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A fairly active demand prevailed throughout 1923 for stone of all kinds, and conditions at the quarries were better than in 1922. There were practically no strikes, and more cars were available for transportation, especially for crushed stone, than for several years. Labor was scarce and wages were high, yet, owing to improved methods and economies in operation, the cost of quarrying apparently remained about the same as in 1922. Prices varied, the average being higher

, for some kinds of stone and lower for others.

Stone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1922 and 1923, by uses

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Building stone

-cubic feet. 24, 262, 250 $25, 749, 398 26, 515, 520 $32, 416, 717 Approximate equivalent in short tons.

1, 929, 260 Monumental stone.

2,067, 030 .cubic feet. 2,974, 920 | 10, 567, 110 5, 108, 650 Approximate equivalent in short tons.

16, 213, 230 248, 270

424, 310 Paving blocks...

number 31, 208, 800 2,685, 234 | 45, 866, 480 4, 003, 490 Approximate equivalent in short tons.

326, 290

462, 210 Curbing

cubic feet. 2, 867, 800

2, 137, 193 3, 227, 810 2, 936, 313 Approximate equivalent in short tons.

236, 030 Flagging -

252, 300 cubic feet.. 650, 590 406, 731 607, 600

422, 059 Approximate equivalent in short tons.

53, 580

43, 860 Rubble!

short tons. 632, 100 947, 680 882, 010 1, 298, 050 Riprap

do... 2, 048, 580 1, 768, 939 Crushed stone

3, 185, 900 2,989, 068

do. 49, 763, 740 54, 130, 177 Furnace flux (limestone and marble).

62,322, 710 67, 928, 651

long tons. 16, 712, 500 14, 247, 024 22,859, 330 Equivalent in short tons.

20, 377, 138

18, 718,000 Refractory stone (ganister, mica schist, and dolomite)

25, 602, 450 short tons..

902, 170 1, 136, 236 1, 151, 900 Manufacturing industries (limestone and marble)

1, 572, 794 short tons..

3, 586, 250 3, 414, 073 4,668, 470 4, 224, 230 Other uses a

do...

1,767, 290 4, 877, 133 2, 264, 310 5, 565, 501 Total (quantities approximate, in short tons)... 80, 211, 560 122, 066, 928 103, 327, 460 159, 947, 241

. Chiefly agricultural limestone. (See pp. 219, 222, and 223.)

All products shown in the preceding table, except stone for flagstone, increased in output in 1923, and stone for building and monumental work, curbing, crushed stone, refractory materials, and other uses exceeded the output of 1916, which had been the year of greatest output.

Building stone increased 9 per cent in 1923, after an increase of 43 per cent in 1922. The Indiana oolitic limestone used for building increased 22 per cent, Carthage (Mo.) building stone increased 20 per cent, and Ohio sandstone for architectural building increased 16 per cent, but there were decreases in output at less well known localities, and granite for architectural building stone did not fully recover from the effects of the strike among the quarrymen and stone cutters in 1922. Stone for both rough architectural work and dressed and cut stone increased, but stone for rough construction work, which includes rough blocks for foundations, face stone for walls, sea walls, retaining walls, bridge work, and similar stone, decreased in output in 1923. The average value per cubic foot of all building stone increased in 1923, although the average value of the rough architectural stone was slightly lower than in 1922.

Building stone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1922 and 1923, by kinds

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* For granite, sawed stone corresponds to dressed stone for construction work (walls, foundations, bridges) and cut stone to architectural stone for high-class buildings.

Stone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1922 and 1923, by States

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. To avoid disclosing confidential information, certain State totals are slightly incomplete, the figures not included being combined under “Undistributed."

Included under “Undistributed."

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1 The tables of exports and imports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the United States Geological Survey, from the records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce.

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• Less than 1 ton.

From other building or monumental stone" is excluded by the Geological Survey 167,652 cubic feet of stone, valued at $1,712, shipped from Andrade, Calif., into Mexico for the protection of levees and other riprap work.

The value of this material is, however, included in the total value for Mexico and in the grand total value.

Stone imported for consumption in the United States, 1922 and 1923

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« Onyx not separately classified after new tariff went into effect (Sept. 22, 1922), but included under “Marble."

General imports of marble and onyx, rough and manufactured, into the United States,

1922 and 1923

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$752

24,933

25, 685

Canada.
119 $486 $6, 833 $7, 319

8 Cuba.

$35 $717
32
78 442

520 Guatemala.

1,045

6,612 Mexico...

6, 612
6, 550 37, 020

5 37, 025 5, 349 24, 933
Total North
America... 7, 746 44, 196 7, 280 51, 476 5,357

24, 968 717 Belgium

65, 169 146, 292 5, 790 152, 082 France.

42, 486
17, 905

85, 718 16,951
40, 302
19, 514

59, 816

21, 150 Germany

49, 323 1, 461

27, 423 1,057 16, 207 17, 264 Greece.

2, 243 5, 540 4,036

56,500 18,010 Italy.

18, 010

8, 619 35, 220 455, 335 918, 856 250, 2691, 169, 125 616, 111 | 1, 209, 710 231, 214 Netherlands Spain.

1, 505 1, 505 England

34
6, 228
6, 228

279 Other Europe

749 6, 296
3, 535
3, 535

893 2,322 11, 821
Total Europe. -- 543, 906 1, 124, 517 303, 048 | 1, 427, 565 | 691, 781 1,478, 582 353, 008
China.
Japan..

1, 0:37

1,007
74

2, 925
130
94

224 Other countries b.

524
133

455
1,399
1,854 861 3, 202

3, 144
207

585
2, 500
3,085
861 3, 202

6, 593

102, 669 76, 746 62, 040

35, 220 1, 530, 924 2, 769

34 7, 015 14, 143

2, 769

1, 831, 590

2, 925

524 6, 346

9,795

Grand total... - 551,859 1,169, 298 312, 828 1, 482, 126 697, 999 1,506, 752 | 360, 318 1,867,070

o 1922: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Netherlands, Poland and Danzig, Scotland, Sweden, and Switzerland. 1923: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Gibraltar, Norway, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey in Europe.

1922: Algeria and Tunis, A ustralia, Egypt, Hongkong, India (British), Palestine and Syria, and Venezuela. 1923: Ceylon, Hongkong, India (British), Palestine and Syria, and Uruguay.

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