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A notable feature of the diagram is the general loss in relative standing of the States of the Western Interior field. Iowa dropped from tenth to twelfth place in the 10 years, Kansas from twelfth to fourteenth, Missouri from fourteenth to fifteenth. It is, perhaps, significant that these States are strongholds of unionism and have had to pay both high day rates and high tonnage scales. But the relative cost of union and nonunion labor is not the only factor involved in the shift, for union Indiana changed places with nonunion Alabama in this period of 10 years. Colorado, where the hold of unionism has never been as strong as in many other States, lost in relative standing, and Wyoming, which is completely organized, on the contrary, advanced. Other States whose relative standing improved were Virginia, Tennessee, and Utah.

In Table 11 is presented for convenient reference the output for each State in each of the last four

years.

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FIGURE 35.-Rank of principal States in production of bituminous coal in 1913, 1918, and 1923

PRODUCTION BY FIELDS The Geological Survey receives many requests for information on production by trade fields as distinct from States and counties. At the request of the United States Coal Commission the Survey retabulated its records for 1920 and 1921 according to the 92 fields into which the commission divided the bituminous coal mines. The results are shown in Table 15.

The commission's grouping of the fields was made under the direction of C. E. Lesher and R. A. Walter, primarily with a view to its studies of cost of production. The fields are accurately delimited by metes and bounds on pages 2034-2052 of its report. Because all the fields adopted did not coincide with generally accepted trade districts they were designated by number rather than by name. For the convenience of the reader of Table 15, however, the trade name most nearly corresponding to the boundaries established by the commission is also listed.

TABLE 15.-Bituminous coal produced in the several fields adopted by the United

States Coal Commission, 1920–21 .
[Exclusive in both years of product of country coal banks and wagon mines shipping by rail]

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Pennsylvania Pittsburgh

358 356 38, 245,000 25, 552, 000 do.. Connellsville

326 256 34, 095, 000 22, 460, 000 .do. Westmoreland-Ligonier.

164 135 16, 107, 000 11, 735,000 4a .do. Freeport-Thin.

77 79 3, 852, 000 4b do

1, 980,000 Freeport-Thick.

19

19 5, 574, 000 4, 748,000 ..do Butler-Mercer

97 83 2, 168,000 1, 667, 000 do Blossburg

22 19

768,000

446, 00 do. Broad Top.

57 58 1, 678,000 do

839, 000 Somerset

215 200

7,433, 000 ga .do

5, 840,000 Central Penn., western

135 130 3, 170,000 2, 204,000 9b ..do. Central Penn., middle

218 188

15, 511, 000 8, 047, 000 9c do Central Penn., eastern

1,004 873 39, 457, 000 30, 537, 000 10 Maryland-West Maryland-Potomac..

157

134 Virginia.

6, 243, 000 2,993, 000 11 West Virginia.... Fairmont.

255 224

15, 571, 000 12, 549, 000 12 Ohio-West Vir- Panhandle Pittsburgh No. 8..

222 201 21, 128, 000 ginia.

19, 849,000 13 do. Pomeroy

44 35 1, 732, 000 1,001, 000 14 West Virginia Putnam County

12 10 339,000

291, 000 15 West Virginia- Kenova..

26 25

528, 000 Kentucky.

714,000 16 do Thacker.

84

75 4, 308,000 3, 483,000 17 West Virginia.. Tug River..

62 74 4, 115, 000 4, 343, 000 18 West Virginia Pocahontas.

108 102 Virginia.

16, 290,000 13, 414,000 19 West Virginia.. Winding Gull.

67 67 5, 615, 000 5,712, 000 20 ...do. New River...

126 122 7, 582, 000 21 ...do.

5, 533,000 Kanawha.

246 217 12, 724, 000 do.

8,528,000 22 Coal River.

19
17 1, 108, 000

853,000 23 ..do. Logan..

136 133 10,092, 000 10, 770, 000 24a ...do. Coal and Coke

35

24 804, 000 700.000 24b do. Preston County

56
43 1, 854, 000

676,000 240 ..do. Taylor County, Junior, Phillippi, 164 124

5, 558, 000 2,973, 000 and Gauley. 25 Virginia.. Southwestern Virginia..

107 71 7, 835, 000 4, 480,000 26 ..do.. Clinch Valley.

23 23 2, 349, 000 2,100,000 27 Upper New River.

7
6
164, 000

85,000 28 do. Richmond Basin..

1 29 Ohio.

4,000 Massillon-Palmyra-Lisbon.

127 103 2, 823,000 1,761,000 30 ..do. Coshocton-Goshen.

199 149 4,425,000 2, 538,000 31 .do. Cambridge

57 56 4, 964,000 3,903, 000 32 do. Crooksville.

69

53 1, 537, 000 542.000 33 do. Hocking

248 204 11, 478,000 6,072, 000 34 do. Jackson and Ironton

116 70 1,741,000 Kentucky. 36

415,000 Northeastern Kentucky.

194 181 7, 828,000 5, 189,000 37 .do. Hazard

108 105 3,973, 000 5,190,000 38 .do. Harlan.

70 63 5,062, 000 6,894, 000 39 Kentucky-Ten. Southern Appalachian.

229 162

6, 746, 000 4, 865,000 nessee. 40 ...do. Jellico....

66 42
1, 167,000

797,000 41 Kentucky. Western Kentucky.

185 164 11,037,000 8,618,000 42 Tennessee. Rockwood-Soddy.

71 60 2,689, 000

1,728,000 43 do. Fentress.

10
11

800,000 Alabama,

551, 000 44 Big Seam Group.

43 42 4, 614,000 45 .do.

3,358,000 Cahaba Group.

84 80 4,455, 000 do.

3,729,000 46 Pratt Group.

118 111 6,998, 000 5,412,000 47 Indiana Indiana

301 265 28, 720,000 20,063, 000 48 .do. Brazil Block

18

12 373, 000 49 Illinois. Northern Illinois.

254, 000

47 75 3,329,000 2, 139,000 50 do Fulton-Peoria.

97 168 5, 260,000 3, 409,000 51 do. Danville.

33 46 3, 968,000 3,040,000 52 Central Illinois.

100 117 29, 740, 000 ..do.

20, 788,000 53 Belleville..

110 112 12, 956, 000 10,631,000 54 .do. Murphysboro.

7

7 241, 000 270,000 55 do Southern Ilinois.

127 147 33, 155,000 56 Michigan

29, 327,000 Michigan.

14 14 1, 489, 000 1, 142, 000 57 Arkansas. Sebastian

68 48 1, 693, 000 945,000 58 Excelsior-Logan..

18

19 153,000 154, 000 59 ...do.. Arkansas-Anthracite.

10 10 211,000 60 Colorado

127,000 Colorado Domestic..

102 122 5, 377, 000 4, 204,000 . See text for explanation of fields.

A discrepancy will be found between the total of these figures and the total for the country given in other tables. För 1920 it amounts to 4,934,000 tons and arises from the fact that in this table the wagon mines and country banks are not included. The slight difference in 1921---less than 2,000 tons for the country as a whole--arises from the fact that the tonnages are rounded to the nearest thousand.

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Table 15.Bituminous coal produced in the several fields adopted by the United

States Coal Commission, 1920–21 -_Continued

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40 41 111 74

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47 44 86 65 118

1 14

2 96 71 4 1 57 15

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61 Colorado.
62 do.
63 Iowa.

do. 65

Kansas. 66 do 67 68 do. 69 Missouri 70 do.. 71 ..do 72 do... 73 Montana. 74 New Mexico. 75 76 -..-.do. 76a

do 77 North Dakota. 78 do 79 Oklahoma. 80 do 81 Texas 82 do 83 Utah.. 8

Washington 85 86 87 Wyoming 88 South Dakota. 89 Oregon. 90 California. 91 Nevada 92 North Carolina.

Unclassified

Trinidad..
Northern Colorado
Marion-Monroe-Polk.
Appanoose.
Pittsburg
Lightning Creek
Osage..
Leavenworth.
Southern Missouri.
Lafayette.
Grundy.
Platte..
Montana.
Gallup.
Anthracite
Raton..
Monero.
Southern North Dakota.
Northern North Dakota.
McAlester Vein.
Oklahoma-Eastern..
Texas bituminous
Texas lignite.
Utah..
Kittitas County.
Pierce-King bituminous
Lewis.
Wyoming
South Dakota.
Oregon..
California.
Nevada.
North Carolina.

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4,218,000
2, 682, 000
5, 920.000
1,858, 000
5, 592, 000

5,000
93, 000
105,000
3,462, 000
1, 738,000

47,000

62, 600 4,408,000 1,009,000

273, 000 2,383, 000

21.000 613, 000 296,000

846, 000 3, 999,000

467,000 1, 149, 000 6,004,000 1,838,000 1, 479,000

384, 000 9,628, 000

12, 000 20,000 ()

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2, 731,000
2, 187,000
3, 701, 000

831, 000
3, 270,000

11, 000 49,000 102, 000 2, 309,000 1, 170,000

50,000

52,000 2,736, 000

775,000

201, 000 1, 462, 000

23, 000 593, 000 276,000

780,000 2,583, 000

156, 000

819,000 4,078,000 1, 396, 000

599,000

435, 000 7, 202, 000

6,000 24,000 12, 000

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8,003 563, 756,000 415, 923,000

• See text for explanation of fields. » A discrepancy will be found between the total of these figures and the total for the country given in other tables. For 1920 it amounts to 4,934,000 tons and arises from the fact that in this table the wagon mines and country banks are not included. The slight difference in 1921-less than 2,000 tons for the country as a whole-arises from the fact that the tonnages are rounded to the nearest thousand.

« On account of differences in classification these totals differ slightly from those given in other tables of this report. Included under "Upclass ified.”

WEEKLY AND MONTHLY PRODUCTION

SOURCE OF THE DATA

The following tables form a summary of the statistics of the weekly and monthly production of anthracite and bituminous coal that are first published in the Geological Survey's weekly coal reports. The figures given are estimates based upon daily and weekly reports of cars of coal and beehive coke loaded by the principal raisroads. They are afterwards revised to agree with the results of the annual statistical reports from the producers of coal, and therefore the figures here given differ slightly from the estimates originally issued in the weekly reports.

To check the estimates of monthly production of anthracite an additional source of information is available in the monthly reports of shipments made by the Anthracite Bureau of Information.

WEEKLY PRODUCTION OF BITUMINOUS COAL In the bituminous branch of the industry the year 1923 was notably free of those violent extremes in weekly production that have characterized some other years in the modern history of coal mining. The

lowest output in a full-time week during the spring and summer, ordinarily the season of lowest production, was 10,414,000 tons in the six days ended May 5. A slowing up of general business caused an unseasonable decline in December, and curiously enough the low mark of the year for a full-time week was reached in that month, ordinarily one in which the output is high. The low point appears to have been 10,174,000 tons in the week ended December 8. The high point was 12,150,000 tons in the week ended September 1. The range between high and low was therefore a little less than 2,000,000 tons, whereas in 1922 the range between the low point of the great strike and the high point of the poststrike recovery was 8,000,000 tons. The conditions of 1922 were of course abnormal, but other recent years have shown ranges of 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 tons between the maximum and minimum weeks. The steadiness of production in 1923 was beyond doubt a factor in enabling the railroads to handle the heavy traffic offered with relatively few complaints of car shortage or other forms of transportation disability,

The figures of total output for each week of the three years 19211923 are given in Table 16. Table 17 shows the average production per working day and the number of working days in each week. The daily average is a much fairer basis of comparison from one period to another than the weekly output.

Much interest attaches to the length of the working year in the coal industry. The figures here shown are used after considering evidence of two kinds. The Geological Survey received weekly reports on time actually worked from some 2,500 mines, and these reports indicated the extent to which holidays were observed in each district. The Survey also obtained from the American Railway Association a statement of the total number of cars loaded by the railroads on each day. By comparing the mine reports and the carloading reports for a given holiday, it was possible to determine accurately the extent to which that holiday was observed in the bituminous-coal fields. It was found that the number of days in the working year is not the same in all districts. All mines observe Sundays, Fourth of July, and Christmas, and most of the mines observe New Year's Day, although under exceptional circumstances, such as the very active demand that prevailed in January, 1923, a considerable tonnage may be loaded on New Year's Day. There are other holidays, such as Eight Hour Day (April 1) and Labor Day, that are very generally observed in union districts but not in nonunion districts, and such days are equivalent over the country as a whole to about three-tenths of a full working day. Similar variations have been noted in the observance of Memorial Day and Thanksgiving Day.

After allowance is made for these holidays, the weighted average potential working year for the country as a whole is 308 days. If, however, Armistice Day continues to be observed as a holiday hereafter, the working year of the bituminous industry will be nearer 307 than 308 days. Other special holidays, of course, such as Presidential Election Day, may cut the working year still further. Such a special interruption to work occurred in 1923, when many mines were closed on August 11, the date of President Harding's funeral. The total number of working days for the year 1923 was therefore 306. There is apparently a tendency to observe more widely certain of the religious holy days. In general, however, these holy days,

Columbus Day, and the birthdays of Lincoln and Washington are not yet so commonly observed as to curtail production greatly, and these days have therefore been counted in the table as working days. Individual mines may close on such days, and the aggregate output of a district may show a perceptible decrease, but the records of daily loadings for the country as a whole do not indicate a sufficiently large or sufficiently regular decrease to warrant recognizing them as cutting into the potential working year.

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TABLE 16.—Bituminous coal produced, by weeks, 1921–1923

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13

Feb. 5.

12. 19.

26. Mar. 5.

12.
19.

26. Apr. 2.

9. 16. 23.

30. May 7

14. 21.

28 June 4.

11.
18.

25. July 2.

9. 16. 23.

30. Aug. 6.

13. 20.

27 Sept. 3.

10.
17.

24. Oct. 1.

8. 15. 22.

29. Nov. 5.

12.
19.

282, 000 Jan. 7. 11,000,000

14. 10, 154, 000

21. 9,386, 000

28. 8,758, 000 Feb. 4 8,311,000 11 8,032,000

18. 7,655, 000

25 7,595, 000 Mar. 4. 7,438,000

11. 7,052, 000

18.
6,655, 000

25
6, 599, 000 Apr. 1.
5,950,000

8
6, 254, 000

15. 6, 671, 000

22
6, 965,000

29.
7, 137,000 May 6.
7,553,000
8, 185, 000

20.
8, 165,000

27
8, 345, 000 June 3.
6,985, 000

10.
8, 186, 000

17. 7,717,000

24
7,873, 000 July 1
7, 826, 000

8
6,300,000
7, 564, 000

22
7,542, 000

29. 7,480, 000 Aug. 5. 7,344, 000

12 7,942,000

19. 7,877, 000 26. 7,923,000 Sept. 2. 7,773, 000

9. 7, 240,000

16.
8, 367,000

23
8,714,000 30.
9,085, 000 Oct. 7
9, 335, 000

14.
9, 924, 000

21. 11, 292, 000

28. 11, 197, 000 Nov. 4. 9,532, 000

11. 8, 781, 000

18
9,066, 000

25
7, 257, 000 Dec. 2.
7, 261,000

9.
7,473, 000

16. 7,218,000 23 7,614,000 30. 6,092, 000

7, 739, 000 Jan. 6.
8,594, 000

13.
9,091, 000

20. 9, 953, 000

27. 10, 056, 000 Feb. 3. 10, 672,000

10.
10, 647,000

17.
10, 768,000
10, 912, 000 Mar. 3.
11, 493, 000

10.
11, 225, 000

17 11,851, 000

24. 10, 838,000

31. 3, 970, 000 Apr. 7 3,785, 000

14. 3, 701, 000

21 4,322, 000

28. 4,311, 000 May 5. 4, 589, 000

12. 4,639,000

19. 5,061, 000

26. 4,779, 000 June 2. 5, 317, 000

9. 5, 189, 000

16. 5,552, 000

23 5, 410, 000

30. 3,807, 000 July 7. 4, 268,000

14. 3, 822, 000

21 4,091, 000

28. 4, 465, 000 Aug. 4. 4, 768, 000

11. 4,772, 000

18.
6,973, 000

25
9, 688,000 Sept. 1.
9, 100, 000

8.
10,080, 000

15. 10,090, 000

22 10, 168,000

29 10, 079, 000 Oct. 6 10, 466, 000

13. 10, 743, 000

20 11,059, 000

27 11,041, 000 Nov, 3. 10, 504, 000

10. 11, 610, 000

17 11, 491, 000

24. 10, 753, 000 Dec. 1. 11, 900, 000

8. 11,042, 000

15 10, 495, 000

22. 10, 529,000

29

Jan. 5 422, 268,000

11, 379, 000 11, 611,000 11,308,000 11, 371, 000 11,061,000 11, 102, 000 10, 798,000 10, 687,000 11, 330,000 11, 001, 000 10, 795,000 10, 791, 000 10, 797,000 9, 967,000 10, 767,000 10, 580,000 10, 459,000 10, 414,000 10, 533, 000 10,631,000 11, 437,000 10, 446,000 11, 051, 000 10, 945, 000 10, 789, 000 10, 825, 000 9,050,000 11, 309,000 11, 051, 000 11, 197,000 10, 936, 000 10, 197,000 11, 224, 000 11,783, 000 12, 150, 000 10, 854, 000 11, 777,000 11, 856, 000 11, 745,000 11,075,000 11, 338, 000 11, 070, 000 11, 303, 000 10, 917,000 11, 103, 000 10, 059, 000 10, 518,000

9, 256, 000 10, 174,000 10, 285, 000 10, 914,000 6, 949,000 1, 601, 000

15

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415, 922,000

564, 565,000

· Figures represent that part of the output in the week which is included in the calendar year shown. The figures of total production for these weeks are as follows: Jan. 1, 1921, 9,854,000; Jan. 5, 1924, 9,378,000.

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