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so much more numerous than the other found of all tints, from downright black classes; and who in certain emergen- to dirty white brown. cics, have scarcely a restriction beyond that of the brute creation. Of this we could too well judge, because the The noises that issued from the adCampo di Lampedosa, the large square joining houses were quite characteristhat was situated before our house, was tic of Persian dornestic life. In my imso constantly infested by them, at all mediate vicinity lived an old morose hours of the day, that guards were Persian, who daily quarrelled with his placed to keep them at a distance.

women; and I could distinguish the During the time we were at the Bra- voice of one particular female, whose zils. the slave trade was in its full apswers made in a taunting and quevigour; and a visit to the slave market rulous tone, did not fail to throw bim impressed us more with the iviquity of into passions so violent, that they gethis traffic, than any thing that could nerally terminated in blows, the noise be said or written on the subject. On of which, accompanied by correspondeach side of the street where the mar- ing lamentation, I could distinctly hear. ket was held, were large rooms, in Then, bordering on the garden wall, which the negroes were kept; and dur- scarce twenty yards from where I usuing the day, they were seen in melan- ally sat, was a society of women, five or choly groups, waiting to be delivered six in number, the wives and slaves of from the hands of the trader, whose a mussulman, who were either dissolvdreadful economy might be traced in ed in tears, sobbing aloud like children, their persons, which, at that time, were or entranced in the most indecent and little better than skeletons. If such outrageous merriment. Sometimes they were their state on shore, with the ad- sang in the loudest tone, accompanied vantages of air and space, what must by a tambourine; and then they quarhave been their condition on board the relled amongst themselves, using every ship that brought them bither? It is not now and then expressions of no ordinaunfrequent that slaves escape to the ry indelicacy. Accident once gave me a woods; where they are almost as fre- view into their yard, where I saw three quently retaken. When this is the case, women surrounded by children, seated they have an iron collar put about their on the bare stones, smoking the kaleoon. necks, with a long hooked arm extend. They wore a large black silk handkering from it, to impede their progress chief round their heads, a shift which through the woou's, in case they should descended as low as the middle, a pair abscond a second time. Yet amidst all of loose trowsers, and green bigh-heelthis misery, it was pleasing to observe ed slippers; and this, I believe, may be the many negrues who frequented the considered as a sketch of every Persian churches; and to see them, in form and woman's dress within the harem, in hot profession at least, making a part of a weather. christian congregation.

But there are noises peculiar to eveWe saw few of the aborigines, for ry city and country; and nove are more they sbun, rather than court, their ru- distinct and characteristic than those lers. Those we saw were of a low sta- in Persia. First at the dawn of day, the ture, of a coppery red colour, with jet- muezzins are heard in a great variety black hair, high cheek-bones, turned- of tones, calling the people to prayers up noses, and broad unexpressive faces. from the tops of the mosques; these are The queen of a tribe, said to be can- mixed with the sounds of cow-horns, nibals that bordered on the Portuguese blown by the keepers of the hummums, possessions, was shown to us: her coun- to inform the women, who bathe before tenance was terrific. She was a pri- the men, that the baths are heated, and soner, and attempts were made to hu- ready for their reception. The cowmanize her; but hitherto, we were as- horns set all the dogs in the city howl. sured, without much success. The pro- ing in a frightful manner. The asses of portion of blacks to pure European the town generally beginning to bray whites, at St. Sebastian, is as nine to about the same time, are answered by one: they have, however, so intermar- all the asses in the neighbourhood; a ried, that there are complexions to be thousand cocks then intrude their shrill VOL. XII.




voices, which, with the other subsidia- likely that any of the timid, superstiry noises of persons calling to each tious inhabitants of these countries other, knocking at doors, cries of chile should have succeeded. We were indren, complete a din very unusual to formed that people have reached the the ears of an European. In the sum- top of the small Ararat (or as it is called mer season, as the operations of do- here, Cuchuck. Agri dagh); but as all mestic life are mostly performed in the the account which they brought back open air, every noise is heard. At night, was a tale (like that told of Savalan), all sleep on the tops of their houses, about a frozen man and a cold fountain, their beds being spread upon their ter- we must be permitted to disbelieve races, without any other covering over every report on the subject which we their heads than the vault of heaven. have hitherto heard from the natives. The poor seldom have a screen to keep

Id. them from the gaze of passengers; and ENTRY OF THE KING INTO TEAERAN. as we generally rode out on horse-back As in ancient times, almost the whole at a very early hour, we perceived, on of the male population of the city was the tops of the houses, people either ordered to meet the king, and very still in bed, or just getting up, and cer- early in the morning of the day of the tainly no sight was ever stranger. The entry, the environs on the road to Khowomen appeared to be always np the rassan were covered with people. We first, whilst the men were frequently were summoned by the prime minister seen lounging in bed long after the sun in person, who was so anxious that we was risen. This universal custom of should be at our post at the earliest mosleeping on the house-top, speaks much ment, that he came almost unattended in favour of the climate of Persia; and to us; and having marshalled our proindeed we found that our repose in the cession, he led the way, and served us as open air was much more refreshing a guide through the streets and bazars. than in the confinement of a roon. The activity and vivacity of this old

Norier. man are as amiable as they are extra

ordinary at bis advanced age. We As we crossed the plain from Abba- went in our smartest uniforms, and on sabad to Nakbjuwan, we had a most our most lively horses; the body guard splendid view of mount Ararat. Nothing in their handsome Indian dresses, crecan be more beautiful than its shape, ated a great clang; and, together with more awful than its height. All the the numerous servants and attendants surrounding mountains sink into insig- attached to the mission, we added greatnificance when compared to it. It is ly to the general bustle. The old viperfect in all its parts, no hard rugged zier at our head, apparently all the feature, no unnatural prominences, time in great trepidation lest he should every thing is in harmony, and all be too late, put out his horse at the full combines to render it one of the sub- trot, and at this rate we dashed through limest objects in nature. Spreading the great crowd of horse and foot pasoriginally from an immense base, the sengers who had already thronged the slope towards its summit is easy and road. When we had travelled about gradual, until it reaches the region of two miles from the town, we were snows, when it becomes more abrupt. placed at our post by some of the offiAs a foil to this stupendous work, a cers of Hossein Ali Mirza, one of the smaller hill rises from the same base princes, governor of Teheran, when near the original mass, similar to it in we dismounted, smoked, and seated shape and proportions, and in any other ourselves on the ground, until his masituation, entitled of itself to rank jesty should appear. In the mean time, amongst the bigh mountains. No one the track of his route was distinguishsince the flood seems to have been on able over the mountains and along the its summit, for the rapid ascent of its plain, by a long line of dust, created by snowy top would appear to render such his procession. His baggage and equian attempt impossible. Of this we may pages were continually passing, until be certain, that no man in modern we heard the Zumburek or camel-artiltimes has ascended it, for when such lery, that at intervals fired vollies in an adventurous and persevering tra- a Ivance. As they approached, the orveller as Tournefort failed, it is not der of procession became more distinct. His more immediate arrival was mark- that went round his neck. At different ed by the drums and trumpets of his intervals he called for his h alioun, Nokara, the performers of which were (the water-pipe,) which was brought to mounted on gaudy-dressed camels; then him by his Shatir Bashi, or beaci oj' the a long row of shatirs, then the king, running footmen, from which he took totally insulated, a speck in the plain; not more than one whiff, which was afbehind him the princes his sons, with terwards emitted in one long white their suites, then the courtiers and the stream of smoke, which he managed officers of Defter Khoneh, (as we might to conduct over his beard as a perfume. say, the chief of the public officers,) He was dignified in all he did, and and the whole was filled up by an im- seemed very attentive to all that was mense tip, or body of cavalry. As the going on. As he approached the town, king drew near, Mirza Sheffea mar- long rows of well-dressed men at some shalled us about 100 yards from the distance from the road made low bows, road-side, and when his majesty bec- and whenever he called one near to koned to us, we went forwards in hasty him, he came running with great eastrides, which the old vizier was anx- gerness, and received whatever he had ious we should increase into a trot, it to say with the greatest devotedness, being the etiquette on these occaşions, He was then received by a corps of as we afterwards learnt, to run: our Mollahs, and Peishnamez (priests), who conductor himself was running as fast chanted forth the Khotbeh* with all as he could. The king, having given us their might. Then oxen and sheep in his Khosh Amedee, ordered us to mount great numbers were sacrificed just as our horses, and then requested me to he passed, and their heads thrown unride near him; whilst Mirza Sheffea der his horse's feet. Many glass vases, dropt in the rear of the king about filled with sugar, were broken before twenty paces, where was also Hossein him, and their contents strewed on his Khan Mervi. He had the condescen- road. Every where dervishes were sion to converse very familiarly, and making loud exclamations for his prose his remarks and manners are ever those perity; whilst a band of wrestlers and of a highly polished man: he seemed dancers were twirling about their mils also anxious to give us a public mark (clubs), and performing all sorts of anof his attention; for as we rode along, tics, to the sound of the copper drums of at two different intervals, he was pre- Looties. Nothing could be more striksented with bowls filled with sugar. ing than the variety of the scene that candy, of which he first took a piece surrounded the king. Amongst the himself, and then ordered that it should crowd I perceived the whole of the Arbe given to me, and to the gentlemen menians, headed by their clergy, bearof the mission and our attendants. This ing crosses, painted banners, the Gosamong the Persians is esteemed a very pel, and long candles. They all began high mark of favour; and whilst we to chant psalms as his majesty drew could not refrain from smiling at the near; and their zeal was only surpassed strange custom that embarrassed our by that of the Jews, who also had colhands with large pieces of sugar-candy lected themselves into a body, conducton horseback, there was scarcely a ed by their rabbis, who raised on higb Persian around us that would not wil. a carved representation on wood of the lingly have given bis beard for a simi- tabernacle, and made the most outralar distinction.

geous cries of devotion, accompanied During all this time I had an oppor- by the most extravagant gestures of tunity of observing the king, and re- humiliation, determined that they at marking the different stages of the pro- least should not pass unnoticed by the cession. His majesty was gayly dressed monarch. On coming close to the walls in a white close yest, embroidered with of the city, the crowd of horsemen and spangles. His sword, his dagger, and other ornaments, were entirely inlaid * This is an oration delivered every with precious stones. The bridle, crup- Friday, after the forenoon service, in per, breast-plate, were all either ru- the principal mosques, in which the Mabies, diamonds, or emeralds, whilst a homedans praise God, bless Mahomet long thick tassel of pearls was suspend- and his descendants, and pray for the ed under the horse's throat by a cordon king.


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people increased to an extraordinary tion of the practical operations in the degree, and where they were confined analysis of such metallic ores, metals, in some places by the walls of gardens, mineral waters, &c. as are commonly to became quite stationary. In all the be met with, but extend to minerals bustle I perceived the king constantly which occur but rarely, and the proper looking at a watch carried by Shatir mode of analysing wbich, it is only Bashi, anxious that he should enter the therefore of so much the greater consegates exactly at the time prescribed by quence to know distinctly. Two new the astrologers.

Id. plates have also been added, descriptive

of the instruments most necessary for On the means of curing the Dry-Rot. the analysis of bodies by means of re-First. Make a strong caustic solution agents or tests

The work has upon in water of barilla, kelp, or potash, and

the whole been much improved, and it when boiling hot, wash the parts of the

is with confirmed satisfaction that we wood affected with the rot. The ef- repeat our recommendation of it, as a fect of this caustic ley will be the de- most useful manual to every student of struction of the vegetating fibres of the chemistry. fungus.

Mr. Accum has in the press, a third Secondly. Dissolve oxide of lead or edition of Chemical Amusements; comiron in pyrolignous acid; and twelve prehending a series of instructive and hours after the first application of the striking Experiments in Chemistry, leys soak the wood well with this solu- which are easily performed, and unattion. A decomposition of the metallic tended by danger. With plates by liquor takes place; the acid and alkali Lowry. unite, and the oxide of the lead or iron Society for the encouragement of indusis precipitated in the pores of the wood,

try in France. and prevents the fungus from spread- For the application of the steam ening.

gine to printing presses.— The Society Another way of preventing the rot is, proposes a prize of two thousand francs first, to wash the wood with the pyro- to the person who shall put in action, by lignous solution of lead, and ten or means of the steam-engine, oue or more twelve hours after to wash it with a typographic presses, constructed either strong solution of alum (in the propor- according to the old method, or accordtion of one pound and a half of alum to ing to any other method. The press one gallon of water).

thus worked must produce in a given

time a greater number of impressions A practical Treatise on the Use and Ap- than in the ordinary way, and the clear

plication of Chemical Tests; with con- advantage gained by it must be much cise Directions for analysing Metallic greater than what is commonly obOres, Metals, Soils, Manures, and tained. The competitors to transmit Mineral Waters. Illustrated by Ex- descriptive memoirs accompanied with periments. By FREDERICK ACCUM, designs of the presses which they have Operative Chemist, Lecturer on employed, and certificates from the local Practical Chemistry and on Miner- authorities of their baving been in acalogy, F. L. S. M. R. A. S. R. S. of tive use for three consecutive months. Berlin, &c. 3d Edition, 8vo. pp. 606.

We are much gratified to find that Improvement and extension of Iron the success of this valuable little work Rail-Ways. The following circular has been so great, as already to give us letter has been addressed to the various an opportunity of noticing a third edi- iron-masters in Scotland and Engtion of it; and to recognise in the many land, viz. elaborate improvements by which it is "Sir,-Although the rail-way that is successively distinguished, a pleasing now in contemplation in the vicinity of proof that the author is not insensible of Edinburgh be entirely a matter of local the due return which he owes for the concern, the peculiar plan of it is cerhigh share of favour which his labours tainly to be viewed in a different light, have received from the public. Mr. as an object that well deserves the at. Accum has in the present edition greatly teption of the various classes of the enlarged the scale of his experiments, community throughout the kingdom. which are not confined to the illustra. Instead of insulated patches of rail-way,

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here and there, for particular purposes, be printed at the expense of the East and for the conveniency of private indi- India Company, who have liberally auviduals, as is now the case, it is here thorized Mr. Morrison to vend, for his proposed, through the medium of rail

own recompense, 650 of the 750 copies ways, to open extensive communica- of which the edition is to consist. The tions—to branch them out from the me- three parts,-1. The Radicals or Keys. tropolis of Scotland in various direc- 2. The English and Chinese;—and, 3, tions, and to distant points—and thus the Chinese and English, will extend to facilitate conveyance in general by to upwards of 40 half-yearly numbers; an improved system of roads for heavy but it is proposed that the total cost carriages.

shall not exceed 20 guineas to subscri· The Highland Society of Scotland, bers. If, therefore, Mr. Morrison should have, in a very patriotic manner, offered live long enough, this great desideratum a premium of fifty guineas for the best of European literature is, at length, essay on the means of attaining so de- likely to be achieved. sirable an object as the introduction of rail-ways for the purposes of general South America.-The interest which carriage.

is so generally felt for the issue of the • With a view to the establishment of great cause now pending in South Athe rail-way in question, for the con- merica, will speedily render popular veyance of commodities to and from captain BONNYCASTLE'S History of Edinburgh, and thereby to give a com- Spanish America, which has just apmencement to the system generally, a peared. Modern and very recent voysubscription for a survey has been ages and travels have afforded much opened, and plans by Mr. Stevenson, new information respecting all parts of engineer, are in considerable forward the new world; but the books in which,

the discoveries and observations of emiIt seems to be desirable, that rail- nent travellers have been given to the ways, for alternate earriage aud gen- public, are not only so numerous, but eral use, should proceed on a continual in general so costly, that comparatively, level, or upon successive levels: and a only few readers can obtain from such simple system of lockage (if it may be so scattered and expensive sources the called), by which loaded wagons may general results, which are so necessary easily be elevated or depressed, from to the progress of knowledge. Captain one level to another, would appear to Bonnycastle has, therefore, rendered a be a desirable attainment. The edge most essential service to the public by rail-way is generally used and preferred devoting his talents to this compilation, in Scotland, as causing less friction, which comprehends every new discoand less expense of horse power; and it very in geography, geology, and naturwould tend to facilitate the general use al history generally, together with a juof rail-ways, if, by some simple change, dicious selection of historical matter; the wheel usually employed for the without reference, however, to the

poroad or street could be made also to litical questions of the moment. The suit the rail-way, or the rail-way wheel work is enriched by two well-executed be made to suit the road or street, so maps of Spanish North and South Ame. that the cart or wagon which brings rica, and an engraving representing the the commodity from the colliery or comparative altitudes of the mountains stone quarry, the farm yard, or the main those regions. nufactory, to the rail-way, might travel along it to the termination of the rail- Germany. -A considerable quantity way, and proceed from thence through of bones, of large size, were discovered the streets of the town to the dwelling last year, buried in the earth, in the of the consumer, without unloading, or neighbourhood of the village of Tiede, change of carriage.'

near Brunswick. They were examined

by M. Dahue, who appears to have disEnglish and Chinese Dictionary.- tinguished parts of the skeletons of five The Rev. R. Morrison, who has for ten elephants. There were nine tusks years been collecting the materials, is among them, one of wbich was fourteen printing, at Macao, an extensive Cbi- feet in length, another eleven, and nese and English Dictionary, contain- many grinders, in which the enamel ing forty thousand characters. It will was arranged exactly as in the teeth of

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