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Domestic mineral waters sold in the United States in 1922 and 1923, by States

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. Included under "Undistributed.”

1922: Louisiana, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Vermont, Washington, and Wyoming; 1923: Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.

Value of medicinal and table waters sold in the United States in 1923

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Arkansas California. Colorado. Florida Georgia. Illinois. Indiana. Kansas, Kentucky Maine. Maryland. Minnesota. Mississippi Missouri. New Hampshire

$50, 017 104, 125

3, 454 15, 773 1,935

438 127, 357 47,503 22, 720 108, 724

$10, 102 560, 496 51, 618 116, 008 56, 875 14, 210 24, 725 30, 432 10, 330 306, 629

88, 568 127, 942

$60, 119 664, 621

55, 072 131, 781 58,810 14, 648 152, 082 77, 935 33, 050 415, 353

88, 568 136, 855 23, 379 38, 145 12, 642

New Jersey
New York,
North Carolina...
Ohio..
Oklahoma.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Undistributed

$1,277 $48, 984 $50, 261 63,858 739, 575 803, 433 2, 407 5, 433

7,840 5, 506 177, 098

182, 604 1,300 33, 262

34, 562 7,388 77, 557

84, 945 26, 211 26, 211

29, 610 29, 610 9, 624 32, 113 41, 737 79, 062 25, 618

104, 680 34, 656 35, 791 70, 447 17, 573 2,594, 879 2, 612, 452 99, 376 381, 959

481, 335

8, 913 23, 379 32, 634

5, 511 12, 642

868, 999 5,624, 1786, 493, 177

. Alabama, Connecticut, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and Wyoming.

SOFT DRINKS

Mineral waters used in the manufacture of soft drinks in 1923

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& Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Mineral waters imported for consumption in the United States, 1919–1923

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Natural mineral waters exclusively. Figures for 1922 and 1923 include artificial mineral waters and imitation mineral waters, in addition to natural mineral waters, not separately classified after 1921.

Mineral waters (artificial and natural) imported into the United States in 1923, by

countries

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Belgium
Brazil
Canada.
Cuba.
Czechoslovakia
England..
France.
Germany
Greece.
Honduras.
Hungary.

7,668

15 3,495

35 5, 518

3, 017 342, 718 253, 568

349

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50 937

12 364

797, 975

287, 142

Large quantities of a few domestic waters are exported. No statistics regarding such shipments are available for years prior to 1922. In that year the exports of natural and artificial mineral waters amounted to 209,219 gallons, valued at $169,473. In 1923 the exports were 227,831 gallons, valued at $193,248.

CONDITION OF TRADE

Domestic mineral waters sold in the United States, 1915–1923

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The quantity and value of the water sold, which increased appreciably from 1921 to 1922, continued to increase in 1923. The average value per gallon and the average number of gallons sold from a spring also increased. Some of the reported increase in 1923 may be due to special facilities for collection of data in certain States, which made the canvass more thorough than those of former years,

but a large part of the increase is definitely known to be due to larger sales from old springs and to sales from springs not producing in 1922.

The industry as a whole is well established and seems likely to continue for a good many years at about its present level. A number of springs with small production will be forced to discontinue, and many of the larger producers will get more business. Some of the producers of table waters may lose much of their business when better public water supplies are furnished in the cities where their sales are largest. The increasing complexity of water-purification processes and increasing pollution of the sources of many public supplies may afford new opportunities for profitable business in furnishing pure, clean, unpolluted water for drinking in offices and homes. Business of this kind requires a considerable investment in equipment for bottling and delivering the water and generally is successful only where it is possible to insure a large volume of regular sales at a moderate price.

Such business as still persists in waters of not unusual composition which are sold as therapeutic agents seems likely to decrease rather than increase. The use of waters that contain medicinal doses of common remedies may increase, and the development of resorts at mineral springs for health and recreation still offers opportunities

for profit.

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FIGURE 9.–Number of commercial springs, annual production, total value, and average value per gallon

of mineral waters in the United States reported from 1883 to 1923

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REVIEW OF MINERAL WATER TRADE, 1883-1923 During the 41 years that the Geological Survey has collected statistics on production of mineral waters a radical change has taken place in the mineral-water business. Some features of this change and their causes were discussed in the report on mineral waters for 1914. The fluctuations in number of springs, production, and value for 1883 to 1923 are shown graphically in Figure 9, which is based on the table on page 218 of the report for 1914 and the table on page 112 of the present report. The statistics have not been strictly comparable throughout the period covered, but the general features shown by the graphs would not be altered if it were possible to revise all the reports to a common basis. The results plotted for 1923 include only springs from which sales of water were reported. Before 1913 the number of commercial springs includes a few whose water was used only in the manufacture of soft drinks. Up to the last few years the reports included estimated quantities and values for some springs from which water was known to be sold, although exact figures were not available.

Early reports on production of mineral waters suggest that the waters were sold and used almost entirely as medicinal agents. In the report for 1905, however, a distinction was first made between medicínal waters and table waters, the reports for this year indicating about equal value for the two classes. As the medicinal waters have in general been sold at much higher prices than table waters, the volume of table water sold in 1905 must have been much greater than the volume of medicinal water.

Reports of companies operating in a number of cities showed increasing sales of table waters during periods while the public water supply was unsafe or was objectionable on account of turbidity, color, or odor. When these conditions were remedied by the adoption of filtration or by obtaining a better supply from another source, the sales of mineral water in these cities practically stopped. Part of the recent increase in sales of table waters may be due to the tastes and odors which have at times characterized some perfectly safe waters from public supplies.

In 1923 the sales of medicinal waters represent only about 13 per cent of the total value and a much smaller proportion of the total quantity. The mineral-water trade is now largely in waters that are sold in their natural state or carbonated as pure, wholesome drinking water for offices and homes.

SOURCES OF MINERAL WATERS SOLD IN 1923 The following list gives the name and location of each spring or well from which sales of water were reported for 1923 and of some whose waters were used only in the manufacture of soft drinks. Most of the bathing and hotel accommodations noted are in establishments conducted by the owners of the springs, and the statements made are those given in the reports made by the owners. The list is far from complete as regards bathing establishments and hotels maintained in connection with mineral springs, because it includes only the names of springs from which water was sold or was used for making soft drinks.

1 Dole, R. B., The production of mineral waters in 1914, with a historical sketch of the mineral-water trade: U.S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources, 1914, pt. 2, pp. 175-219, 1915.

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