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His more immediate arrival was mark that went round his neck. At different ed by the drums and trumpets of his intervals he called for his kalioun, Nokara, the performers of which were (the water-pipe,) which was brought to mounted on gaudy-dressed camels; then him by his Shatir Bashi, or bead of the a long row of shatirs, then the king, running footmen, from which he took totally insulated, a speck in the plain; not more than one whiff, which was afbehind him the princes his sons, with terwards emitted in one long white their suites, then the courtiers and the stream of smoke, which he managed officers of Defter Khoneh, (as we might to conduct over his beard as a perfume. say, the chief of the public officers,) He was dignified in all he did, and and the whole was filled up by an im- seemed very attentive to all that was mense tip, or body of cavalry. As the going on. As he approached the town, king drew near, Mirza Sheffea mar long rows of well-dressed men at some shalled us about 100 yards from the distance from the road made low bows, road-side, and when his majesty bec and whenever he called one near to koned to us, we went forwards in hasty him, he came running with great eastrides, which the old vizier was anx gerness, and received whatever he had ious we should increase into a trot, it to say with the greatest devotedness. being the etiquette on these occasions. He was then received by a corps of as we afterwards learnt, to run: our Mollahs, and Peishnamez (priests), who conductor himself was running as fast chanted forth the Khotbeh* with all as he could. The king, having given us their might. Then oxen and sheep in his Khosh Amedee, ordered us to mount great numbers were sacrificed just as our horses, and then requested me to he passed, and their heads thrown unride near him; whilst Mirza Sheffea der bis horse's feet. Many glass vases, dropt in the rear of the king about filled with sugar, were broken before twenty paces, where was also Hossein him, and their contents strewed on his Khan Mervi. He had the condescen- road. Every where dervishes were sion to converse very familiarly, and making loud exclamations for his proshis remarks and manners are ever those perity; whilst a band of wrestlers and of a highly polished man: he seemed dancers were twirling about their mils also anxious to give us a public mark (clubs), and performing all sorts of anof his attention; for as we rode along, tics, to the sound of the copper drums of at two different intervals, he was pre Looties. Nothing could be more striksented with bowls filled with sugar- ing than the variety of the scene that candy, of which he first took a piece surrounded the king. Amongst the himself, and then ordered that it should crowd I perceived the whole of the Arbe given to me, and to the gentlemen menians, headed by their clergy, bearof the mission and our attendants. This ing crosses, painted banners, the Gosamong the Persians is esteemed a very pel, and long candles. They all began high mark of favour; and whilst we to chant psalms as his majesty drew could not refrain from smiling at the near; and their zeal was only surpassed strange custom that embarrassed our by that of the Jews, who also had colhands with large pieces of sugar-candy lected themselves into a body, conducton horseback, there was scarcely a ed by their rabbis, who raised on high Persian around us that would not wil. a carved representation on wood of the liogly have given bis beard for a simi- tabernacle, and made the most outralar distinction.

geous cries of devotion, accompanied During all this time I had an oppor- by the most extravagant gestures of tunity of observing the king, and re bumiliation, determined that they at marking the different stages of the pro least should not pass unnoticed by the cession. His majesty was gayly dressed monarch. On coming close to the walls in a white close vest, embroidered with of the city, the crowd of horsemen and spangles. His sword, his dagger, and other ornaments, were entirely inlaid * This is an oration delivered every with precious stones. The bridle, crup- Friday, after the forenoon service, in per, breast-plate, were all either ru the principal mosques, in which the Ma. bies, diamonds, or emeralds, whilst a homedans praise God, bless Mahomet long thick tassel of pearls was suspend- and his descendants, and pray for the ed under the horse's throat by a cordon king.

people increased to an extraordinary tion of the practical operations in the degree, and where they were confined analysis of such metallic ores, metals, in some places by the walls of gardens, mineral waters, &c. as are commonly to became quite stationary. In all the be met with, but extend to minerals bustle I perceived the king constantly which occur but rarely, and the proper looking at a watch carried by Shatir mode of analysing which, it is only Bashi, anxious that he should enter the therefore of so much the greater consegates exactly at the time prescribed by quence to know distinctly. Two new the astrologers.

Id. plates have also been added, descriptive

of the instruments most necessary for On the means of curing the Dry-Rot. the analysis of bodies by means of re-First. Make a strong caustic solution agents or tests

The work has upon in water of barilla, kelp, or potash, and

the whole been much improved, and it when boiling hot, wash the parts of the

is with confirmed satisfaction that we wood affected with the rot. The ef repeat our recommendation of it, as a fect of this caustic ley will be the de most useful manual to every student of struction of the vegetating fibres of the chemistry. fungus.

Mr. Accum has in the press, a third Secondly. Dissolve oxide of lead or edition of Chemical Amusements; comiron in pyrolignous acid; and twelve prehending a series of instructive and hours after the first application of the striking Experiments in Chemistry, leys soak the wood well with this solu- which are easily performed, and unattion. A decomposition of the metallic tended by danger. With plates by liquor takes place; the acid and alkali Lowry. unite, and the oxide of the lead or iron Society for the encouragement of indusis precipitated in the pores of the wood,

try in France. and prevents the fungus from spread For the application of the steam ening

gine to printing presses.—The Society Another way of preventing the rot is, proposes a prize of two thousand francs first, to wash the wood with the pyro to the person who shall put in action, by lignous solution of lead, and ten or means of the steam-engine, oue or more twelve hours after to wash it with a typographic presses, constructed either strong solution of alum (in the propor- according to the old method, or accordtion of one pound and a half of alum to ing to any other method. The press one gallon of water).

thus worked must produce in a given

time a greater number of impressions A practical Treatise on the Use and Ap than in the ordinary way, and the clear

plication of Chemical Tests; with con advantage gained by it must be much cise Directions for analysing Metallic greater than what is commonly obOres, Metals, Soils, Manures, and tained. The competitors to transmit Mineral Waters. Illustrated by Ex- descriptive memoirs accompanied with periments. By FREDERICK Accum, designs of the presses which they have Operative Chemist, Lecturer on employed, and certificates from the local Practical Chemistry and on Miner authorities of their baving been in acalogy, F. L. S. M. R. A. S. R. S. of tive use for three consecutive months. Berlin, &c. 3d Edition, 8vo. pp. 606.

We are much gratified to find that Improvement and extension of Iron the success of this valuable little work Rail-Ways.-The following circular has been so great, as already to give us letter has been addressed to the various an opportunity of noticing a third edi- iron-masters in Scotland and Engtion of it; and to recognise in the many land, viz. elaborate improvements by which it is “Sir,-Although the rail-way that is successively distinguished, a pleasing now in contemplation in the vicinity of proof that the author is not insensible of Edinburgh be entirely a matter of local the due return which he owes for the concern, the peculiar plan of it is cerhigh share of favour which his labours tainly to be viewed in a different light, have received from the public. Mr. as an object that well deserves the atAccum has in the present edition greatly tention of the various classes of the enlarged the scale of his experiments, community throughout the king om. which are not confined to the illustra. Instead of insulated patches of rail-way.

pess.

here and there, for particular purposes, be printed at the expense of the East and for the conveniency of private indi- India Company, who have liberally auviduals, as is now the case, it is here thorized Mr. Morrison to vend, for his proposed, through the medium of rail own recompense, 650 of the 750 copies ways, to open extensive communica- of which the edition is to consist. The tions—to branch them out from the me three parts,-1. The Radicals or Keys. tropolis of Scotland in various direc- 2. The English and Chinese;—and, 3, tions, and to distant points--and thus the Chinese and English, will extend to facilitate conveyance in general by to upwards of 40 half-yearly numbers; an improved system of roads for heavy but it is proposed that the total cost carriages.

shall not exceed 20 guineas to subscri• The Higbland Society of Scotland, bers. If, therefore, Mr. Morrison should have, in a very patriotic inanner, offered live long enough, this great desideratum a premium of fifty guineas for the best of European literature is, at length, essay on the means of attaining so de- likely to be achieved. sirable an object as the introduction of rail-ways for the purposes of general South America. The interest which carriage.

is so generally felt for the issue of the "With a view to the establishment of great cause now pending in South Athe rail-way in question, for the con merica, will speedily render popular veyance of commodities to and from captain BONNYCASTLE's. History of Edinburgh, and thereby to give a com Sprinish America, which has just apmencement to the system generally, a peared. Modern and very recent voysubscription for a survey has been ages and travels have afforded much opened, and plans by Mr. Stevenson, new information respecting all parts of engineer, are in considerable forward

the new world; but the books in which,

the discoveries and observations of emi• It seems to be desirable, that rail- nent travellers have been given to the ways, for alternate carriage aud gen public, are not only so numerous, but eral use, should proceed on a continual in general so costly, that comparatively, level, or upon successive levels: and a only few readers can obtain fron such simple system of lockage (if it may be so scaitered and expensive sources the called), by which loaded wagons may general results, which are so necessary easily be elevated or depressed, from to the progress of knowledge. Captain one level to another, would appear to Bonnycastle bas, therefore, rendered a be a desirable attainment.

l'he edge most essential service to the public by rail-way is generally used and preferred devoting his talents to this compilation, in Scotland, as causing less friction, which comprehends every new discoand less expense of horse power; and it very in geography, geology, and natur. would tend to facilitate the general use al history generally, together with a juof rail-ways, if, by some simple change, dicious selection of historical matter; the wheel usually employed for the without reference, however, to the poroad or street could be made also to litical questions of the moment. The suit the rail-way, or the rail-way wheel work is enriched by two well-executed be made to suit the road or street, so maps of Spanish North and South Ame. that the cart or wagon wbich brings rica, and an engraving representing the the commodity from the colliery or comparative altitudes of the mountains stone quarry, the farm yard, or the ma in those regions. nufactory, to the rail-way, might travel along it to the termination of the rail Germany. -A considerable quantity way, and proceed from thence through of bones, of large size, were discovered the streets of the town to the dwelling last year, buried in the earth, in the of the consumer, without unloading, or neighbourhood of the village of Tiede, change of carriage.'

near Brunswick. They were examined

by M. Dahue, who appears to have disEnglish and Chinese Dictionary. tinguished parts of the skeletons of five The Rev. R. Morrison, who has for ten elephants. There were dine tusks years been collecting the materials, is among them, one of which was fourteen printing, at Macao, an extensive Cbifeet in length, another eleven, and nese and English Dictionary, contain many grinders, in which the enamel ing forty thousand cbaracters. It will

was arranged exactly as in the teeth of

THE CARACCAS.

the African elephant. A complete put an end to this animated conversahead of a rhinoceros, with the horn and tion. teeth, was also found very little altered. Caraccas is the capital of a country

which is nearly twice as large as Peru

is at present, and which yields little in From the third volume of Humboldt's extent to the kingdom of Grenada. Personal Travels.

This country which the Spanish goAfter having described the scenery vernment designates by the name of and the atmospheric constitution of La the captain generalship of Caraccas, or Guayra, we shall now leave the coasts of of the (united) provinces of Venezuela, the Carribbean sea. The road that has nearly a million of inhabitants, leads from the port to Caraccas, the ca among whom are sixty thousand slaves. pital of a government of near 900,000 It contains along the coast, New Aginbabitants, resembles the passages dalusia, or the province of Curana (with over the Alps, the road of St. Gothard the island of Margaretta), Barcelona, and the Great St. Bernard. The height Venezuela or Caraccas, Coro and Maof Caraccas is but a third of that of ra-Caybo, in the interior, the provin. Mexico, Quito, and Santa Fe de Ba ces of Varinas and Guayana, the first gota; yet among all the capitals of along the rivers of Santa Domingo and Spanish America, which enjoy a cool Apare, the second along the Oroonoko, and delicious climate in the midst of the the Casiquiare, the Atabapo, and the rio torrid zone, Caraccas stands nearest Negro. In the general view of the seven the coast. What a privilege, to possess united provinces of Terra, we perceive, a sea-port at three leagues, distance, that they form three distinct zones exand to be situate among mountains, on tending from east to west. We find at a table land, which would produce first cultivated land along the shore, and wheat, if the cultivation of the coffee near the chain of the mountains on the tree were not preferred! The road coast; next savannahs or pasturages, and from La Guayra to the valley of Car- finally beyond the Oroonoko, a third accas, is infinitely finer than that from zone, that of forests, into which we can Quayaquil to Quito, or that from Hon- penetrate only by means of the rivers da to Santa Fe. With good mules it that traverse them. In the first zone are requires but three hours to go from the felt the preponderance of force, and the port of La Guayra to the Caraccas; and abuse of power, which is the necessary only two hours to return.

consequence. The natives carry on a When I passed for the first time that civil war, and sometimes devour one table land, on any way to the capital of another. The monks ende'ivour to Venezuela, I found several travellers augment the little villages of their misassembled around the little inn of sions, by availing themselves of the dis. Guayavo, to rest their mules. They sensions of the natives. The military were inhabitants of Caraccas, and were live in a state of hostility with the disput on the efforts towards inde monks, whom they were intended to pendence, which had been made a short protect. Every thing offers alike the time before. Joseph Espana had ger melancholy picture of misery and privaished on the scaffold; and his wife tions. In the second region, in the plains groaned in prison, because she had and the pasture grounds, food is exgiven an asylum to her husband when tremely abundant, but has little variety. a fugitive, and had not denounced him Although more advanced in civilization, to the government. I was struck with men without the circle of some scatthe agitation which prevailed in every ered towns do not remain less isolated mind, and the bitterness with which from one another. At the view of their questions were debated, on which men dwellings, partly covered with skins and of the same country ought not to have leather, it would seem that far from bediffered in opinion. While they de- ing fixed, they are scarcely encamped scanted on the hatred of the mulattoes in those vast meadows, which extend against the free negroes and whites, on to the horizon. Agriculture, which the wealth of the monks, and the diffi alone lays the basis, and draws closer culty of holding slaves in obedience, a the ties of society, occupies the third cold wind that seemed to descend from zone, the shore, and especially the hot the lofty summit of the Silla of Carac- and tenperate yallies in the mountains cas, epveloped us in a thick fog, and near the sea.

If we examine the state of the cap- ber, but it is so from its accumulation taip-generalship of Caraccas, we per on a small space of territory. In all ceive that its agricultural industry, the captain-generalship the slaves do its great màss of population, its nu not exceed a fifteenth of the wbole pomerous towns, and whatever is con- pulation. In the island of Cuba, of all nected with an advanced civiliza. those in the West Indies where the netion, are found near the coast. This groes bear the smallest proportion to the coast extends farther than two hundred whites, they were, in 1811, as one to leagues. It is bathed by the Little three. The seven united provinces of Carribbean sea, a sort of Mediterranean, Venezuela have sixty thousand slaves; on the shores of which almost all the Cuba, the extent of whicb is eight times nations of Europe have founded colo less, bas two hundred and twelve thounies. The coasts of Venezuela, from sand. their extent, their stretching towards The sixty thousand slaves which the the east, the number of their ports, and Seven United Provinces contain, are so the safety of their anchorage at different unequally divided, that in the province seasons, enjoy all the advantages of the of Caraccas alone, there are nearly forinterior Carribbean sea. The commu ty thousand, one fifth of which are munications with the greater islands, and lattoes; in that of Maracay bo, ten or even with those that are to windward, twelve thousand; in those of Cumana can no where be more frequent than and Barcelona, scarcely six thousand. from the ports of Cumana, Barcelona, To judge of the influence which the La Guayra, Porto Cabello, Coro, and slaves and the men of colour exert in Maraycabo: and no where has it beep general, on the public tranquillity, it is found more difficult to restrain an illicit not enough to know their number; we commerce with strangers. Can we

must consider their accumulation at wonder, that this facility of commercial certain points, and their manner of life, intercourse with the inhabitants of free as cultivators or inhabitants of towns. America, and the agitated nations of In the province of Venezuela, the slaves Europe, should have augmented in con are assembled together on a space of junction, in the provinces united under po great extent, between the coast and the captain generalship of Venezuela, a line that passes (at twelve leagues opulence, knowledge, and that restless from the coast) through Panaquire, desire of local government, which is Yare, Sabana de Ocumare, Villa de blended with the love of liberty and Cura, and Nirgua. The Leanos or vast republican forms?

plains of Calaboso, San Carlos, GuaThe copper-coloured natives, or In- nare, and Barquecimeto contain orly dians, constitute a very important mass four or five thousand, who are scatterof the agricultural population only in ed among the farms, and employed in those places, where the Spaniards found the care of cattle. The number of freed regular governments, a civil commu men is very considerable; the Spanish nity, and ancient and very complicated laws and customs are favourable to afinstitutions at the conquest, as in New franchisement. Spain, south of Durango; and in Peru, What is most interesting in the cofrom Cusco to Potosi. In the captain- lonies next to the state of the blacks, is generalship of Caraccas, the Indian to know the number of white creoles, population is inconsiderable, at least whom I call Hispano-Americans, and beyond the missions and in the culti that of the whites born in Europe. It vated zone. At the moments of great is difficult to acquire notions sufficientpolitical dissensions, the natives excitely exact on so delicate a point. The no fear in the whites, or the mingled people in the new, as well as in the old casts. Computing in 1809 the total world, abhor pumberings, suspecting population of the seven united provin- them to be made in order to augment ces at 900,000 souls, it appeared to me the weight of taxes. The men in office, that the Indians made only one ninth; on the other hand, sent by the motherwhile at Mexico, they form nearly one

country to the colonies, dislike these half of the inhabitants.

statistical enumerations as much as the Among the casts that compose the people, and this from motives of jealous population of Venezuela, that of the policy. blacks, is not important from its num If we compare the Seven United Pro

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