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and die all slaves; than that Cæsar were dead, to live all free men? As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him: but, as he was ambitious, I slew him: There is tears, for his love; joy, for his fortune; honour, for his valour; and death, for his ambition. Who is here so base, that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile, that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.

Cit. None, Brutus, none. [Several speaking at once. Bru. Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Cæsar, than you should do to Brutus. The question of his death is enrolled in the Capitol: his glory not extenuated, wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced, for which he suffered death,

Enter ANTONY and Others, with CESAR's Body. Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a place in the commonwealth; As which of you shall not? With this I depart; That, as I slew my best lover2 for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need my death.

2 as I slew my best lover -] See p. 55, n. 3. Malone.

This term, which cannot but sound disgustingly to modern ears, as here applied, Mr. Malone considers as the language of Shakspeare's time; but this opinion, from the want of contemporary examples to confirm it, may admit of a doubt. It is true it occurs several times in our author, who probably found it in North's Plutarch's Lives, and transferred a practice sanctioned by Lycurgus, and peculiar to Sparta, to Rome, and to other nations. It was customary in the former country for both males and females to select and attach themselves to one of their own sex, under the appellation of lovers and favourers. These, on one part, were objects to imitate, and on the other, to watch with constant solicitude, in order to make them wise, gentle, and well conditioned. "To the lovers" (says Mr. Dyer, in his revision of Dryden's Plutarch, Vol. I, p. 131,) "they (the elders of Lacedemon) imputed the virtues or the vices which were observed in those they loved; they commended them if the lads were virtuous, and fined them if they were otherwise. They likewise fined those who had not made choice of any favourite. And here we may observe Lycurgus did not copy this instruction from the practice observed in Crete, thinking without doubt such an example of too dangerous a tendency." See Strabo, L. X. Reed.

Cit. Live, Brutus, live! live!

1 Cit. Bring him with triumph home unto his house. 2 Cit. Give him a statue with his ancestors.

3 Cit. Let him be Cæsar. 4 Cit.

Cæsar's better parts

Shall now be crown'd in Brutus.3

1 Cit. We'll bring him to his house with shouts and


Bru. My countrymen,

2 Cit.

1 Cit. Peace, ho!

Peace; silence! Brutus speaks.

Bru. Good countrymen, let me depart alone,
And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:

Do grace to Cæsar's corpse, and grace his speech
Tending to Cæsar's glories; which Mark Antony,
By our permission is allow'd to make.

I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.

1 Cit. Stay, ho! and let us hear Mark Antony.
3 Cit. Let him go up into the publick chair;
We'll hear him :-Noble Antony, go up.
Ant. For Brutus' sake, I am beholden to you.4
4 Cit. What does he say of Brutus ?

3 Cit.


He says, for Brutus' sake, He finds himself beholden to us all.

4 Cit. 'Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here. 1 Cit. This Cæsar was a tyrant.

3 Cit.

Nay, that's certain :

We are bless'd, that Rome is rid of him.
2 Cit. Peace; let us hear what Antony can say.
Ant. You gentle Romans,

Peace, ho! let us hear him.
Ant. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

3 Shall now be crown'd in Brutus ] As the present hemistich with. out some additional syllable, is offensively unmetrical, the adverbnow, which was introduced by Sir Thomas Hanmer, is here admitted. Steevens.


beholden to you.] Throughout the old copies of Shakspeare, and many other ancient authors, beholden is corruptly spelt-beholding. Steevens.

5 He says, for Brutus' sake,] Here we have another line rendered irregular, by the interpolated and needless words-He says Steevens.

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I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.
The evil, that men do, lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Cæsar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you, Cæsar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault;
And grievously hath Cæsar answer'd it.
Here, under leave of Brutus, and the rest,
(For Brutus is an honourable man;
So are they all, all honourable men ;)
Come I to speak in Cæsar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.

He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Cæsar seem ambitious?

When that the poor have cried, Cæsar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:

Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see, that, on the Lupercal,

I thrice presented him a kingly crown,

Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition?
Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause;
What cause withholds you then to mourn for him?
O judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts,

And men have lost their reason!-Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Cæsar,

And I must pause till it come back to me.6

6 My heart is in the coffin there with Cæsar,

And I must pause till it come back to me.] Perhaps our author recollected the following passage in Daniel's Cleopatra, 1594:

"As for my love, say, Antony hath all ;
"Say that my heart is gone into the grave
"With him, in whom it rests, and ever shall."


The passage from Daniel is little more than an imitation of part of Dido's speech in the second Æneid, v. 28 & seq:

"Ille meos-amores

"Abstulit, ille habeat secum, servetque sepulchro." Steevens.

1 Cit. Methinks there is much reason in his sayings. 2 Cit. If thou consider rightly of the matter, Cæsar has had great wrong.

3 Cit.

Has he, masters?

I fear, there will a worse come in his place.

4 Cit. Mark'd ye his words? He would not take the


Therefore, 'tis certain, he was not ambitious.

1 Cit. If it be found so, some will dear abide it.

2 Cit. Poor soul! his eyes are red as fire with weeping. 3 Cit. There's not a nobler man in Rome, than Antony, 4 Cit. Now mark him, he begins again to speak. Ant. But yesterday the word of Cæsar might Have stood against the world: now lies he there, And none so poor? to do him reverence.

O masters! if I were dispos'd to stir
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,
I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honourable men:
I will not do them wrong; I rather choose
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you,
Than I will wrong such honourable men.

But here's a parchment, with the seal of Cæsar,
I found it in his closet, 'tis his will:

Let but the commons hear this testament,
(Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read,)
And they would go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds,
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood;
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,

And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy,

Unto their issue.

4 Cit. We'll hear the will: Read it, Mark Antony. Cit. The will, the will; we will hear Cæsar's will. Ant. Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it; It is not meet you know how Cæsar lov'd you.

7 And none so poor-] The meanest man is now too high to do Johnson.

reverence to Cæsar.


their napkins] i. e. their handkerchiefs Napery was the ancient term for all kinds of linen. Steevens

Napkin is the Northern term for handkerchief and is used in this sense at this day in Scotland. Our author frequently uses the word. See Vol. V, p. 120, n. 4; and Vol. VII, p. 102, n. a.


You are not wood, you are not stones, but men;
And, being men, hearing the will of Cæsar,
It will inflame you, it will make you mad:
'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs;
For if you should, O, what would come of it!

4 Cit. Read the will; we will hear it, Antony; You shall read us the will; Cæsar's will.

Ant. Will you be patient? Will you stay a while? I have o'ershot myself, to tell you of it.

I fear, I wrong the honourable men,

Whose daggers have stabb'd Cæsar: I do fear it. 4 Cit. They were traitors: Honourable men! Cit. The will! the testament!

2 Cit. They were villains, murderers: The will! read the will!

Ant. You will compel me then to read the will?
Then make a ring about the corpse of Cæsar,
And let me show you him that made the will.
Shall I descend? And will you give me leave?
Cit. Come down.

2 Cit. Descend.

[He comes down from the Pulpit.

3 Cit. You shall have leave.

4 Cit. A ring; stand round.

1 Cit. Stand from the hearse, stand from the body.
2 Cit. Room for Antony ;- most noble Antony.
Ant. Nay, press not so upon me; stand far off.
Cit. Stand back! room! bear back!

Ant. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You all do know this mantle: I remember

The first time ever Cæsar put it on;

'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent;

That day he overcame the Nervii :

Look! in this place, ran Cassius' dagger through:
See, what a rent the envious Casca made:

Through this, the well-beloved Brutus stabb'd;
And, as he pluck'd his cursed steel away,
Mark how the blood of Cæsar follow'd it;
As rushing out of doors, to be resolv'd
If Brutus so unkindly knock'd, or no;
For Brutus, as you know, was Cæsar's angel:9
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Cæsar lov'd him!

9 For Brutus, as you know, was Cæsar's angel:] This title of endearment is more than once introduced in Sidney's Arcadia. Steevens.

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