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to the United States. The sales of Canadian spar ground in the United States in 1923 constituted 14 per cent of all ground spar sold in this country in that year. The increasing production of Canadian feldspar is undoubtedly cutting into the market for domestic spar, but as the production of domestic spar and the quantity of it ground are increasing more rapidly than the production of Canadian spar and the quantity of it ground in this country, the domestic industry does not seem to be menaced.
• Statistics taken from reports on the mineral production of Canada, Canada Dept. of Mines, prior to 1921; for 1921, 1922, and 1923 from Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
The following table, prepared by Miss W. I. Whiteside, of the Geological Survey, shows the most recent figures for the production of feldspar in foreign countries. Aside from the United States and Canada, Sweden and Norway are the chief producing countries in recent years. The United Kingdom, though it has an immense pottery industry, appears to be a small producer of feldspar. Cornwall stone is extensively used as a flux in the British pottery industry rather than feldspar.
Feldspar output of principal producing countries, 1918–1923, in metric tons
a Sources of information-Australia: New South Wales, Dept. Mines Ann. Repts.; South Australia, Mines Dept. Miring Review; Western Australia, Dept. Mines Ann. Rept. Canada: 1918–1920, Canada Dept. Mines; 1921-1923, Dominion Bur. Statistics. Finland: Consular report, Oct. 30, 1923. France: 1919-20, Statisque de l'industrie minérale; 1921, data furnished by Direction des mines, Ministère des travaux publics, Paris. Germany: Consular report, March 18, 1922; Glückauf, July 19, 1924. Italy: Rivista del servizio minerario. Norway: Norges Bergverksdrift, Norges offisielle Statistikk. Russia: Gornyi Zhurnal, Nos. 3-4, 1923. Sweden: Bergshantering, Sveriges officiella Statistik. United Kingdom: Imp. Mineral Resources Bur., London.
Data not available. No separate figures available; 49,978 tons of kaolin and feldspar reported. • Exclusive of output of Ireland, for which no data are available.
By E. F. BURCHARD and B. W. BAGLEY
A summary of the monthly estimates of output of Portland cement in 1923, compiled from the monthly reports of producers, was published by the United States Geological Survey early in January, 1924. These estimates, which indicated a production of about 137,400,000 barrels and shipments of about 135,900,000 barrels, were within about 0.6 and 0.2 per cent, respectively, of the final figures for 1923, which were released June 18, 1924.
The year 1923 began with both production and shipments of Portland cement at a much higher rate than in January, 1922, and showing an upward trend instead of the midwinter lag that has often characterized the output of cement. During the active season, from May to October, production and shipments attained higher levels than in 1922, and at all times except in September and October there was more than 6,000,000 barrels of cement in stock at the mills.
Comments by Portland cement manufacturers on trade conditions in 1923 indicate that demand was generally better than in 1922 and that shipping and manufacturing conditions were nearly everywhere more satisfactory, owing to better transportation facilities and absence of the coal shortages that in former years have been caused by strikes. The increased demand was due almost entirely to large road contracts and increased building construction, although in places only one of these factors may have been operative. A very few slightly unfavorable comments came from the Middle, Southwestern, and Northwestern States. One encouraging comment was to the effect that the improved financial standing of farmers had proved an aid to the cement industry.
A summary of value of buildings shown by permits issued during 1920–1923 in 180 cities representing all parts of the United States is given in the following table to illustrate the general trend of building construction during these years. The grand totals for the four years show successive increases, and in 1922 and 1923 there were increases in all districts, but in 1921 there were decreases in New England and in certain Eastern, Central, and Southwestern States.
In the second table is shown a summary of value of contracts awarded for buildings of all classes and for engineering construction work of all other kinds, including public works. The net increase in 1923 for construction work of all kinds was considerably lower than that for buildings alone.
Value of buildings shown by permits issued in 180 cities in the United States, 1920
$101, 449, 000 $84, 907,000 $152, 680,000 $153, 719,000 New York and northern New Jersey. 369, 711, 000 562, 755, 000 773, 747, 000 Eastern Pennsylvania, southern
977, 231,000 New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware,
District of Columbia, and Virginia 160, 753, 000 143, 081, 000 287, 528, 000 Western Pennsylvania, West Vir
308, 741, 000 ginia, Ohio, and Kentucky.. 167, 770,000 146, 805, 000 Ilinois, Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin,
214, 628, 000 243, 190,000 Michigan, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma..
295, 225, 000 341, 117,000 556, 604, 000 Minnesota, North Dakota, and
726, 467,000 South Dakota.
39, 956, 000 45, 311, 000 65, 671, 000 North Carolina, South Carolina,
80,562, 000 Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana.
78, 759, 000 79, 630,000 119, 858, 000 Arizona and Texas.
145, 596, 000 48, 269, 000 46, 830,000 55, 205, 000 Colorado, Utah, Montana, and
64, 974, 000 Idaho.
13, 357,000 16, 327,000 25, 911,000 31, 627,000 California, Washington, and Oregon. 168, 927, 000 201, 989, 000 302, 006, 000 408, 351, 000
1, 444, 176, 000 1,668, 752, 000 2, 553, 838, 000 3, 140, 458, 000
• From Bulletin of Portland Cement Association showing values tabulated in detail by cities, based on Bradstreet's and American Contractor building statistics.
Value of contracts awarded for building and all other construction work in all except
Southeastern States, 1920–1923
. From Bulletin of Portland Cement Association, based on compilations by F. W. Dodge Co. > Owing to rearrangement of districts, comparison of years prior to 1922 is impossible.
PRINCIPAL HYDRAULIC CEMENTS The shipments of Portland and other (masonry, natural, and puzzolan) cements from the mills in the United States in 1923 increased more than 15 per cent in quantity and more than 24 per cent in value over the shipments in 1922.
Hydraulic cements shipped from mills in the United States, 1921–1923
PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS, AND STOCKS The total production of Portland cement in the United States in 1923, as reported to the United States Geological Survey, showed an increase of 20 per cent over that of 1922. The shipments from the mills showed increases of 15 per cent in quantity and more than 24 per cent in gross value. The average selling price at the mills increased 14 cents a barrel, or about 8 per cent. The production of 137,460,238 barrels of 376 pounds net is equivalent to 549,840,952 sacks, 23,073,683 long tons, or 25,842,525 short tons.
The statistics in the following table are arranged by States, so far as possible. The term "active plant” is applied to a mill or group of mills located at one place and operated by one company, but if a company operates establishments at different places its mill or group of mills at each place is counted as a plant. In the table by districts statistics are given for groups of States, generally not more than three, or parts of States, that are geographically and commercially
Of the 27 States in which Portland cement was manufactured in 1923, all but 1 showed an increase in production and all but 3 showed an increase in shipments, as compared with 1922.
All the commercial districts showed increases in both production and shipments, the gains in production ranging from 6 to 33 per cent and in shipments from 5 to 24 per cent. The net change for the whole country was an increase of 20 per cent in production and of 15 per cent in shipments. In 1923 production exceeded shipments by 1,548,120 barrels.
The statistical tables show extraordinary increases in production in certain States or districts—for instance, in Alabama there was a gain of 53 per cent, and in the district in which this State is situated there was a gain of 33 per cent. Two large new mills (see p. 306) began producing cement in Alabama in 1923, and a third mill was enlarged. The production in other States, such as Ohio, Michigan, and Lowa, was likewise increased by the building of new mills. The increase in output in States where no new mills were built was as a rule due to increase in capacity of existing mills, stimulated no doubt by the increase
in projected road-building and construction work, as, for example, in California.