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Refinery statistics, 1918-19234

(Thousands of barrels of 42 U. 8. gallons except as otherwise indicated}

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326, 025

2, 451 15,750

85,007

307 13, 545 74, 506 7,079

43, 461

11,820 34, 442 9,051

Crude oil (domestic and foreign) run to

stills Natural-gas gasoline run to stills or blend.

ed at refineries Stocks of crude oil (domestic and foreign)

at refineries at ond of year.. Gasoline:

Produced Imported. Exported Consumed.

Stocks at refperies at end of year. Kerosene:

Produced Imported. Exported .. Consumed.

Stocks at refineries at end of year. Gas and fuel oils:

Produced Imported Exported Consumed.

Stocks at refineries at end of year. Lubricants:

Produced Imported. Exported. Consumed.

Stocks at refineries at end of year.. Wax (thousands of pounds):

Produced

Stocks at refineries at end of year... Coke (short tons):

Produced

Stocks at refineries at end of year..
Aspbalt (short tons):

Produced..
Stocks at refineries at end of year.---

174, 319

(6)
29, 637
142, 751
15, 690

361, 520 433, 915 443, 363 500,706 581, 238 2,957

3,153 2,517 3,662 6, 487 13, 143 21, 261 28,562 33, 805 33, 259 94, 235

116, 251 122, 704 147,672 203

179, 903 964

900 1, 479 9,098

4,555 15, 637 13, 134 14, 156 81,781

20, 741 101, 207 107,524 127, 907 10,638

159, 167 11, 009 13, 955

21,043 25, 593 55, 753 55, 240 46,313

54, 913

55, 927 (6) #3

7 23, 537 20,878 18, 016 21, 489 20, 346 33, 188 33, 082 29, 537 34, 855 8,079

35, 536 9,359 8,119 6,691 6,743 181, 602 210, 987 230, 091 254, 910 287, 481 (6)

(6) * 2, 947 16, 487

12, 286 22, 080 22, 676 18, 479 33, 372 163,802 185, 972 195, 656 240, 010 261,388 17,003 19, 938 31,697 31,065 36, 072 20,161 24, 938

20, 898 23,304 26, 128 (6) (6)

29 6, 598 9, 643 6,937

7, 940 13, 600

8,371 14, 742 12, 046 15, 529 17,618 3, 269 3, 822 5,735

5,613 5,781 467, 235 541, 204 434, 884 462, 003 466, 647 222, 462

195, 368 207, 563 204, 891 164, 706 603, 459 576,613 604, 465 707,064 672, 526 21, 146 31, 469

74,508 35, 722 26, 264 901, 885 1, 290, 614 1,214, 536 1,895, 257 2,327, 116 73, 449 81,097

98,330 119,648 114,670

20, 035
(6)

443

6,165

13,823
3, 306

505, 144
199, 658

559, 663
22, 605

607, 968
76,858

Compiled from Petroleum Refinery Statistics for 1923, Bureau of Mines. . Including shipments to Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico. • No data available. • October-December* only.

SHALE OIL

Overproduction of petroleum and low prices have continued to retard commercial operations in oil shale. Nevertheless, 292,000 gallons of oil was reported to the Geological Survey as having been produced by distillation from shale at three plants in 1923–one at Elko, Nev., and two near Casmalia, Santa Barbara County, Calif. These three plants were also operated on a smaller scale in 1922. The operators of the plants in the vicinity of De Beque, Colo., from which 6,250 gallons was produced in 1921, have not since then reported any production.

Details concerning the operations of these plants are not yet available for publication, although general conditions in California 15 and Nevada to have been described. The shale oil produced in Nevada was extracted from typical oil shale-a shale which "does not contain oil that may be extracted by mechanical means but contains an abundance of partly bituminized organic matter that can be converted into

16

16 Gore, F. D., Oll shale in Santa Barbara County, Calif.: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Goologists Bull., vol. 8, pp. 459-472, 1924.

10 Winchester, D. E., Oil shale of the Rocky Mountain region: U. 8. Geol. Survey Bull. 729, pp. 91–192, 1923. Kirkpatrick, 8. k., Producing shale où on a commercial basis: Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, pp. 771-773, 19

oil by heating.” 17 The shale oil produced in California, on the other hand, was obtained from an oil-saturated diatomaceous shale from which oil may be extracted by solvents.

Progress in research and experimental work was continued during 1923 in the laboratories of the Bureau of Mines, cooperating with the States of Colorado and Utah, in the laboratories of several universities, corporations, and private individuals, and at a number of plants. The proceedings of the National Oil Shale Conference in connection with the American Mining Congress at Milwaukee in September, 1923, in which the current status of the industry was reviewed, are given in full in the Quarterly of the Colorado School of Mines for October, 1923.

Oil produced from shale by distillation in the United States, 1923

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World's production of oil shale, 1919–1929, in metric tons

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• Figures obtained from official sources.

Data not available. • There is in operation in Puertollano a plant for the treatment of oil shale and impure coal to obtain oil, but no details of production are available.

Data on production of oil shale not available; the following quantities of shale oil were extractod from alum shale: 1921, 328 metric tons; 1922, 353 tons; 1923, 158 tons.

• Estimated. Used in production of shale oil.

17 Winchester, 1). E., op. cit., p. 8.

By F. G. Tryon and H. L. BENNIT

INTRODUCTION

METHOD OF PRESENTATION

Two reasons have prompted the publication in skeletonized form of the Geological Survey's report on coke and by-products in 1923. One has been the pressure of other work devolving upon the Survey unit that collects the statistics of coal and coke. For six months the entire energies of the statistician in charge have been devoted to editing the reports of the United States Coal Commission and seeing them through the press. Time has therefore been lacking to prepare the usual analytical text and market review of the industry. The other reason for omitting the analysis has been the great detail in which the report for 1922 was developed. By presenting the data for 1923 in the same tabular form, the explanations given for 1922 may be made to serve both years. The reader of this report who desires further light on the meaning of the tables will therefore do well to consult the corresponding passages of the report for 1922. To facilitate comparison of the two reports, the arrangement of matter adopted for 1922 has been closely adhered to. The tables have been grouped by subjects, as indicated by the center headings.

DEFINITIONS The standard unit of measurement in the coke industry in the United States is the short or net ton of 2,000 pounds. Unless otherwise specified, this is the unit employed throughout this chapter.

In this report the term “coke” does not include breeze or the fine coke screenings, because operators in general, especially those in the beehive industry, do not regard this fine material as properly so classified. No effort has been made to define accurately the limitation as to size between coke and breeze. Each operator has followed his own regular practice in reporting his output of fine material to the Geological Survey. It is probably safe to say, however, that coke breeze and screenings correspond closely in size to the anthracite usually classified as steam sizes; in other words, they include the material smaller than pea coal.

For reasons explained in the following section, the statistics of by-product coke in this report cover the operations of all by-product coke ovens, including those installed and operated by public utilities engaged primarily in manufacturing gas for city supply.

The tables of the report classify the sales as between "furnace coke," "foundry coke," and "domestic and other coke." These terms are general trade designations referring to physical or chemical

10. S. Gool. Survey Mineral Resources, 1922, pt. 2, pp. 671-799, 1925.

9786°—26_-28

427

properties of the coke quite as much as to the precise uses to which the product is put. Not all foundry coke, for example, finds its way to foundrymen. In the beehive-coke trade furnace coke is commonly 48-hour coke, and foundry coke is supposed to be 72-hour coke, which commonly comes in larger, longer, and harder pieces than furnace coke and is selected with more care to prevent the loading of the soft pieces and black ends. To compensate for this extra work and for the heavier capital charges resulting from the longer coking time, foundry coke commonly sells at 50 cents to $1 a ton more. (See Table 44.) Under the actual conditions of the market the dis

) tinction in coking time is not always observed, and some so-called foundry coke is ordinary 48-hour furnace coke from which the soft pieces and black ends have been thrown out.

In the manufacture of by-product coke the universal practice of crushing the coal before coking and the facilities for screening and sizing the coke permit more precise definition of grades. In terms of size by-product furnace coke is run-of-oven coke from which the breeze and all small coke of less than say three-fourths inch in diameter have been removed. By-product foundry coke is a blocky coke whose maximum size is much greater than that of furnace coke and from which all sizes under 242 to 3 inches are screened out. Domestic coke includes all sizes of approximately 3 inches and under, exclusive of breeze. It may result from the screening of foundry coke or even furnace coke, or where the principal demand is for domestic coke it may be obtained by crushing the larger fragments.

Knowing that some furnace coke and considerable foundry or domestic coke is sold for other than metallurgical use, the Geological Survey in 1923 added a question to its schedule asking for the quantity sold "for other industrial use." The replies, tabulated in Tables 35 and 36, are probably incomplete.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report is based upon statistical returns by the producers of coke, for whose generous and continuing assistance thanks are cordially extended. Special mention should be made of the courtesy of operators of by-product coke plants in supplying monthly returns of coke output. The railroads have furnished weekly reports of cars of beehive coke loaded, which have been indispensable in preparing the current estimates of production of beehive coke and bituminous coal. (See Tables 5 and 6.) For the statistics of imports and exports the Survey is indebted to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, from whose records they have been compiled by J. A. Dorsey. The statistics of world production of coke in Table 56 have been assembled by W. I. Whiteside. All the other tables have been compiled by the junior author under the direction of the senior author.

NEW FEATURES IN THE PRESENT REPORT Certain innovations in the present report should be noted here. For the first time statistics are presented of the quantity of byproduct coke loaded for shipment on each railroad and waterway (Tables 54 and 55, pp. 475-477). Like the corresponding tables for shipments of beehive coke, these figures are based not on records of the railroads but on reports from the producers of coke.

A change has been made in the form of reporting sales of coke. Operators have been requested to separate sales of furnace coke into "sales to affiliated corporations" and "merchant sales.” Again, an inquiry as to the sales for domestic and other use,” as distinct from “furnace" and "foundry," has been subdivided to read “sales for domestic use" and "sales for industrial and other use," the last heading excluding, of course, blast furnace and foundry coke. The changes in the form of the figures resulting from these changes in the statistical schedule of inquiry will be clear from Tables 35 and 36 (pp. 458-463).

ACCOUNTING PRACTICES OF COKE OPERATORS THAT AFFECT

THE STATISTICS

The term "value," as applied to coke in the reports of the Geological Survey, means the value at the ovens. For that part of the output that is sold the value is obviously the amount received for the coke f. o. b. ovens. But a considerable proportion of the coke produced in the United States is made in ovens operated by large corporations that not only mine the coal and make the coke but also operate blast furnaces and steel mills that consume the entire product of the ovens. Under such conditions the fixing of a value upon the coke and upon the coal consumed in making it is purely arbitrary. By some corporations the coke is charged to the furnace department at cost; by others a percentage of profit is added or the reported value is based on what the coke would cost if purchased.

In the statistics published by the Geological Survey the value assigned to that part of the output produced but not sold has not always been arrived at in the same way, and therefore the figures of total value of all coke produced are not strictly comparable from year to year. Prior to 1918 each operator was asked to place his own value on his entire production, including coke used at the plant but not sold. In 1918 and again in 1920 the value of this part of the product was estimated by the Geological Survey by assigning to the coke produced but not sold in each State a value per ton equal to the average receipts for the coke sold in the same State. In 1919 and again in 1921, 1922, and 1923 the Survey asked the operator to place his own value on the coke used but not sold. These changes in the form of inquiry must be borne in mind in considering Tables 3, 35, 36, and 40.

These differences in accounting practice also affect the relative proportions of the output reported as "sold” and as “used by producer." Between the blast furnaces, which are the largest users of coke, and the coke plants there exists a close business relation, which in many plants amounts to identity of ownership. Among such affiliated interests the line between sales and interdepartmental transfers is difficult to draw, and a large part of the furnace coke reported as sold actually goes to iron furnaces that are in some way connected with the coke companies. (See Tables 35 and 36.)

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