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IN CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF NEW YORK Mr. POWELL. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I would just like to say that I support the Celler bill, but also urge that consideration be given to Mr. Lynch's bill and also to mine, because of the immediate relief that will be granted by Mr. Lynch's bill or mine. I have a case right now that the Catholic Church, the National Catholic Welfare Conference, has forwarded to me, the case of a man who has been a resident in this country since 1925, married to a Negro woman of Virginia, has six children, a good member of the church, and a good resident in America, yet he must be deported on July 25, 1945.

Mr. POWELL. Because of the fact that he cannot gain citizenship,
The CHAIRMAN. He came into the country illegally?
Mr. POWELL. Yes; as a seaman, 19 years ago.
Mr. REES. You have legislation to take care of that, haven't you?
Mr. POWELL. A private bill, you mean?

Mr. REES. You don't mean to take care of that kind of thing in this bill?

Mr. POWELL. No. I am just stating that fact. Mr. Lynch has the case of a young man who fought in the United States Army, has just been discharged, having received various types of awards for his heroism, and he, too, must be deported.

Mr. POWELL. Mr. Lynch will bring that case up.

The CHAIRMAN. Couldn't that individual be naturalized under the War Powers Act, even if he came in here illegally?

Mr. Lynch. He has been detained on Ellis Island, Mr. Chairman, and I have just been able to have him released on bail yesterday.

The CHAIRMAN. You are a good lawyer. [Laughter.]

Mr. Mason. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask Mr. Powell a question or two.

Your bill, Mr. Powell, and the Lynch bill, simply provide that those East Indians now resident in the United States may become citizens?

Mr. Powell. Yes, sir.

Mr. Mason. It does not set up a quota or anything about others coming in? Mr. POWELL. That is right.

Mr. Mason. And the Celler-Luce bill provides not only what your bill provides, but in addition to that provides a quota?

Mr. POWELL. That is right.

Mr. Mason. Now, then, you say in your testimony that because of immediate need, shall we say, urgency, you think your bill and the Lynch bill should be considered as well as the other bill?

Mr. MASON. I am interested to know what prompted that thought of yours. Is it because you think there is a good chance for


bill or the Lynch bill to be passed, where there is probably a doubt whether the whole loaf will be granted by the Congress? Is that what prompted you in introducing your bill?

Mr. Powell. That might be true.


Mr. Mason. I am interested, because up until yesterday I will say definitely I was in favor of granting the half loaf, but we had testimony yesterday that rather opened my eyes to one or two things that I had not thought of before, and today I am ready to grant the whole loaf, but I have a question in my mind as to whether the majority of the Congress is ready to grant the whole loaf, so I have a very sympathetic response to your suggestion that maybe for immediate urgent need the half loaf should be granted, then follow it up with the full loaf later on, if you want to. That is the only reason that prompted me to ask that question.

Mr. POWELL. A half loaf is always better than no loaf. I think one interesting thing, before I close, is that in California, where we find a great deal of sentiment against Asiatics, there is a statement here by the mayors of various California cities, including Imperial Valley, and a governor of the west coast, all in favor of this type of legislation.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mr. Powell. We will now continue the hearing on Mr. Lynch's bill.

Mr. LYNCH. Our last witness will be Mr. Khan. Before he proceeds, however, may I file a statement by Mr. Tenner, counsel for the India Welfare League?

The CHAIRMAN. Without objection, that may be done. (The statement referred to follows:)




Appealing especially on behalf of the 3,000 natives of India now in our country, I would like to call the attention of this committee to the following:

1. These few thousand Indians who are already in this country have been placed in an intolerable position, both economically, and perhaps more particularly, from a moral standpoint.

2. According to our laws they cannot become citizens and are thus condemned to remain perpetual foreigners. For many of them this means that they are virtually stateless.

3. They have continuously earned their livelihood in this country at good, honest toil and labor and many have been and are still employed in defense work,

4. Many have served in the armed forces of this country. I believe the figure was a little over 250.

5. Many of them have sons in the armed forces of this country.

6. Many of them have married American citizens and many of them have children born in this country.

7. Many are very prominent in this country as scientists who have contributed a great deal toward progress in this country. 8. Many are journalists of prominence.

9. Many of them have purchased substantial amounts of War bonds and have contributed greatly to the Red Cross and other organizations aiding the armed forces.

They have suffered and are suffering from hardships that exist in this country as a result of the inferiority laws at the present time.

11. În certain States of the Union, there are laws forbidding foreigners, and particularly orientals, to buy or lease land, and as a result there have been many cases of Indian farmers being forced to leave land they had cultivated for years.

12. Certain States do not permit them to marry upon the claim that they have no civil status at all.

(13) Certain liberal professions are also closed to Indians so long as they cannot be naturalized.

(14) There is no question of the labor situation as to the 3,000 who will benefit by the passing of the present bills as they have lived here prior to 1924 and are established in business, work, and profession.

(15) There are quite a few successful business Indian men who have been amongst our larger taxpayers.

(16) How inferior, both in endowments and in training, are the few Indians who live among us, is indicated by their noble work in private institutions when the law cannot, of course, prevent from employing. These undesirable immigrants can be found as teachers in several of our universities, experts in social research institutes, curators of art museums, science editors for press syndicates.

(17) Earl C. Harrison, in his report submitted on his resignation as United States Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, about July 22, 1944, stated among other statements: “There should be no social discrimination in the limitations on immigration and in the qualifications for citizenship. Continuing he said: “The only other country that observes racial discrimination similar to that reflected in our laws in matters relating to naturalization is Nazi Germany and all will agree this is not very desirable company."

(18) These 3,000 Indians here since 1924 intend to remain here the rest of their lives. For all we know it is a certainty that they will die here. They are not receiving the full benefits of their stay in this country, because they are deprived of the rights of citizenship. We should be very much concerned about these 3,000 Indians. Shall we enable them to participate in the civil, political, and social affairs of this country, or shall we let them remain stateless?

(19) Mr. Abraham Choudry, head of India Seamens Club, in New York, which houses and feeds thousands of Indian Seamen, and has done marvelous work among the Indians in this country on the east coast, married to an American citizen, has two children born in this country, is just one example of our discriminátory laws and there are numerous cases which are known as hardship

(20) Many Indians are on bail pending the outcome of the present proposed bills. Many walk the streets of our city in fear of being apprehended by the Immigration authorities.

(21) Human justice demands that the proposed bills shall become laws as speedily as possible.


List OF OUTSTANDING INDIAN SCIENTISTS Now LIVING IN UNITED STATES Dr. S. Chandrasekhar: Professor of astronomy, Yerkes Observatory of Uni

versity of Chicago, Williams Bay, Wis. Has also been visiting professor at Princeton and Harvard, starred in 1944 edition, American Men of Science; elected fellow of the Royal Society, London, 1944; author of various mono

graphs and books on astronomy; 34 years old; educated, India and England. Dr. D. Saklatwalla: Consulting metallurgist; president, United States Rustless

Steel Corporation; nephew of Tata, "steel king” of India; is American citizen,

1102 Park Building, Fifth and Smithfield Streets, Pittsburgh. Dr. V. R. Kokatnur: Chemist and chemical engineer; American citizen; married

to American woman, two children; captain, United States Chemical Warfare. Service Reserve; 14-69 One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Street, Beechhurst,

Long Island. Dr. Y. Subbarow: Biological chemist; director of research, Lederle Laboratories,

Pearl River, N. J.; formerly Harvard scientist. Famous for research in cause

and cure of anemia, infectious diseases, etc. Now doing War work. Kam Nath Kathju: Industrial chemist; technical director, Arco Co., making

paints, varnishes, etc.; important for war work, especially camouflage opera

tions. Box 3625, Highland Park, Mich. Dr. A. D. Singh: Chemist, University of Illinois. 7418 North Damen Avenue,

Chicago, Ill. Has done important research work in production of acetic acid from carbon monoxide and wood alcohol; process now used by E. I. duPont Co. Research in recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste gases; object being protection of health of populace in industrialized areas, and to insure supply of sulfur to continental United States for at least 2,000 years in contrast to estimated supply of 15-20 years from fast dwindling sulfur domes. Since war has worked on protective techniques for American cities in case of aerial attack. Work on compound used in flame throwers, and in production of activated carbon for gas masks. Also has devised improved methods for production of metallurgical coke; conversion of coal into gas; and fire protection at Army airports, etc. Most of his work has been written up in technical journals.

Dr. Jagan Nath Sharpa: Chemist and chemical engineer, inventor.

At present doing important war production work. (Noted for invention of method to

color oranges, Florida.) 11261 Montana Avenue, Westwood Hills, Calif. Gobind Behari Lal: Scientist and journalist. Has been for some years science

editor of Hearst publications. Holder of Pulitzer Prize for science reporting.

One University Place, New York City.
Sharat Kumar Roy (M. S.): Curator of Geology, Field Museum of Natural

History, Chicago, Ill. Has many degrees, honors, etc.
Dr. S. S. Sidhu: Physicist, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.


Dr. A. K. Coomaraswamy: Curator (Oriental Department?), Boston Museum of

Fine Arts, Author of several books and monographs on Indian art and

philosophy. Dr. Sudhindra Bose: Department of Political Science, University of Iowa,

Iowa City, Iowa. Dr. Chatterji: Antioch College. Yellow Springs, Ohio. Dr. Taraknath Das: Department of History, College of the City of New York.

American citizen.

CHICAGO, April 1, 1944. Mr. A. CHOUDRY, Secretary, India Association for American Citizenship, Inc.,

New York 18, N. Y. DEAR MR. CHOUDRY: I am in receipt of your air-mail letter of March 30, and permit me to say that the formation of India Association for American Citizenship, Inc., is an excellent idea. Those who have actively engaged themselves in its activities are to be congratulated, and it is sincerely hoped that they will have the fullest cooperation of our countrymen in this matter.

In regard to your specific inquiry about my career, I am pleased to submit the following information:

After completing my graduate studies in chemical engineering at the University of Illinois in 1930, I received an assignment to conduct experimental research in the field of high-pressure gas reactions. The first study was in developing a process for the production of acetic acid from carbon monoxide and wood alcohol. With ample financial support from industry, the progress was rapid, and by the end of 1932 the project was carried to a point where commercial-scale operations were considered feasible. My researches in this field were later followed up by the E. I. du Pont Co., which today operates a commercial plant for the production of acetic acid from carbon monoxide and methanol. Without going into specific details, I like to point out that acetic acid is as indispensable to industrial organic processes as sulfuric acid is to the chemical industry in general.

Early in 1933, the writer was engaged in a project dealing with the recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste gases. This investigation was sponsored by the Utilities Research Commission, Inc., at the engineering experiment station of the University of Illinois. After 10 years of intensive research in fundamental and applied phases of the work, a successful process was developed to recover sulfur dioxide from boiler furnace and other waste gases at an estimated cost which compared quite favorably with production costs of the same substance by the burning of pure native sulfur. The object of the above investigation was twofold: (a) To safeguard the health of the populace and protect property from damage in highly industrialized areas, (b) to insure supply of sulfur to the continental United States for at least 2,000 years in contrast to the fast-dwindling sulfur domes, the life of which at present rate of consumption is estimated to be 15 to 20 years. During this investigation, the writer also conducted surveys on the pollution of city air with industrial wastes and aided some municipal and Federal agencies in advisory capacity in air-pollution problems.

Since the start of the present war, I have switched over to problems of immediate importance. One phase of my present work deals with the development of protective techniques to be employed in American cities in case of enemy air action. In the capacity of a technical adviser to the Office of Civilian Defense, Chicago metropolitan area, I have completed several important techniques. Perhaps, an important example was the production of oil-phosphorous solution, which in recent Allied operations has been used as one component in an incendiary bomb and also as a flame-throwing compound to increase the efficiency of tanks against pill boxes, etc.

The second phase of my present activities deals with the production of activated carbon for gas masks; devising of improved methods for production of metallurgical coke; conversion of coal into gas; production and distribution of liquid CO, for fire protection at Army air ports and other places where fire hazard may prevail; and in the development of a new method for pulverizing coal.

Most of my above-given work has appeared in technical journals and has been the subject of several United States and British patents issued from time to time,

Hoping that the above information will be of some service to the cause in hand,

I am,

Yours very truly,


Name: Surain Singh Sidu.
Present address: University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Home address: 216 Arapahoe Road, Pittsburgh (16), Pa.
Date and place of birth: June 8, 1902, Sham Nagar, Amritsar, India.
Married to Mary Elizabeth Homoney of Pittsburgh.
Children: 3, Marion (10 years), Victor and Ellen (572 years).
Universities attended: University of California, University of Pittsburgh.
Degrees: B. S., M. S., Ph. D. (Physics).

University honors: Sigma Pi Sigma (physics honorary society), Sigma Xi (scientific honorary society).

Membership in learned and professional organizations: American Men of Science, American Association of University Professors, American Institute of Physics, American Physical Society, American Society for X-ray and Electron Diffraction, American İndustrial Radium and X-ray Society, Pittsburgh Physical Society.

Positions held: Field test engineer, Duquesne Light Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; research physicist, Union Switch & Signal Co., Swissvale, Pa.; graduate assistant in physics, instructor in physics, assistant professor in physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

At present: Director of X-ray laboratory, University of Pittsburgh.
Author: Author and coauthor of large number of papers in the scientific field.

Owner: Owns his own home in fashionable Brookside Farms, a suburb of Pittsburgh.


Williams Bay, Wis., April 1, 1944. A. CHOUDRY, Esq., India Association for American Citizenship, Inc.,

New York, N. Y. DEAR MR. CHOUDRY: Many thanks for your letter of March 30. I hope the following facts concerning my life are adequate for your purposes.

Date of birth: October 19, 1910.

Education: University of Madras, 1925–30, taking M. A. in 1930. Was Government of Madras Research Scholar at Cambridge, England, during the years 1930-34 and took the Ph. D. degree in 1933.

Scientific career: Was elected fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge (England) in 1933 and held the fellowship during 1933–37. Came to the United States as a permanent resident in December 1936, when I joined the University of Chicago as a member of the faculty of the Astronomy department. Was research associate (1937); assistant assistant professor, 1938–41; associate professor, 1941-43; professor, 1943. Have been to Princeton and Harvard as visiting professor at various times.

Awarded Sc. D. (Cambridge, England) in 1942.
Starred in the 1944 edition in the American Men of Science.

Elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London, March 1944. Author of various monographs and books on Astronomical subjects. Yours sincerely,


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