium chloride, 1/4 cents per pound; barium dioxide, 4 cents per pound; barium hydroxide, 1/4 cents per pound; and barium nitrate, 2 cents per pound.

Par. 69. Barytes ore, crude or unmanufactured, $4 per ton; ground or otherwise manufactured, $7.50 per ton; precipitated barium sulphate or blanc fixe, 1 cent per pound. Par. 79.

Lithopone, and other combinations or mixtures of zinc sulphide and barium sulphate, 134 cents per pound.

Par. 1698. Witherite (natural barium carbonate), free of duty.

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By G. B. RICHARDSON

The production of carbon black from natural gas in the United States in 1923 amounted to 138,262,648 pounds, an increase of 104 per cent over the production in 1922. The increase resulted from the expansion of the industry that followed the greater demand in 1922 for carbon black by rubber companies. The number of producers of carbon black reporting to the Survey increased from 26 in 1922 to 47 in 1923, and the number of plants operated from 43 to 69. The operations resulted in overproduction during the later part of 1923, as indicated by the quantity of stocks held in the hands of producers. Stocks increased from 2,434,547 pounds on January 1, 1923, to 38,320,814 pounds on December 31.

The production by States in 1923 as compared with that in 1922 is shown in the following table. Louisiana led all the States in the quantity of carbon black produced, as it has in the last three years, and its output of more than 101,000,000 pounds shows an increase of 142 per cent over its output in 1922. The production of Kentucky in 1923 increased 134 per cent. The production of West Virginia, on the other hand, declined slightly. Texas joined the States producing carbon black in 1923. The production of Wyoming, Oklahoma, Montana, and Pennsylvania, which ranked in the order named, is grouped together to avoid revealing the operations of individual companies.

Carbon black produced from natural gas in the United States in 1922–23

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In counting the total number of producers a producer operating in more than one State is counted only once.

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