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LYTHOGRAPHY.

ours must compose a thesis, in Latin, fend it in the same language before a on some professional subject; and be. committee of the Faculty of Advocates. sides defending it at whatever length The expenses attending the educahis examinators please, in that lan- tion of an advocate for class fees, &c. guage, he must undergo three exami- amount nearly to 1501 , of which tool. pations on his general knowledge of is paid on his entering the faculty. medical science. If he is successful in these trials, the candidate, on the second of August, is presented with Observations on a series of Lythogradiploma

phical drawings, presented to the

AcWere the purposes of this course of ademy of Fine Arts; by M. Englestudy and examination answered by mann, of Muhlhausen, on the Upper corresponding diligence and proficien Rhine. cy on the part of the student, then The effects produced by a tracing or might the medical degree equal in re- drawing on the stone with a greasy or spectability any other, and the Univer- resinous substance, are the simple resity of Edinburgh deserve that high sults of affinities of which there are celebrity for medical science which it three causes: generally obtains. But it is a fact, and 1. The facility with which this comone most lamentable to be recorded, pact calcareous stone in bibes moisture, that the advantage and honour which without its retaining it in too great a might accrue from such preparation is degree. generally obviated either by the igno 2. The penetrating power or rather rance or indolence of the young man the strong adherence of greasy or resiintended for that profession. Many of nous bodies to these stones. my readers may be inclined to doubt 3. The affinity of resins and grease my veracity when I make the following for all bodies of the same nature, and assertion, that, out of the eighty who the antipathy of these substances to wagraduate at one period, there are not ter, and all moist bodies. twenty who have converted their thesis From these three principles arise the into Latin, or sixty who have composed same number of consequences: their thesis at all.

First, a stroke made with a pencilor The cause of this opprobrium is easily greasy ink on the stone will adhere so to be explained. At Edinburgh, there strongly thereto, as to require some meis a body of men, generally sons of chanical means to remove it. Esculapius, who neither have connexion Second, all parts of the stone, that nor capital to obtain medical practice, are not covered by a coat of grease, and who find that, preparing young men will receive, absorb, and retain water. for their examinations is the only way Third, if a layer of colored greasy by which they can put their medical substance be passed over the stone or classical knowledge to profit. . To thus prepared, it will only adhere to these every medical student applies, those lines formed by the greasy ink, and, for a certain sum, obtains either a whilst it will be rejected by those parts translation of his thesis, or a thesis ex that are moistened with water only. toto; and is instructed, previous to his In a word, the lythographical proexamination, nearly in the precise ques cess depends on these two points, that tions he will be asked.

the stone saturated with water should The class, fees, and college expen. resist the ink, and that this same stone, ses, attending on medical graduation, oiled or greased, should resist the water amount to about sixty guineas.

and take up the ink; thus, by applying Of the learned professions in Scot and pressing a sheet of paper on the land, the law is the most expensive, and stone, the greasy and resinous coloured leads to the greatest honours.

lines will alone be transmitted on the Previous to his being called to the paper, showing a counter-proof impresbar, the advocate, besides the classes sion of that wbich is drawn on the stone. that relate immediately to his profess. For this purpose the stone must first be ion, must have attended a philosophical rendered capable of imbibing water, course, and must compose a Latin dis- and at the same time of receiving with sertation on some point of law, and de facility all greasy or resinous bodies.

The former object can be effected by is accomplished by a moderate heat and an acid which will corrode the stone, frequent stirring, a necessary quantity and take off its fine polish, and make it of lamp black is to be added; and imcapable of receiving the water. mediately after put in a sufficient quan

Any greasy substance is capable of tity of water to make the ink liquid and giving impression upon stone, whether proper for writing. the lines be made with a pencil or with Drawing.–This ink is used to draw greasy ink; or otherwise the ground of on the stone in the same manner as on a drawing may be covered with a black paper, either with a pen or pencil; when greasy mixture, leaving the lines in the drawing on the stone is quite dry, white.,

and an impression is desired, the surface Hence result two distinct processes: of the stone is wetted with a solution of -The engraving by tracing, produced nitric acid, in the proportion of fifty to by the line of the pencil or brush dipped one of water; this must be done with a in the greasy ink; and the engraving by soft sponge, taking care not to make a dots or lines, as is done on wood or friction on the drawing. copper.

The wetting must be repeated as It is easy to get impressions of prints soon as the stone appears dry; it makes without any reversing, by transposing an effervescence, and when that ceases on the stone a drawing traced on paper the stone is to be carefully and gently with the prepared ink.

rinsed with clean water, From these observations we shall Printing.-While the stone is still conclude that certain lythographical moist, it should be passed over with the processes differ entirely from those of printer's ball charged with ink, which engravings; and, as they partly depend will only adhere to those parts which on a play of affinities and repulsions, are not wetted. A sheet of paper proproduced by substances of different perly prepared for printing is then natures, it is possible by varying them spread on the stone, and the whole subwe may at length succeed in producing mitted to the press, or passed through very unexpected effects.

a roller. Lythographic Process, or Method of To preserve the drawing on the Printing with Stone, invented in Ger- stone from dust, if not in immediate many. - All kinds of close calcareous use, a solution of gum arabic is passed stone of an even and fine grain, which over it, wbich can be removed by a litare capable of taking a good polish with tle water when the stone is wanted pumice-stone, and baving the quality of again. absorbing water, may be used for ly Instead of ink, they sometimes make thography.

use of chalk crayons for drawing upon These stones are found in many de the stone or upon paper, from which a partments of France, and amongst beds counter-proof is taken upon the stone. of calcareous stones, in the mountains The crayons are made in the following which separate Ruffee from Argoulemè: manner:these are very proper for this kind of Three parts of soap, two parts of work.

tallow, and one part of wax, are all disInk. To compose the ink, heat a solved together in an earthen vessel. glazed earthen vessel over the fire: When all is well mixed, a sufficient porwhen it is hot, introduce one part by tion of lamp-black, called Frankfort weight of white Marseilles soap, and black, will give it an intense colour; as much mastic in grains; melt these the mixture is poured into moulds, ingredients and mix them carefully; where it must remain till quite cold, then incorporate five parts by weight of when it will become consistent, and shell lac, and continue to stir it: to mix proper to be used as chalk pencils. the whole, drop in by degrees a solution of one part of caustic alkali in five Remarks on the tails of Comets.-A times its bulk of water. Make this ad- series of papers by M. Flaugergues, dition with caution; because, if the ley has been lately published in the Journal is added all at once, the liquor would de Physique, on the tails of comets, in froth up and run over the edges of the which he examines in detail the various vessel.

hypotheses that have been proposed to When the mixture of these substances account for them, but conceives them

RIO DI JANEIRO.

all to be inadequate. After taking a diuin; the matter of the tail, not being short review of the opinions entertained able to follow the comet, would be alon this subject by the ancients, and the ways left behind, and we should not see earlier of the moderns, he examines the tail after the perihelion precede the more particularly those of Kepler and comet, as is always the case. Descartes, and finally comes to that of Newton. This great philosopher conjectured that the tails of comets were From Morier's Second Work on Persia. composed of an extremely rare vapour, We passed a fortnight at Rio di Ja. which proceeded from their nucleus, neiro, in the various employments of generated by the great heat which public visits and public dinners; and in these bodies acquire when they ap the examination of the more curious proach the sun. He formed a calcula objects in the town and its environs. tion of the degree of heat which the The place is large and well built for a comet of 1680 would experience in its colonial town, possessing several handperihelion; and he estimated it at a tem some churches and large monasteries. perature 2000 times greater than the It ought, therefore, to afford a much heat of red-hot iron.

better residence to the prince regent To this hypothesis M. Flaugergues than the mean palace which he at preobjects, that on account of the rapidity sent inhabits. It is not fortified, but of the motion of comets, it is very has several detached works to protect doubtful whether they can acquire ade- its harbour; the most considerable of gree of beat nearly equal to that as which is the castle of Santa Cruz, at the signed to them by Newton. Besides, entrance, and a smaller castle on an it is remarked that the tails of comets island nearer the anchorage abreast of are by no means in proportion to their the town. Over the town on an emiproximity to the sun; some comets nence, is a fortification called the citawhich bave approached very near the del; and another on the Isola das Casun having had very little of this ap bros: however, nothing appeared suffipearance, while others have had large ciently formidable to save the town tails, although they never came very from the dangers of a bombardment near the sun in any part of their course. from the sea. A great quantity of fruit Another objection against the hypothe- is produced in the gardens around the sis is, that the centrifugal force which city, and much is also brought from the is produced by the motion of the comet villages. Its oranges are highly esin a curve round the sun, being com teemed; some of which, containing mon to the comet and to the vapour within them an incipient orange, were which is supposed to form the tail, can sent as a present from the prince renot tend in any degree to detach the gent to the ambassadors. They have comet and the vapour from each other. all the tropical fruits here: but the It is further urged that the greatest part mango and the pine-apple are said to of the matter which composes the tail be inferior to those of the East-Indies. of a comet ought, after it has passed its Meat and poultry are dear; and we had perihelion, to follow after the comet in great difficulty in recruiting our sea the direction of its motion, and not pre stock of the latter. Black pigs were to cede it, as is always the case. Again, be seen in great abundance; and we the matter which forms the tail of a observed a race of disgusting looking comet, being surrounded with matter dogs, without hair, with a black skin, which is more dense, and wbich, con long body, long muzzle, short and sequently, ought to reflect light more crooked legs, and a long curling tail, strongly, the tail ought not to be distin- ranging about through all the filth of the guished by its brilliancy from the other streets, and apparently without

masters. parts of space. As, according to the Indeed, after England, we found the hypothesis of Newton, the vapour filth of St. Sebastian, and its inhabiwhich forms the tail of a comet is ele tants, quite disgusting. Even the Per. vated from the nucleus because it has sians could exult; for, with great truth, less specific gravity than the medium they said that their towns were clean with which it is surrounded, the lateral to what they saw here. It must, hown of the tail should be entirely de ever, be allowed, that this is greatly

the resistance of this me owing to the negro community, who are

so much more numerous than the other found of all tints, from downright black classes; and who in certain emergen- to dirty white brown. ciis, have scarcely a restriction beyond that of the brute creation. Of this

NOISES OF A PERSIAN CITY. we could too well judge, because the The noises that issued from the adCampo di Lampedosa, the large square joining houses were quite characteristhat was situated before our house, was tic of Persian domestic life. In my imso constantly infested by them, at all mediate vicinity lived an old morose hours of the day, that guards were Persian, who daily quarrelled with his placed to keep them at a distance. women; and I could distinguish the

During the time we were at the Bra- voice of one particular female, wbose zils. the slave trade was in its full answers made in a taunting and quevigour, and a visit to the slave market rulous tone, did not fail to throw him impressed us more with the iniquity of into passions so violent, that they gethis traffic, than any thing that could nerally terminated in blows, the poise be said or written on the subject. On of which, accompanied by correspondeach side of the street where the mar- ing lamentation, I could distinctly hear. ket was held, were large rooms, in Then, bordering on the garden wall, which the negroes were kept; and dur- scarce twenty yards from where I usuing the day, they were seen in melan- ally sat, was a society of women, five or choly groups, waiting to be delivered six in number, the wives and slaves of from the hands of the trader, whose a mussulman, who were either dissolvdreadful economy might be traced in ed in tears, sobbing aloud like children, their persons, which, at that time, were or entranced in the most indecent and little better than skeletons. If such outrageous merriment. Sometimes they were their state on shore, with the ad- sang in the loudest tone, accompaniel vantages of air and space, what must by a tambourine; and then they quarhave been their condition on board the relled amongst themselves, using every ship that brought them bither? It is not now and then expressions of no ordinaunfrequent that slaves escape to the ry indelicacy. Accident once gave me a woods; where they are almost as fre- view into their yard, where I saw three quently retaken. When this is the case, women surrounded by children, seated they have an iron collar put about their on the bare stones, smoking the kaleoon. necks, with a long hooked arm extend- They wore a large black silk handkering from it, to impede their progress chief round their heads, a shift which through the woous, in case they should descended as low as the middle, a pair abscond a second time. Yet amidst all of loose trowsers, and green bigh-heelthis misery, it was pleasing to observe ed slippers; and this, I believe, may be the many negrues who frequented the considered as a sketch of every Persian churches, and to see them, in form and woman's dress within the harem, in hot profession at least, making a part of a weather. christian congregation.

But there are noises peculiar to eveWe saw few of the aborigines, for ry city and country; and nove are more they shun, rather than court, their ru- distinct and characteristic than those lers. Those we saw were of a low sta- in Persia. First at the dawn of day, the ture, of a coppery red colour, with jet- muezzins are heard in a great variety black hair, high cheek-bones, turned- of tones, calling the people to prayers up noses, and broad unexpressive faces. from the tops of the mosques; these are The queen of a tribe, said to be can- mixed with the sounds of cow-horns, nibals that bordered on the Portuguese blown by the keepers of the hummums, possessions, was shown to us: her coun- to inform the women, who bathe before tenance was terrific. She was a pri- the men, that the baths are heated, and soner, and attempts were made to hu- ready for their reception. The cow. manize her; but hitherto, we were as- horns set all the dogs in the city bowl. sured, without much success. The pro- ing in a frightful manner. The asses of portion of blacks to pure European the town generally beginning to bray whites, at St. Sebastian, is as nine to about the same time, are answered by one: they have, however, so intermar- all the asses in the neighbourhood; a ried, that there are complexions to be thousand cocks then intrude their shrill VOL. XII.

55

ENTRY OF THE KING INTO TEHERAN.

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voices, which, with the other subsidia- likely that any of the timid, superstiry noises of persons calling to each tious inhabitants of these countries other, knocking at doors, cries of chile should have succeeded. We were indren, complete a din very unusual to formed that people have reached the the ears of an European. In the sum top of the small Ararat (or as it is called mer season, as the operations of do- here, Cuchuck. Agri dagh); but as all mestic life are mostly performed in the the account which they brought back open air, every noise is heard. At night, was a tale (like that told of Savalan), all sleep on the tops of their houses, about a frozen man and a cold fountain, their beds being spread upon their ter we must be permitted to disbelieve races, without any other covering over every report on the subject which we their heads than the vault of heaven. have hitherto heard from the natives. The poor seldom have a screen to keep

Id. them from the gaze of passengers; and as we generally rode out on borse-back As in ancient times, almost the whole at a very early hour, we perceived, on of the male population of the city was the tops of the houses, people either ordered to meet the king, and very still in bed, or just getting up, and cer early in the morning of the day of the tainly no sight was ever stranger. The entry, the environs on the road to Khowomen appeared to be always np the rassan were covered with people. We first, whilst the men were frequently were summoned by the prime minister seen lounging in bed long after the sun in person, who was so anxious that we was risen. This universal custom of should be at our post at the earliest mosleeping on the house-top, speaks much ment, that he came almost unattended in favour of the climate of Persia; and to us; and having marshalled our proindeed we found that our repose in the cession, he led the way, and served us as open air was much more refreshing a guide through the streets and bazars. than in the confinement of a rooin. The activity and vivacity of this old

Norier. man are as amiable as they are extra

MOUNT ARARAT.

ordinary at bis advanced age. We As we crossed the plain from Abba went in our smartest uniforms, and on sabad to Nakbjuwan, we had a most our most lively horses; the body guard splendid view of mount Ararat. Nothing in their handsome Indian dresses, cre. can be more beautiful than its shape, - ated a great clang; and, together with more awful than its height. All the the numerous servants and attendants surrounding mountains sink into insig- attached to the mission, we added greatnificance when compared to it. It is ly to the general bustle. The old viperfect in all its parts, no hard rugged zier at our head, apparently all the feature, no unnatural prominences, time in great trepidation lest he should every thing is in harmony, and all be too late, put out his horse at the full combines to render it one of the sub- trot, and at this rate we dashed through limest objects in nature. Spreading the great crowd of horse and foot pasoriginally from an immense base, the sengers who had already thronged the slope towards its summit is easy and road. When we had travelled about gradual, until it reaches the region of two miles from the town, we were snows, when it becomes more abrupt. placed at our post by some of the offiAs a foil to this stupendous work, a cers of Hossein Ali Mirza, one of the smaller hill rises from the same base princes, governor of Teheran, when near the original mass, similar to it in we dismounted, smoked, and seated shape and proportions, and in any other ourselves on the ground, until his masituation, entitled of itself to rank jesty should appear. In the mean time, amongst the high mountains. No one the track of his route was distinguishsince the flood seems to have been on able over the mountains and along the its summit, for the rapid ascent of its plain, by a long line of dust, created by snowy top would appear to render such his procession. His baggage and equian attempt impossible. Of this we may pages were continually passing, until be certain, that no man in modern we heard the Zumburek or camel-artiltimes has ascended it, for when such lery, that at intervals fired vollies in an adventurous and persevering tra alvance. As they approached, the orveller as Tournefort failed, it is not der of procession became more distinct.

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