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• If the same quantity of steam be used in a single cylinder of double area, and to obtain the benefit of expansion, shut off at half stroke, there will be at every closing of the valves, a revulsion in the boiler that must certainly be more destructive to its duration than if the expenditure were in an uninterrupted stream.
• The secondary advantages arising out of this construction are, The gearing being to cranks at right angles with each other, when the one is at its minimum or dead point, the other being at its maximum, will carry it past the centre, and (the one gaining at the same rate that the oter is losing power) will perfectly equalize the motion, and thereby do away the necessity of a balance or Ay-wheel.
• The engine may be started off from any point it may happen to rest at, without the trouble that frequently occurs in the single ones of prying past the centre.
As either cylinder may be worked separately, by throwing the other out of gear, the chances of accident are not so great, nor the effect so nuch to be apprehended, for should a derangement occur to any part of the machinery of one engine, its corresponding part in the other will be capable of performing the duties in both.'
The most important advantage to be derived from this construction of the steam engine, is the addition of the expansive to the original power of the steam from the boiler, of whatever elasticity.
Steam when enclosed, having a space in which to expand to twice its original volume, acts with a power which is in a ratio, according to the demonstration of Mr. Watt, (vide Encyclopedia, Art. Steam, plate 478, fig. 10–1st American edition) to its original power, as 170 to 100. Thus, if the power of steam admitted from the boiler uninterruptedly into the cylinder, during the whole stroke, be as 100, it will act, if shut off when the cylinder is half filled, (that is with 50) with a power equal to 85. If, therefore, there are two cylinders, by means of which the steam be made to act on the same machinery, and if the steam be admitted into each during half the stroke only, and suffered to act by its expansive force during the other half, but in such manner that when shut off from one cylinder it is immediately admitted into the other, then there will be always acting on the machinery a power of steam equal to that of the full stream from the boiler, in addition to the power which steam possesses of expansion. Therefore, one cylinder full of steam is, by this means, made to act with the original power of unexpanded steam, and also with that of steam expanding to double its volume. Thus, with a boiler capable of supplying one cylinder full of steam at every stroke of the piston, as is the case in the ordinary engines of Boulton and Watt, rating the power at 100, a power is obtained from the same steam, with two cylinders, equal to 170.
Antiqua Historia, ex ipsis veterum employing them as an appendix of do
scriptorum Latinorum narrationibus cuments and proofs. For those parts contexta; &c. i. e. An Ancient His of history, which could not be found tory, compiled in the very words of related at convenient or proportionate ancient Latin writers. Edited by length among the writers of antiquity, Jo. Godfrey Eichhorn. 8vo. 2 vols. recurrence has been had to modern Leipzig, 1811.
epitomizers. Professor EICHHORN has permanently distinguished himself by most The fiftieth Exhibition of the Lonlearned and bold Introduction to the don Academy coutains 1117 paintings, Old Testament, by a General His drawings, and sculptures; the majority tory of the Culture and Literature of of which are superior to any six of the Modern Europe, by an Introduction best pieces in the first thirty exhibitito the New Testament; by a History ons of this school. Indeed, the most of the last three Centuries, which is enthusiastic admirer of the ancient not so well weighed, well propor schools must admitthat there are tioned, and well finished a work as some new pictures in this exhibition the three preceding; and by the In- capable of ranking with the best huntroduction to the Universal History, dred pictures of those schools; while published at Gottingen in 1799, to there are few that are below mediowhich the two volumes before us crity. form a kind of supplement.
The object of the Professor has been Travels of his highness the Prince to extract from the various Latin his Maximilian of Neuwied to the Bratorians an orderly system of primaval sils. history; and, in the very words of the Since the appearance of Humboldt's ancients, to bring together a summary interesting Travels, and the continuaof all that they have preserved to us tion of the contest for independence concerning earlier times. This curious which agitates the Spanish colonies, compilation be considers as adapted for the eyes of Europe are turned upon the use of schools; because it will at South America, and every authentic once teach both Latin and history, account respecting that immense conbring facts before the mind unsophis tinent is received with great and geneticated by modern prejudices and su ral interest. perstitions, and habituate the scholar The Brazils still remain among the to every variety of style and expres number of the countries of South Amesion. The plan was conceived while rica which are the least known to us. the author was rector of the Lyceum The Prince of Neuwied travelled at Ohrdruff, was partially brought into through them in the years 1815, 16, use there, and, having been found and 17, and the rich fruits of his inficonvenient and instructive, has been nitely laborious exertions are now anhabitually kept in view: the lacunæ of nounced for publication at the same narration have been progressively fill time with the interesting description ed up, the excrescences lopped, and of the journey itself, in four quarto at length a tolerable proportion of the volumes, illustrated with maps and parts has been attained. At Jena, the copperplates, Professor adopted these selections as Natural history was the main object the basis of a course of historic lec of the illustrious traveller, and of tures; and they formed, as it were, the course the materials collected in this vouchers of his oral instruction. On branch of science must be the most his removal to Gottingen, Scripture considerable; so considerable indeed, criticism became the principal literary that we are assured all the travels in occupation of his time for several the Brasils which have hitherto been years: until a desire of pointing out published, taken together, do not conthe connexion between Jewish and tain so many new remarks as these: Greek history induced him to issue in at the same time the manners, cus1799 an introduction to Universal His toms, &c. of the natives are not forgottory, from the earliest times to the ten, and the whole promises to give us dissolution of the Roman empire, and a lively picture of those countries once more to look through and enlarge which are still so imperfectly known these transcripts, with the view of
I RoyalInstitute of France. --April24. Books recently published in England. -M. Abel Remusat, of the Academy An Universal History in 24 books of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, 3 vols. 8vo.- Translated into English read an article on the wandering nati from the German of John Von Muller. ons of Upper Asia, extracted from a Agoes. A Poem, by Thos. Brown, work, entitled, “ Recherches sur les M. D. author of the Paradise of Co· Langues Tartares.” He advances, we quettes. believe, an original opinion that the A Treatise on the External, Chemi. Goths at first inhabited the regions of cal, and Physical Character of MineTartary. He argued from the simi rals, by Robert Jameson, Lecturer larity of Runic characters of inscrip on Mineralogy in the University of tions found near Mount Atlas to the Edinburgh. Scandinavian.
Letters of Horace Walpole to Geo.
Montagu, Esq. from the year 1736, to Sir Richard Colt Hoare has pre the year 1770; now first published pared a third and supplemental volume
from the original quarto. to the Rev. Mr. Eustace's Classical New Tales, by Mrs. Opie. 3 vols. Tour through Italy. It is intended to 12mo. complete the labours and supply the Travels in Canada and the United omissions of that traveller, and to de States of America in 1816, 1817, by scribe such parts of Italy as he had not lieutenant Francis Hall, military secrevisited, and others have rarely ex
tary to General Wilsən, governor in plored. The author bas enlarged its
Canada. 1 vol. 8vo. P. 543. contents by a Tour round the whole A second Journey through Persia to island of Sicily, an Account of Malta, Constantinople, between the years an Excursion to Pola in Istria, and a 1810 and 1816, by James Morier, Esq. description of the celebrated monas late his Britannic majesty's minister teries of Monserrat in Spain, and the plenipotentiary to the court of Persia. Grande Chartreuse in France.
1 vol. quarto.
Memoirs of John Duke of Marlbo
rough, with bis original AUSTRIA.
pondence. By William Coxe, F.R. S. Population.—By the last geographi- 3 vols. quarto. cal details published in Austria, the The third and last volume in quarto, population of that monarchy, amounts of the Memoirs of the Life and Writo 27,613,000 souls. In this number tings of Benjamin Franklin. Contain
included 11,750 Sclavonians, ing numerous political, philosophical 5,000,000 of Italians, 4,800,000 Ger and miscellaneous writings, now first mans, 400,000 of Hungarians, &c. As published from the original MSS. to their religion they are divided into A Life of John Howard, the Phi21,000,000 Catholics, 2,500,000 be thropist, by J. B. Brown, Esq. 1 vol. 4to. longing to the Greek church, 2,000,000 An Account of the History and prebelonging to the reformed church, sent state of Galvanism, by Doctor 1,450,000 Lutherans, 400,000 Jews, Bostock and about 40,000 Unitarians.
A Manual of Chemistry, by M.
Brande, Chemical Professor at the Fine Arts in England.-It appears
Royal Institution. from a list of each class inserted in a An Account of the Dominions of late number of “ Annals of the Fine Spain in the Western Hemisphere, by Arts,” that modern patronage has Captain Bonnycastle, of the Royal created in England not less than 931 Engineers. professional artists, of various descrip New Tales of my Landlord. 4 vols. tions, in and near the metropolis; of 18mno. whom there are 532 painters, 45 sculp Reports of Cases tried in the Jury tors, 149 architects, 93 engravers in Court of Edioburgh, from the instituline, 38 in mixed style, 19 in mezzo tion of the Court in 1815, to the sittinto, 83 in the aquatinta, 22 on wood: ting", ending in March, 1818, by Joand it deserves to be especially noticed, seph Murray, esq. Advocate. that among the painters there are no Introdution to Entomology, by Kirby less than 43 ladies.
and Spence. 2d vol.
ART. I. The Old Bachelor. 2 vols. 18mo.-Baltimore. 1818. THERE is, we think, one charge at least, from which our Ma
gazine may be deemed secure—that of hostility or prejudice against the literary performances of our countrymen. If we have sinned in relation to them, it has, we apprehend, been on the side of indulgence; in forgetting at times, that nearly as much mischief might result from the too ready gratification of our natural partialities, as from the invariable application of the severest rules of criticism.
At the period of the formation of the national taste, there is a particulardanger from bad models, and a particular exigency, therefore, for a vigilant censorship. It is laudable and patriotic to encourage native efforts; but it is not so to spare contagious vices of manner; to contribute to the confirmation and propagation of evil habits. The reprobation which is just in itself, should not be withheld, nor denied its most efficacious form, for a barely possible, or remotely contingent advantage. We find much weight of reason as well as of authority in the following remarks of Dr. John
• An author who does not write from necessity, places himself uncalled before the tribunal of criticism, and solicits fame at the hazard of disgrace. Dulness is not culpable in itself, but it may be very properly reproached when it pretends to the honours of wit. If bad writers were to pass without reprehension, what should restrain them? and upon bad writers only will censure have effect. All truth is valuable, and satirical criticism may be considered as useful when it rectifies error and improves judgment. He that refines the public taste, is a public benefactor.'
A doubt may be rationally entertained whether any system of literary animadversion, however unsparing and inexorable, would overawe and deter real genius or knowledge disposed to claim the attention of the public through the press. Capacity is seconded in most cases by the due measure of confidence, and sets at defiance both satire and scrutiny. We are not aware that a single author of promise has been stilled in the bud by the Edinburgh Review, and its impotency to produce this unlucky
consummation may be fairly inferred from the case of lord Byron. For one such person who may have been disheartened by the aspect of that Rhadamanthean tribunal, hundreds of dunces and quacks have been emboldened to make free with the press,
and hardened in their unlawful courses by the opposite scheme of judgment pursued in so many other quarters.
Few reflecting minds can fail to be convinced, that to set up exorbitant pretensions for American literature and science, has a tendency to retard their real progress and check the growth of their external reputation. In the proportion that we overrate ourselves, are we liable to be undervalued abroad, and to grow sluggish or fall short, at home, in the race of excellence. If we proclaim ourselves contented or delighted with what scarcely reaches mediocrity, none among us will seek, and few comparatively will know it possible, to ascend beyond that point; and foreign nations must suspect that we are deficient in the powers, either of production or discrimination. These considerations are substantial and obvious, but the common practice implies that they have been disowned or overlooked. The honest expression of a belief of our general backwardness in the train of the muses,-the candid exposure of the demerits of a particular American book, has been, for the most part, viewed and stigmatized as evidence of a recreant, anti-American spirit. The hue and cry raised on such occasions, and still, we fear, ready to be raised in spite of the clearest demonstration of its injustice, has the two fold inconvenience of repressing all truly enlightened and instructive criticism, and multiplying the enterprises of presumption and imposture.
Such a strain of remark as the foregoing, might be regarded as of no very favourable omen for the Essays of the Old Bachelor; but we have meant merely to put our readers in a right way of thinking on a matter of some importance, and not to prepare them for a sentence of condemnation on a deservedly popuIar American work. The preamble may serve, perhaps, to afford us some protection in freely excepting, as is our design, to what we deum seriously exceptionable in the diction and doctrines of the author. We have temptations which, we must confess, we can scarcely withstand, to give into unqualified panegyric in this instance. We look with gratitude and wonder upon a gentleman of the bar, in whom the severest labours, and highest offices, and amplest emoluments, and brightest laurels of his profession, have not stifled the generous ambition of shining in the career of letters; who so far from sympathizing in the contempt or indifference which seems to be generally entertained among us for every kind of excellence not appertaining to active life, lays the chief stress upon the utility and dignity of literary speculation; whose mind has been for a long term of years exposed to the atmosphere of courts, and the attrition of the world of business, without losing any of the finer poetical qualities with which it was richly endowed.