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5. The yellow stain of chlorine (on all animal substances, T. C.) is ineffaceable: but it may be diminished by liquid sulphurous acid.
Manipulation. Wash the spot with water, till no more effect is produced: then employ a washing with soap, and a perfect rinsing in clean water; then the vapour of burning brimstone, and again a good washing in clean water.
The vapour of sulphur is applied to the particular spot: thus, make a funnel of pasteboard, of a conical shape; place it over a bit of lighted brimstone, and hold the spot over the narrow part of the cone so that it may receive the vapour, taking care that it be not burnt or singed. If several pieces are to be so treated, some pieces of brimstone may be thrown upon burning charcoal on a chafing dish in a close box; which may be opened in about two hours to take out the cloth.
Coffee requires to be twice treated, before the spot disappears: the green liqueur also requires a slight solution of alkaline sulphuret. All the spots operated on, had penetrated the cloth. T. C.
Additions to the above, by T. C. Ink spots on cotton or linen, if recent. Apply strong vinegar, lemon juice and salt, by rubbing the spot with part of a lemon, or oxymuriatic acid, or common muriatic acid diluted:-washing the spot well in cold water after the stain is removed.
Iron moulds. The peroxyd of iron is very difficult to remove The bleachers remove it by taking strong spirit of salt, and dipping the finger in it, they dab the stain with the acid, letting it rest till it is removed. This sometimes answers, but if the spot has been frequently washed, it will be very hard to move. In this case, put on it a little salt of sorrel, and then rub it well with a slice of lemon: then rinse it well: then wash it in hot
and water and rinse it: and again with salt of sorrel and lemon. Or, add to it tincture of galls till it turns black: let it dry: then apply salt of sorrel and lemon juice. Or, apply a solution of liver of sulphur: let it remain some time; wash it in water, and then apply salt of sorrel and lemon juice. Sometimes one of these methods succeeds, sometimes another.
Printers ink. Apply warm oil of turpentine and rub the spot. Warm it, by putting the vial in a vessel of hot water.
Paint. Apply oil of turpentine as above.
Stains of fruit or wine. Apply strong spirit of wine: if that does not succeed apply oxymuriatic acid, and washing with soap, alternately.
The oxymuriatic acid may be applied thus: In a small tea cup or coffee cup put a little common spirit of salt, as three or four tea spoonfuls: to this add about half a tea spoonful of red lead, or of manganese, having first immersed the small cup in a larger one containing hot water. Moisten the stain, and stretch it over the vapour, till the stain be effaced. Wash it well in water.
Grease spots. Apply powder of white tobacco pipe clay, or French chalk, (that is, steatite or soap-stone,) put blotting paper over it, and apply a hot iron at a little distance. This will take out much of the grease, by repetition. Good ether, or hot oil of turpentine, will efface the remainder.
Where you can venture to wash the place, a good washing with hot soap
and water will answer every purpose. You may thus efface grease spots from paper; should any slight stain remain at the edges, brush it with a camel's hair pencil dipt in very strong spirit of wine, or ether.
The following remedy has been tried with success in England, and lately much recommended in France, for the Sciatica. Oil of turpentine, two gros; honey, four ounces. Divide it into three doses, and take one in the morning, one at noon, and one at night.
Doubtless this would be much aided by a strong cathartic, abstinence, and friction externally with oil of turpentine.
The gros is 2 penny weights 6 grains troy.
Composition to secure the corks of wine bottles. Cut the cork off even: wipe the cork and neck of the bottle dry: dip it in a melted composition of wax 2 oz. rosin 4 ounces.
AR . VI.-Notoria; or Miscellaneous Articles of Philosophy,
Literature, < c. We have received the third volume subjects in Corsica? And do you not at of the Memoirs of Franklin, from which this instant keep their chief, -pensionwe extract the following political squib, ed, and ready to head a fresh revolt written shortly after his arrival in there, whenever you can find or make France, as Commissioner Plenipoten an opportunity? Dear sister, you must tiary from the United States.
be a little silly! A Dialogue between Britain, France,
Britain. Honest Holland! You see Spain, Holland, Saxony and America.
it is remembered that I was once your Britain. Sister of Spain, I have a
friend; you will therefore be mine on
this occasion. I know indeed you are favor to ask of you. My subjects in America are disobedient, and I am
accustomed to smuggle with these reb
els of mine. I will wink at that; sell about to chastise them; I beg you will not furnish them with any arins or amn
them as much tea as you please to en
ervate the rascals, since they will not munition.
take it of me; but for God's sake don't Spain. Have you forgotten, then, supply them with any arms. that when my subjects in the low coun Holland. 'Tis true you assisted me tries rebelled against me, you not only against Philip, my tyrant of Spain, but furnished them with military stores, but have I not since assisted you against joined them with an army and a fleet?
one of your tyrants; and enabled you wonder how you can have the impu to expel him? Surely that accompt, as dence to ask such a favor of me, or the
we merchants say, is balanced, and I folly to expect it.
am nothing in your debt. I have inBritain. You, my dear sister of deed some complaints against you, for France, will surely not refuse me this endeavoring to starve me by your navifavor.
gation acts; but being peaceably disposFrance. Did you not assist my rebel ed, I do not quarrel with you for that. Huguenots with a fleet and an army at I shall only go on quietly with my own Rochelle? And have you not lately aid business. Trade is my profession, 'tis ed privately and sneakingly my rebel all I have to subsist on. And let me
tell you, I should make no scruple, (on as well as you for ine, it gives me a the prospect of a good market for that proportionable right to fleece you. commodity) even to send my ships to What think you of an American law Hell and supply the devil with brim to make a monopoly of you and your stone. For you must know, I can in commerce, as you have done by your sure in London against the burning of laws of me and mine? Content your
self with that monopoly if you are wise, America to Britain. Why, you old and learn justice if you would be resblood-thirsty bully! you who have been everywhere vaunting your own prow Britain. You impudent bh! am ess, and defaming the Americans as
not I your motber country? Is not that poltroons! you who have boasted of be a sufficient title to your respect and ing able to march over all their bellies obedience! with a single regiment! you who by Saxony. Mother country! Hah, hah, fraud have possessed yourself of their bah! What respect have you the front strongest fortress, and all the arms they to claim as a mother country? You had stored up in it! you who have a dis know that I am your mother country, ciplined army in their country, in and yet you pay me none. Nay, it is trenched to the teeth, and provided but the other day, that you hired rufwith every thing! Do you run about fians to rob me on the highway, and begging all Europe not to supply those burn my house! For shame! Hide your poor people with a little powder and face and hold your tongue. If you shot? Do you mean, then, to fall upon continue this conduct you will make them naked and unarmed, and butcher yourself the contempt of Europe! them in cold blood? Is this your cour Britain. O Lord! where are my age? Is this your magpanimity?
friends? Britain. Oh! you wicked—Whig France, Spain, Holland, and Saxo. Presbyterian--Serpent! Have you the ny, altogether. Friends! Believe us you impudence to appear before me after have none, nor ever will bave any till all your disobedience? Surrender im
you mend your manners. How can mediately all your liberties and proper we, who are your neighbours, have ties into my hands, or I will cut you to any regard for you, or expect any equipieces. Was it for this that I planted ty from you, should your power inyour country at so great an expense? crease, when we see how basely and That I protected you in your infancy, unjustly you have used both your own and defended you against all your ene mother and your own children. mies?
America. I shall not surrender my From Hamilton's East India Gazetteer. liberty and property but with my life. It is not true that my country was The local situation of Calcutta is not planted at your expense.
Your own fortunate, for it has extensive muddy records refute that falsebood to your lakes, and an immense forest close to face. Nor did you ever afford me a it; and was at first deemed hardly less man or a shilling to defend me against unhealthy than Batavia, which it rethe Indians, the only enemies I had up sembled in being placed in a flat and on my own account. But when you marshy country. The English, it has have quarrelled with all Europe, and been remarked, have been more indrawn me with you into all your broils, attentive to the natural advantages of then you value yourself upon protect situation than the French, who have ing me from the enemies you have made always in India, selected better stafor me. I have no natural cause of tions for founding their foreign settledifference with Spain, France, or Hol ments. The jungle has since been land, and yet by turns I have joined cleared away to a certain distance, the with you in wars against them all. You streets properly drained, and the ponds would not suffer me to make or keep a filled up; by which a vast surface of separate peace with any of them, stagnant water has been removed, but though I might easily have done it, to the air of the town is still much affectgreat advantage. Does your protect ed by the vicinity of the Sunderbunds. ing me in those wars give you a right The city stands about 100 miles from to fleece me? If so, as I fought for you, the sea, on the east side of the western
branch of the Ganges, named by Europeans the Hooghly river, but by the natives the Bhagirathi or true Ganges, and considered by them peculiarly holy. At high water the river is here a full mile in breadth; but, during the ebb, the opposite side to Calcutta exposes a long range of dry sand banks. In approaching Calcutta from the sea, a stranger is much struck with its magnificent appearance; the elegant villas on each side of the river, the Company's botanic gardens, the spires of the churches, temples, and minarets, and the strong and regular citadel of fort William. It exhibited a very different appearance in 1717, of which the following is a correct description:
The present town was then a village appertaining to the district of Nuddea, the houses of wbich were scattered about in clusters, of 10 or 12 each, and the inhabitants chiefly husbandmen.
The modern town and suburbs of Calcutta, extends along the east side of the river above six miles, but the breadth varies very much at different places. The esplanade between the town and fort William, leaves a grand opening, along the edge of which is placed the new government-house, erected by the marquis Wellesley; and continued on in a line with this edi. fice, is a range of magnificent houses, ornamented with spacious verandahs. Chowringhee, formerly a collection of native huts, is now an entire village of palaces, and extends for a considerable distance into the country. The architecture of the bouses is Grecian, which does not appear the best adapted for the country or climate, as the pillars of the verandahs are too much elevated, to keep out the sun during the morning and evening, although at both these times the heat is excessive; and, in the wet season, the rain beats in. Perhaps a more confined Hindoo style of building, although less ornamental, might be found of more practical comfort.
an additional course of 80 miles in the southern sea of China, near its junction, with which it takes among foreigners the name of Bocca Tigris. The town is surrounded by walls about five miles in circumference, on which a few cannon are mounted; but the whole of its fortifications, with a view to defence, are in every respect despicable, and only serve to prevent the intrusion of Europeans.
Although Canton is situated nearly in the same parallel of latitude with Calcutta, yet there is a considerable difference in their temperature; the former being much the coolest, and requiring fires during the winter months. The suburbs may be frequented by Europeans; but they are not permitted to enter the gates of the Tartar city, which, however, in its building and exterior appearance, entirely resembles the suburbs. The streets of Canton are very narrow, paved with little round stones, and flagged close to the sides of the houses. The front of every house is a shop, and those of particular streets are laid out for the supply of strangers; China-street (named by the seamen Hog-lane) being appropriated to Europeans, and here the productions of almost every part of the globe are to be found. One of the shopkeepers is always to be seen sitting on the counter, writing with a camel's hair brush, or calculating with his swan-pan, on which instrument a Chinese will perform operations in numbers with as much celerity as the most expert European arithmetician.
This part of Canton being much frequented by the seamen, every artifice is used by the Chinese retailers to attract heir attention, each of them having an English name for himself, painted on the outside of his shop, besides a number of advertisements, composed for them by the sailors in their peculiar idiom. The latter, it may be supposed, are often duped by their Chinese friends, who have, in general, picked up a few sea phrases, by which they are enticed to enter the shops; but they suit extremely well together, as the Chinese dealers possess a command of temper not to be provoked, and humour the seamen in all their sallies.
The foreign factories extend for a considerable way along the banks of the river, at the distance of about 100
This city stands on the eastern bank of the Pe-kiang river, which flows from the interior in a navigable stream of 300 miles to this town, where it is rather broader than the Thames at London bridge, and from hence falls after
yards. They are named by the Chinese, hongs, and resemble long courts, or closes, without a thoroughfare, which generally contain four or five separate bouses. They are built on a fine quay, and have a broad parade in front. This promenade is railed in, and is generally called the respondentia walk; and here the European merchants, commanders, and officers of ships meet after dinner, and enjoy the cool of the evening. The English hong, or factory, far surpasses the others in elegance and extent, and before each the national flag is seen flying. The neigbbourhood of the factories is occupied with warehouses for the reception of European goods, or of Chinese productions, until they are shipped.
For the space of four or five miles opposite to Canton, the river resembles an extensive floating city, consisting of boats and vessels ranged parallel to each other, leaving a narrow passage for vessels to pass and repass. In these the owners reside with their families, the latter of whom but seldom visit tbe shore. The Chinese junks that trade to Batavia and the Eastern Islands, lie in the centre of the river, moored head and stern, many of them exceeding 600 tops burtben. A Chinese ship, or junk, is seldom the property of one man. Sometimes 40 or 50, or even 100 different merchants purchase a vessel, and divide it into as many compartments as there are partners, so that each knows his own particular part in the ship, which he is at liberty to fit up and secure as he pleases. The bulk heads, by which these divisions are formed, consist of stout planks, so well caulked as to be completely water tight. A ship thus formed, may strike on a rock, and yet sustain no serious injury; a leak springing in one division of the bold, will not be attended with any damage to articles placed in another, and from her firmness she is qualified to resist a more than ordinary shock. A considerable loss in stowage is of course sustained; but the Chinese exports generally contain a considerable value in a sipall bulk. Some of these ships are not less than 1000 tons burthen, having a crew of 500 men, owners of goods and seamen, besides other passengers, who leave their country to better their fortunes at Batavia, Manilla, and
among the Eastern Islands. The Chinese coasting vessels are usually divided into 13 distinct compartments, well caulked and water-light In navigating these vessels, the same compass is used as in Europe; but in China, the south alone is considered as the attracting power, the Chinese compass is named ting-nan-ching, or the needle pointing to the south. The Chinese junks generally sail with one monsoon, and return with another. In the northeast monsoon they sail to Manilla, Banca, and Batavia, and return to Emoy and Canton, with that from the southwest. There are five junks annually from Emoy to Batavia, on board of which a considerable number of Chinese emigrate.
Canton is about 15 miles above Whampoa, and in this distance are five chop, or custom-houses, where boats are examined. The head toptiff, named by the mariners John Tuck, regulates the emperor's duties, respecting which the importer remains entirely ignorant, as they are paid by the purchaser of the goods, which are generally weighed and carried off immediately on landing. The cargoes are weighed with English weights of 50, instead of 56 pounds, and afterwards reduced to Chinese catties, by multiplying by three and dividing by four; and then converted to peculs, by dividing the product by 100. A pecul weighs 133 1-3 pounds English, and catty 1 1-3 pound; but the Chinese sale weights are generally inaccurate, and must be attended to. All goods in China are bought and sold by weight, even articles of food, such as milk, fowls, hogs, &c. The long measure is tbe cubit of about 14 3-4 inches. A tael is equal to 5798 decimal, troy weight; and in the East India Company's accounts, the tael of silver is reckoned at 6s. 8d. sterling.
The monopoly of all foreign trade is consigned, by the policy of the Chinese government, to a limited number of merchants, seldom exceeding eight, but occasionally more; in 1793 they were 12, and in 1808, 14. All foreign cargoes pass through the hands of these merchants, who are commonly men of large property, and by them also the return cargoes are furnished. With them the East India Company's supercargoes transact the concerns of their