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fields that a weighted average of the working day for the industry as a whole would be 8.06 hours. About 4.2 per cent of the men are still employed in mines that run 9 hours, and only 1.1 per cent are in 10-hour mines. The longer day is confined to Alabama and parts of eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia, and the nonunion districts of Pennsylvania.

Even here, however, it stands out as the exception rather than the rule.

In Alabama alone are a majority of the men employed in mines that work longer than 8 hours. Of 288 mines in that State reporting in 1923, 143 gave the 8-hour day as their standard. These 143 mines employed 12,989 men, or 43 per cent of the total number in the State. "There were 74 mines employing 12,478 men that reported 9 hours as the standard working day, and 21 other mines employing 3,061 men that reported 10 hours. (See Table 30.) This condition is a change from that reported by Alabama operators in 1921, when 87 per cent of the men were employed in 8-hour mines. These figures show not the average number of hours worked by each employee, but the length of time that the mine as a whole is open for work. The tonnage men are less regular in their hours than the day men. Some employees leave before the end of the established day. Other men, particularly in the nonunion fields, may enter the mine for work before the established hour or remain after their fellows have gone. There are also occupations which require the men's presence for more than 8 hours. In some districts the tipple crews are regularly expected to work 9 or 10 hours, though the mine time is limited to 8.

The gratifying progress in the adoption of the 8-hour day is recorded in Table 31, which shows the trend from 1903 to 1923. In 1903 the weighted average working day was 8.7 hours. In 1904 it fell to 8.6 hours, and there it stood until 1917, when changes in the labor market brought about by the war resulted in the rapid extension of the shorter day through the nonunion fields. Between 1916 and 1919 the proportion of the employees engaged in 8-hour mines increased from 58.6 to 95.5 per cent of the total and the average working day dropped from 8.6 to 8.06 hours. This was the most notable change since 1898, when the 8-hour day was written into the first wage agreement in the Central Competitive Field.

These changes in the length of the working day must be taken into account in considering the output per man per day. The large increase in output per worker is the more gratifying because it has been accompanied by a decline in the length of the

working day. The reduction in the length of day arrested for a time the upward tendency in output per man that had begun many years before, and for the single year 1917 the trend was downward. But the forces tending to increase output soon overcame the effect of the shorter day and may be summarized in the statement that whereas in 1911 an average working day of 8.6 hours produced 4.01 tons per man underground, a day of 8.06 hours in 1923 produced an average of 5.15 tons per man underground. To what extent, if at all, reduction in the working time was itself a cause of the increased output the record does not disclose. (See fig. 37.)

.

TABLE 30.—Number of bituminous-coal mines having established working days of certain length and number of men employed, 1922–23

[Wagon mines not included]

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Includes employees in mines where the established working day was changed during the year or where the working day was irregular or in mines which failed to answer the inquiry.

Includes outside employees working 9 or 10 hours a day at certain mines where the established time for underground workers is 8 hours.

Includes 816 men working 8 hours prior to September. • Worked 9 hours first of year and 10 hours last ol year.

TABLE 31.Percentage of men employed in bituminous-coal mines that had estab

lished working day of 8, 9, and 10 hours, 1903–1923

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• Percentages are calculated on base of total number of men in mines definitely reported as having 8-hour, 9-hour, or 10-hour day. A small number of mines that work more than 10 hours or less than 8 hours have been excluded, as have also all mines for which the reports were defective or which changed their working day during the year. Data not available for 1909.

PRODUCTION PER MAN PER DAY

METHOD OF COMPUTATION AND VALUE OF THE AVERAGE

If the total output in a year is divided by the number of men employed the quotient will show the production per man for each year. If this figure in turn is divided by the average number of days the mines worked the final quotient will show the average production per

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FIGURE 37.-Output of bituminous coal per man underground per day and average length of established

working day, 1911-1923

man per day. For the bituminous-coal mines in 1923 the average production per man for the year was 801 tons, and the average per man per day was 4.47 tons. The average production per man per day is thus determined by arithmetical calculation rather than by engineering observation. The man who actually digs the coal gets out more

per eight-hour day than 4.47 tons. The average daily product of his work is pulled down by the inclusion of the day men above and below ground, by the fact that tonnage men do not work every day that the mine is worked, by the fact that they frequently go home before the mine as a whole stops, and by the fact that men underground can not work continuously, because of unavoidable delays, such as that caused by waiting for mine cars. Nevertheless the average thus determined, which can be so easily calculated from the records available, is of value because it affords at least a rough indication of the units of labor necessary to raise a ton of coal and prepare it for shipment under the conditions that prevail at any time and place.

AVERAGE DAILY OUTPUT FOR ALL MEN EMPLOYED Tables 33 to 35 present the statistics of production per day for all men employed. The variations in productivity from State to State are the subject of Table 32. The trend of production per man since 1890, when the historical record begins, is shown in Table 33 for the anthracite and bituminous-coal industries as a whole. The trend in certain of the important bituminous-coal States from 1900 to 1923 is given in Table 34 and Figure 38. Chief among the factors controlling output per worker are the natural conditions of miningnotably thickness of the seam--and the use of machinery. Statistical data on these points will be found in the report of the United States Coal Commission, pages 1877-1892. TABLE 32.-Coal produced per man and average number of days worked per year,

1921-1923, by States

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• The figures for Utah and for Colorado in 1923 are probably too high because of the practice of men going into the mine to shoot coal and load mine cars on days when the tipple and the mine as a whole were not in operation. See note , p. 658.

9786°—26-37

TABLE 33.—Coal produced per man employed, 1890–1923

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579

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486 563 564 596 651 713 097 664 703

1890.. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897 1898 1899 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907 1908. 1909 1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923..

637

126, 000 126, 350 129, 050 132, 944 131, 603 142, 917 148, 991 149, 884 145, 504 139, 608 144, 206 145, 309 148, 141 150, 483 155, 861 165, 406 162, 355 167, 234 174, 174 173, 504 169, 497 172, 585 174, 030 175, 745 179, 679 176, 552 159, 869 154, 174 147, 121 154, 571 145, 074 159, 499 156, 849 157, 743

1. 85 1. 98 2. 06 2.06 2. 08 2. 07 2. 10 2.34 2. 41 2 50 2. 40 2. 37 2. 40 2. 41 2. 35 2. 18 2. 25 2. 33

2. 39 (4)

2.17 2. 13 2. 10 2. 02 2. 06 2. 19 2. 16 • 2. 27 • 2. 29

2. 14 . 2. 28 2. 09 2. 31 2. 21

369 401 407 406 395 406 365 351 367 433 398 464 279 496 469 470 439 512

478 (4)

498 524 485 520 505 504 548 .646 • 672

570 • 618 567 349 592

2. 56
2. 57
2. 72
2. 73
2. 84
2. 90
2.94
3. 04
3. 09
3. 05
2. 98
2.94
3. 06
3. 02
3. 15
3. 24
3. 36
3. 29
3. 34

192, 204 205, 803 212, 893 230, 365 244, 603 239, 962 244, 171 247, 817 255, 717 271, 027 304, 375 340, 235 370, 056 415, 777 437, 832 460, 629 478, 425 513, 258 516, 264 543, 152 555, 533 549, 775 548, 632 571, 882 583, 506 557, 456 561, 102 603, 143 615, 305 621, 998 639, 547 663, 754 687, 958 704, 793

226
223
219
204
171
194
192
196
211
234
234
225
230
225
202
211
213
234
193
• 209
217
211
223
232
195
203
230
243
249
195
220
149
142
179

173 166 196 116 206 200 215 195 220 200 e 205 229 246 231 257 245 230 253 285 293 266 271 271 151 268

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3. 46 3. 50 3. 68 3. 61 3. 71 3, 91 3. 90 3. 77 3. 78 3. 84 4.00 4. 20 4. 28 4. 47

820 837 724 794 896 915 942 749 881 027 609 801

• No reports of number of employees and days worked were collected by the Geological Survey in 1909.

Number of wage earners on December 15 as reported by census of mines and quarries for 1909. The figures for bituminous coal exclude coke workers. • Estimated. . Comparable data not available. • Heavy washery output.

TABLE 34.—Bituminous coal produced per man per day, 1900–1908, 1910–1923,

in net tons (Computed by dividing the total production of commercial mines in tons by the product of the average

number of days worked by the mines and the average number of men employed. No data available for 1909)

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• Apparent decrease largely explained by adoption of the 8-hour day in certain nonunion fields. • Affected by strike.

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