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TABLE 26.—Men employed in bituminous-coal mines working specified number of days in 1905, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1918, and 1921, by

States—Continued
Total

Per cent of State total employed in mines working number of days specified
number
employed Less

20 to
40 to 60 to

80 to

100 to 120 to
State

140 to 160 to 180 to 200 to 220 to 240 to 260 to 280 to 300 days
than 39 59 79

119 139 159 179 199
in

219 239 259 279 299 and 20 days days days days days days days days days State

days days days days days days over

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1917
Alabama
Arkansas.
Alaska.
California.
Colorado.
Georgia
Mlinois
Indiana
Iowa..
Kansas
Kentucky
Michigan
Missouri.
Montana
Maryland
New Mexico.
North Dakota
Oklahoma
Ohio.
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wyoming

1918
Alabama
Alaska.
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana.
Iowa..
Kansas
Kentucky.

1.1 .7

6 1.4

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Maryland.
Michigan.
Missouri.
Montana
New Mexico.
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio.
Oklahoma..
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wyoming-

1921
Alabama
Arkansas.
California..
Colorado.
Georgia
Idaho...
Illinois.
Indiana..
Iowa..
Kansas.
Kentucky
Maryland.
Michigan.
Missouri.
Montana
New Mexico
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon...
Pennsylvania
South Dakota..
Tennessee.
Texas.
Utah..
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wyoming.

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NUMBER OF MEN EMPLOYED

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1913

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242

60

180 200 220

260 290 to

300

to to
59 79 99

179
219

259 279 299 319

DAYS OF MINE OPERATION
FIGURE 36. — Number of men employed in bituminous coal mines that worked specified number of days

in 1913, a normal year; 1914, a year of depression; and 1918, the year of maximum activity
TABLE 27.-Average number of days worked by coal mines, 1913-1923
State

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 Alabama.

255 226 223 262 273 278 239 247 166 215 Alaska..

(a) (a) (a) 179 () 254 280 240 244 147 Arkansas.

174 143 149 184 187 204 136 176 112 Si California

302 291 285 188 173 240 59 181 149 250 Colorado.

229 244 194 233 263 255 225 255 164 191 Georgia..

261 207 197 280 269 258 284 294 183 242 Idaho.

() (6) (6)

() (a) (a) (a) Illinois

() 189 173 179 198 243 238 160 213 152 120 Indiana

190 168 179 187 221 227 148 192 128 110 Iowa..

195 204 220 202 251 245 176 250 148 131 Kansas

197 192 184 204 216 234 182 204 137 125 Kentucky

212 187 186 208 214 230 189 182 152 140 Maryland.

248
241

256 254 261 179 207 120 101 Michigan.

188 201 198

216

254 237 179 261 196 162 Missouri

187 179

207 240 235 175 233 166 113 Montana.

228 209 201 244 268 264 194 250 143 140 New Mexico.

289 283 262 292 321 301 273 302 150 216 216 North Carolina.

40 100 288 300 167 North Dakota

221 216

219

244 255 229 216 218 194 175 Ohio.. 206 108 142 197 210

164 188

134 100 Oklahoma 197 205 167 178 211 228

184

217 141 114 Oregon.

283 266

206

236 251 292 259 307 Pennsylvania (bit.).

267 214 226 259 261 269 218 244 151 154 South Dakota.

137 152 155 145 154 145 164 133 129 138 Tennessee

241 220 220 239

241

265 201 234 154 163 Texas.

237 233
218 263 262 227 242

139 185 Utah.

273 210 208 228 219 258 239 252 151 204 Virginia.

280 235

235

272 273 277 247 262 166 198 Washington

260 191

169

217 271 275 217 260 159 194 West Virginia

234 201 208 237 225 238 200 198 149 143 Wyoming...

232 192 201 248 246 268 221 264 167 128 Total bitumino s.

232 195 203 230 243 249 195 220 149 142 Pennsylvania anthracite. 257 245 230 253 285 293 266 271 271

151 Grand total...

238 207 209 235 251 258 209 230 173 • California includes Alaska in 1913; Idaho and Nevada, 1914 and 1915 (number of days not reported for Alaska); Idaho, 1916–1920 (number of days not reported for Alaska in 1917); and Idaho and Oregon, 1921-1923.

Includes Nevada.

186

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223

253

144

THE EARLIEST RECORD OF TIME WORKED AND LOST AT SOFT

COAL MINES

For purposes of comparison, the following table, abstracted from the census of 1880, is of interest. It gives the first statistical record known to the writers of time worked and lost at the bi tuminous-coal mines. In Table 29 a comparison of the working year in 1880, 1920, and 1923 is given. It shows that the problem of idle time at the mines existed in 1880 but in less acute form than to-day.

TABLE 28.--Average percentage of year worked, idle, and lost in strikes at bituminous

coal mines in year ending June 1, 1880

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Table 29.Days worked and lost at bituminous-coal mines, 1880, 1920, and 1923

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. Figures as first published expressed in per cent of the working year.

HOURS OF LABOR

The only change of consequence in the customary hours of labor in the mines that occurred in 1923 was the application of the eighthour day to those few occupations in the anthracite region that had not been affected by the agreement of 1916. In the agreement of September, 1923, the anthracite operators accepted the suggestion of Governor Pinchot, of Pennsylvania, that the few remaining employees be placed upon the 8-hour basis. A study made by the United States Coal Commission of the hours worked by 44,003 employees in the anthracite region in April, 1923, showed only 907, 2.06 per cent, then working in excess of 8 hours.

In the bituminous-coal fields little change in the length of the working day occurred in 1923. The 8-hour day, long the standard in union districts, has now been accepted so generally by the nonunion

or

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