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By K. W. COTTRELL

GENERAL FEATURES

The number of operators reporting the production of asphalt and related bitumens in 1923 was 40, of whom 15 produced native asphaltic materials, 13 manufactured asphalt from domestic petroleum only, 8 from petroleum of Mexican origin, and 4 from both domestic and Mexican petroleum.

Native asphalt and bitumens.- The asphaltic and bituminous materials mined or quarried in the United States include bituminous or asphalt-bearing rock and mineral bitumens and waxes--gilsonite, grahamite, impsonite, ozokerite, and wurtzilite. Wurtzilite, mined in Utah, has also been sold under the name elaterite. Producers reported sales in 1923 of all these varieties except grahamite and impsonite. The material produced in largest quantity and value is bituminous rock, mined in Kentucky, Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Alabama (named in the order of magnitude of output) and used as paving material. The other bituminous products are used in many ways, as for the manufacture of paints, varnishes, and cements. The sales of native asphalt and related bitumens in the United States in 1923 increased 22 per cent in quantity and 28 per cent in value.

Manufactured asphalt.-In the production of asphalt from domestic petroleum California, with 8 operators reporting, ranked first in both quantity and value; Texas, with 3 operators reporting, ranked second; and Illinois, with 4 operators reporting, ranked third. These three States produced 45, 24, and 15 per cent respectively of the total quantity of asphalt manufactured during 1923. Sales of asphalt manufactured from domestic petroleum increased 24 per cent in quantity and 26 per cent in value. Those of asphalt manufactured from Mexican petroleum showed an increase of only 11 per cent in quantity but of 21 per cent in value.

Ichthyol.-No production of domestic ichthyol was reported for 1923. The property of the Meadows Chemical Corporation, of Durant, N. Y., which manufactured ichthyol from material obtained near Burnet, Tex., has been bought by the Dayton Chemical Co., Dayton, Ohio, which plans to manufacture ichthyol and preparations containing it. The imports of ichthyol and ichthyol substitutes amounted to only 20 pounds, valued at $15, in 1923, as compared with 74,330 pounds, valued at $89,150, in 1922. Theimports have probably not declined to the extent indicated by these figures but have probably not been recorded because they are differently designated since the passage of the tariff act of 1923.

The Asphalt Association. - The members of the asphalt industry established in 1919 the Asphalt Association, which, in addition to other activities, is engaged in collecting and disseminating information useful to both producers and users of asphalt. Any one desiring such information may address the association, 25 West Forty-third Street, New York City, or at the following branch offices:

25 North Pearl Street, Albany, N. Y.
302 Latta Arcade Building, Charlotte, N. C.
729 Hearst Building, Hearst Square, Chicago, Ill.
314 Dwight Building, Kansas City, Mo.

PRODUCTION

Native asphalt and related bitumens sold in the United States, 1918-1923

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Domestic asphalt sold at mines and refineries in the United States, 1918–1923, by

varieties

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. From domestic petroleum only.

Included under **Other bituminous substances." • 1918, 1920, 1921, and 1922: Grabamite and wurtzilite; 1919: Gilsonite, grahamite, impsonite, and wurtzilíte.

Native asphalt and related bitumens sold at mines in the United States, 1918–1923,

by States

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* Bituminous rock.
> Included under "Other States."
• Bituminous rock and grahamite.

Gilsonite and wurtzilite. • 1918: Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas; 1919: Illinois, Kentucky, and Texas; 1920 and 1921: California, Kentucky, and Texas; 1922: California and Kentucky. 1 Bituminous rock, grahamite, and impsonite. • Gilsonite, ozokerite, and wurtzilite.

Asphalt manufactured in the United States from petroleum and sold at refineries,

1919-1923

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Asphalt and asphaltic material manufactured in the United States from petroleum

and sold at refineries, 1923, by varieties

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a Flux: Liquid asphaltic material used in softening native asphalt or solid petroleum asphalt for paving, roofing, waterproofing, and other purposes.

• Paving asphalt: Refined native asphalt and asphaltic cement, fuxed and unfluxed, produced for direct use in the construction of sheet asphalt, asphaltic concrete, asphalt macadam, and asphalt block pavements, and also for use as joint filler in brick, block, and monolithic pavements.

c Roofing and waterproofing asphalt: Asphalt and asphaltic cement used in saturating, coating and cementing felt or other fabric and in the manufacture of asphalt shingles.

& Mineral rubber: Asphalt and asphaltic cement used by the rubber industry. ¢ Road oil: Residual asphaltic oil used for surface treatment.

1 Other solid and semisolid products: Asphalt and asphaltic cement used as dips and in the manufacturo of insulating materials, acid-resisting compounds, putty, mustic, and briquets and not included in the preceding definitions. Other liquid products: Petroleum asphalt used in the manufacture of saturant, paint, varnish, or other coating, exclusive offuel oil and not included in the preceding definitions. o Small quantity of miscellaneous liquid products included under roofing and waterproof flux.

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IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

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Native asphalt and bituminous rock imported into the United States, 1920–1923, by

countries

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North America:

Canada.
Mexico.
West Indies--
British-

Barbados
Trinidad

and To

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Other
Cuba.
Dominican

Republic...
South America:

Argentina
Colombia.

Venezuela
Europe:

Belgium
Denmark
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands.
Spain.
Switzerland
United King-
dom-

England.

Ireland..
Asia:
Philippine

Islands.
Turkey

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* Figures for quantity not available.

Ozokerite and other mineral waxes imported for consumption in the United States,

1918-1923

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Ichthyol and ichthyol substitutes imported for consumption in the United States,

1918-1923

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Statistics of imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the U.S. Geological Survey, from records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.

97860-26-10

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