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average values for crude spar as reported by individual producers ranged from $2 to $12 a ton. For New England the range was from $4.55 to $12; for Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, from $2 to $8.63; for North Carolina, from $3 to $7.69; and for Arizona, California, and Colorado, from $5 to $8.

Crude feldspar in 1923 was reported from 11 States, an addition of one (Arizona) compared with 1922. Maryland was the only State that showed a decrease in quantity and value in 1923. The total output increased about 24 per cent compared with 1922, and 7 per cent compared with 1920, the year of largest output prior to 1923. The value of the crude feldspar sold in 1923 was also the

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FIGURE 12.-Crude feldspar produced in the United States, 1907–1923

largest recorded and was 25 per cent greater than that of 1922 and 24 per cent greater than that of 1920.

The reports for years preceding 1921 have shown a combination of figures of value for crude and ground feldspar as sold by the producers which gives a distorted view of the relative importance of the States in production of feldspar and also of the value per unit of quantity. In order to avoid such distortion all the feldspar sold by producers is now reported as crude and credited to the States in which it was produced at the average value of such feldspar in each State, in spite of the fact that much of the feldspar was first sold in the ground form.

The trend of production is shown in the accompanying diagram.

Crude feldspar, produced in the United States, sold in 1917–1923

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Crude feldspar, produced in the United States, sold in 1922 and 1923, by States

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Ground feldspar.-The available data relating to the production of ground feldspar have been unsatisfactory because they were incomplete. Probably all the feldspar consumed industrially is prepared by fine grinding except that used for facing cement work, for covering prepared roofing, and for “ chicken grits” and like uses. Even for such purposes the spar is at least crushed to small sizes and more or less graded by screening, but it has not been possible to canvass all users of feldspar to determine the amounts ground and used by them. All known merchant mills or grinders—that is, those who quarry or purchase crude spar and grind it for sale to other establishments have been canvassed for statistics of ground feldspar during the last three years.

For 1923, 26 mills in 11 States reported 177,229 short tons of ground feldspar sold, valued at $2,973,356, or $16.78 a ton. Of these mills 21 worked on domestic spar and 6 on Canadian spar, the mill of the New York Feldspar Corporation grinding both domestic and Canadian spar. Of the total quantity 86 per cent (151,855 tons) was domestic spar and 14 per cent (25,374 tons) was Canadian sparabout the same percentages as in 1922. The average value

o. b. mills of all ground domestic spar was $16.38, and of Canadian spar $19.17 a ton. Direct comparison of values is misleading, however, as the figures for Canadian spar relate generally to highgrade material at mills near points of consumption, whereas the figures for domestic spar cover all grades at various points, some of which are distant from consuming centers. The average value of domestic spar ground at East Liverpool, Ohio, Trenton, N. J., and Wilmington, Del., approximately one-third of the total output, was $20.31, compared with $21.10 in 1922.

Values as reported by producers in East Liverpool and Trenton ranged from $19.77 to $21 a ton f. o. b. mills for various grades. In New England the corresponding range was $11.75 to $19.84. At Tennessee mills various grades of ground spar ranged from $8.50 to $16.14. Canadian ground spar ranged in New York from $18.18 to $20.10 a ton and in Ohio from $15 to $20.54 a ton.

Ground feldspar sold by merchant mills a in the United States in 1925

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• Does not include potters and others who grind for consumption in their own plants.

THE INDUSTRY BY STATES

The production of crude feldspar in 1923 was reported from 11 States. Named in the order of their output, these were North Carolina, Maine, New Hampshire, New York, California, Connecticut, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Arizona, Virginia, and Colorado. This relative order is practically the same as that of 1922, the principal exceptions being the advance of California from seventh to fifth place and the appearance of Arizona as a producer. Feldspar was ground by merchant mills in each of these States except Arizona, Colorado, North Carolina, and Virginia. In addition, mills were operated in Delaware, New Jersey, Ohio, and Tennessee.

Arizona.-For the first time Arizona appeared as a producer of feldspar, a small output being reported from a deposit near Kingman, Mohave County. This material was shipped to California. The discoverer and operator of this deposit in 1923, G. I. Taylor, has been succeeded by the Kingman Feldspar Co., of Kingman.

California.—Six operators in Riverside and San Diego counties, Calif., reported the production of crude feldspar in 1923-nearly four times as much as in 1922. Most of it was sold crude.

Colorado.-Colorado has been an intermittent producer of feldspar in small lots. For 1923 production was reported by a single operator in Jefferson County. The material was used in the ceramic industry.

Connecticut.–Eight operators in Connecticut reported sales of crude feldspar in 1923 showing an increase of 17 per cent in quantity and 57 per cent in value over 1922. The principal producers, Louis W. Howe, the Eureka Flint & Spar Co., the Tidewater Feldspar Co., and the Capt. C. H. Cook Spar & Quartz Co., reported more than 80 per cent of the output. The last-mentioned company has abandoned its property and moved to North Carolina. The product of the Howe and Tidewater quarries was ground in mills belonging to the operators. The larger portion of the output of the other quarries was taken by mills in East Liverpool, Ohio, and Trenton, N. J., and used in the ceramic industry; the remainder was used in making soap.

Maine.--In 1923 Maine ranked second among the States in output of crude feldspar, as in 1922, and showed an increase of 15 per cent in quantity and 4 per cent in value. Eight operators in Androscoggin, Cumberland, Oxford, and Sagadahoc counties reported this output. The largest quantity was produced by the Maine Feldspar Co., which is also the largest producer of ground feldspar in the State. Maine ranked third in the quantity of domestic ground spar sold in 1923.

Maryland.The production of crude feldspar in Maryland in 1923 showed a decrease of 5 per cent in quantity and 6 per cent in value compared with 1922. Maryland was the only State to show a decrease in output and value in crude feldspar in 1923. This material was produced principally by a large number of small miners reporting through the Product Operating Co. of Baltimore, which operates the only merchant mill in the State.

New Hampshire.—New Hampshire was the third largest producer of crude feldspar in 1923 and showed the largest increase both in quantity and value compared with 1922, though its proportional gain was not the largest. New Hampshire's product in 1923 was used in the ceramic and soap industries. The principal producer was the Golding-Keene Co., which succeeded during the year the Keene Mica Products Co. as a producer of crude spar.

New Jersey.--New Jersey is not a feldspar-producing State, but at Trenton are the mills of the Eureka Flint & Spar Co., the Golding Sons Co., and the Trenton Flint & Spar Co. This city is both one of the principal feldspar markets and one of the principal centers of feldspar consumption, by reason of its very large pottery industry and the large capacity of these mills.

New York.—The crude feldspar produced in New York in 1923 was mined by the Adironack Spar Mining Co., Essex County; the Bedford Mining Co., Westchester County, and the Green Hill Mining Co., St. Lawrence County. There were four mills in the State for grinding feldspar—those of the Bedford Mining Co., at Bedford, grinding domestic spar; the Dominion Feldspar Corporation at Rochester, and the Genesee Feldspar Co. (Inc.) at Rochester, grinding Canadian spar; and the New York Feldspar Corporation at Rochester, grinding both domestic and Canadian spar.

North Carolina. -North Carolina was the largest producer of feldspar in 1923, as it has been for several years. Its output showed an increase of about 3 per cent in quantity and 8 per cent in value compared with 1922. North Carolina's output constituted 40 per cent of the total quantity and its value was 34 per cent of the total for 1923. This output was produced by numerous small producers who sell or barter the feldspar at Spruce Pine, Penland, or other stations, principally on the Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Railway, whence it is taken by the milling companies or finally reaches the market through the larger and more firmly established producers. It is only through the courtesy of these companies in furnishing detailed statements of purchases that the Geological Survey is able to

report the output of the region without endless duplication. Among the well-established operators who were active in 1923 were the Erwin Feldspar Corporation, the Carolina Mineral Co., the Clinchfield Products Corporation, the Penland Feldspar & Kaolin Co., and the Willms Co. (Inc.). No mills were operating in North Carolina during 1923. About 60 per cent of the North Carolina spar was ground in the mills in Tennessee, and 40 per cent in northern mills.

Ohio.-No feldspar was produced in Ohio, but as this State is the largest producer of pottery in the country, naturally it is a large consumer of feldspar. The Ohio potteries are supplied partly by the mills within the State operated by the Golding Sons Co. and the Potters Mining & Milling Co. at East Liverpool, the great pottery center; the Cleveland Feldspar & Products Co. at Cleveland; and the Rock Products Co. at Silica, near Toledo. The Golding Sons Co. ground only domestic spar in 1923, and the others ground only Canadian spar.

Pennsylvania.—Three operators reported feldspar production in Pennsylvania in 1923, but two of the operations were small. The lowest value for feldspar ($2 a ton) was reported in this State. The American Feldspar Co. operated a mill at Toughkenamon.

Tennessee.—The feldspar industry in Tennessee is represented only by grinding mills, of which there were four in operation in 1923. "The mills of the Clinchfield Products Corporation, the Erwin Feldspar Corporation, and the Willms Co. (Inc.), are at Erwin, and that of the Tennessee Mineral Products Co. is at Bristol. Tennessee is the leading feldspar-grinding State; nearly one-third of the total domestic spar was ground there in 1923.

Virginia.-Two feldspar quarries were operated in Virginia in 1923, one by the Moneta Mineral & Mining Co. at Moneta, Bedford County, and the other by the Vicama Mica Co. at Axton, Henry County.

FOREIGN TRADE

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The foreign trade of the United States in feldspar is small and limited largely to importing from Canada. There is no record of exports of feldspar, and if any they are doubtless negligible in quantity. Prior to September 22, 1922, imports of feldspar were not specifically classified in the official records and are therefore unknown. From that date to the end of the year the imports amounted to 7,549 long tons of crude feldspar, valued at $60,111, or $7.96 a ton, and 41 short tons of crushed or ground feldspar, valued at $538, or $13.12 a ton. In 1923 the imports of crude feldspar amounted to 24,271 long tons, valued at $184,924, or $7.62 a ton.

FOREIGN PRODUCTION

The supply of feldspar annually available for the ceramic and other feldspar-consuming industries in the United States is made up in considerable part of feldspar mined in Canada. According to reports of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, the shipments in Canada in 1923 amounted to 29,483 short tons, valued at $214,346, or $7.27 a ton, all from Ontario and Quebec. This was an increase of 6 per cent in quantity but a decrease of 14 per cent in value. Of the total quantity 26,476 tons (90 per cent) was exported, most of it

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